Values in Design forCollaborative SystemsMatt Bietz |Cory Knobel | Katie PineUniversity of California, Irvineimage: Reto F...
Who Are We?
Values in Design• Addressing human values in the designprocess• Values may be embodied in technical systemsand devices• Co...
Agenda13:30-18:00• Designing for People• Values in Design Icebreaker• Electronic Medical Records Stakeholders• Break: 15...
DESIGNINGFOR PEOPLEFrom User-Centered toHuman-Centered Design
User-Centered Design• Understand users• Involved users indevelopment• User-centeredevaluation• Iterative process• Address ...
Shortcomings of UCD• Defines people in functional terms– A person is more than a collection of tasks• Important to conside...
People are more than Users• Holistic – not just a disembodied task or set ofcognitive process.• Social – not stand-alone o...
Human-Centered Design (1)• Expand design requirements beyond the task• Design to complement human skills• Design in contex...
Human-Centered Design (2)• Recognize that computer systems structuresocial relationships– Respect other forms of human soc...
HCD and Collaborative Systems• Tend to bring together people from differentgroups– Reveals underlying value conflicts• Ong...
VALUES IN DESIGNor more formallySocial Values in the Designof Information Systems andTechnologyconsiders human values as e...
A few examples• Geolocation andsensors• Identity and socialdesirability• Search algorithms• Games
When and where to consider values• Defining goals of the system• Expanding requirements analysis to include allusers who t...
How to expose values• Ask where people are dissatisfied with thecurrent system. Think about whatfundamental personal needs...
How to expose values (con’t)• Attach values propositions to evolving systemdesign diagrams and documentation. Whatare the ...
Making values choices flow with thework of system design• Values in Design – starting with a set of corevalues as guiding ...
Case Study: An EMS Field System• Conducted by Joshua Gelman and Cory Knobel in Pittsburgh, PA
Activity: Icebreaker(15m)• Introduce yourselves toothers in your group• Identify a system you havedesigned, worked with, o...
ELECTRONICMEDICALRECORDSA Brief Overview
“We will make sure that every doctor’s officeand hospital in this country is using cutting edgetechnology and electronic m...
Patient CarePatient Chart & HistoryOrder entryTest resultsPrescriptionsManagementSchedulingBed managementAdmissions & disc...
EMRs are Getting Bigger• Huge adoption– Both carrots and sticks• Huge expectations– Lower health care costs– Improve patie...
How do yougive a patientmedicationusing an EMR?image: ShawnOster
First steps in EMR:• Home medication reconciliation• Patient medical history• Note any drug allergiesImage: KOMUnews
• Document patient symptoms• Select drugs and order• “Black box” alert• Pharmacy verification• Check inventoryimage: r.nia...
• Security clearance toaccess drugs• Patient verificationand double-check• Patient educationabout the drugimage: Kratka Ph...
• Documentation– Treatment– Drug response• Reviewtreatment plan• Bill insurance• Qualityimprovement• Audits / lawsuitsimag...
Activity: Stakeholders(15 min)• Work in same groups• Use the worksheet• Identify who isinvolved andimpacted at eachstep• W...
IntermissionPlease returnby 4:00pm
Welcome Back!• Designing for People• Values in Design Icebreaker• Electronic Medical Records Stakeholders• Break: 15:30-...
USING VALUESIN DESIGN
Working with Values as Design Inputs• Where can we find values articulated?– In the users– In organizations/institutions– ...
How to expose values• Ask where people are dissatisfied with thecurrent system. Think about whatfundamental personal needs...
How to expose values• Attach values propositions to evolving systemdesign diagrams and documentation. Whatare the values e...
Two Research-Based Approaches• Values Provocations– Based on the Value Sensitive Design (VSD)practices developed by Batya ...
Values Provocations• What are the questions or provocations thatcan prompt discussions of values?• Tools such as VSD Envis...
Values Levers• Identifies the occasions and opportunitieswithin systems and technology developmentfor design/development t...
VALUES PERSONASCreate a values-basedpersona for your assignedstakeholder.
Using Personas• Profiles of individuals who representstakeholder types• Can be used as a design target• Helps to ground va...
Activity: Values Personas(30 min)• Create a value-focusedpersona for your assigned“client”• What do you think they value– ...
EMR DESIGN CASEOnce upon a time, inthe far-off land ofLabor & Delivery…
EMR Design Case• From hospital fieldwork conducted by KatiePine• A brief example from a nurse’s morning• EMR use in the co...
Image: hitthatswitch
Photo: ministry health
Image: Birth Sense blog
Image: Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
Image: UMHealthSystem
Activity: Redesign(30 min)• The persona youdeveloped is yourclient• Using the case you justheard– Identify potentialproble...
Wrapping Up• Bibliography will beavailable at:http://evoke.ics.uci.edu• Let us know if you havequestions or comments• Plea...
Thank you!!!Matthew Bietzmbietz@uci.eduCory Knobelcknobel@uci.eduKatie Pinekhpine@uci.edu
Values in Design for Collaborative Systems
Values in Design for Collaborative Systems
Values in Design for Collaborative Systems
Values in Design for Collaborative Systems
Values in Design for Collaborative Systems
Values in Design for Collaborative Systems
Values in Design for Collaborative Systems
Values in Design for Collaborative Systems
Values in Design for Collaborative Systems
Values in Design for Collaborative Systems
Values in Design for Collaborative Systems
Values in Design for Collaborative Systems
Values in Design for Collaborative Systems
Values in Design for Collaborative Systems
Values in Design for Collaborative Systems
Values in Design for Collaborative Systems
Values in Design for Collaborative Systems
Values in Design for Collaborative Systems
Values in Design for Collaborative Systems
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Values in Design for Collaborative Systems

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This workshop will provide a foundation for addressing human values in the design of collaborative information systems. Participants will be introduced to the concept of values in design, discuss tools and methods for addressing values in system design, and through active engagement in a set of design challenges, gain familiarity with the opportunities and challenges for bringing a consideration of human values into the design process.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Borning, Alan, and Muller, Michael. 2012. “Next Steps for Value Sensitive Design.” Proceedings of CHI 2012: 1125–1134.

Flanagan, Mary, Daniel Howe, and Helen Nissenbaum. 2008. “Embodying Values in Technology: Theory and Practice.” In Information Technology and Moral Philosophy, edited by Jeroen Jvan den Hoven and John Weckert. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Friedman, Batya, Peter H. Kahn, and Alan Borning. 2006. “Value Sensitive Design and Information Systems.” In Human-Computer Interaction in Management Information Systems: Foundations, edited by P. Zhang and D. Galletta, 348–372. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe.

Halloran, John, Eva Hornecker, Mark Stringer, Eric Harris, and Geraldine Fitzpatrick. 2009. “The Value of Values: Resourcing Co-design of Ubiquitous Computing.” CoDesign 5 (December 1): 245–273. doi:10.1080/15710880902920960.

Kling, Rob, and Susan Leigh Star. 1998. “Human Centered Systems in the Perspective of Organizational and Social Informatics.” Computers and Society 28: 22–29.

Knobel, Cory P., and Geoffrey C. Bowker. 2011. “Values in Design.” Communications of the ACM 54: 26–28.

Muller, Michael J., and Sarah Kuhn. 1993. “Participatory Design.” Commun. ACM 36: 24–28. doi:10.1145/153571.255960.

Mumford, Lewis. 1934. Technics and Civilization. New York: Harcourt Brace.

Shilton, Katie. 2012. “Values Levers: Building Ethics Into Design.” Science, Technology & Human Values (April 23). doi:10.1177/0162243912436985. http://sth.sagepub.com/content/early/2012/04/19/0162243912436985.abstract.

Weiner, Norbert. 1954. The Human Use of Human Beings. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Winner, Langdon. 1980. “Do Artifacts Have Politics?” Daedalus 109.

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  • Welcome everyone, give a bit of an overviewINTERACTIVE!!!Activities / working groups
  • Why this tutorial, Why CTS?
  • Drawing on http://www.ifp.illinois.edu/nsfhcs/bog_reports/bog4.html
  • Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems are comprehensive, omnibus information systems designed to serve as an enterprise-wide information infrastructure for standalone healthcare organizations or groups of organizations. EMR is designed to house the patient “chart” – i.e. past records and history, ongoing notes, and flowsheets involved in patient care- but also:Note: EMR/EHR sometimes used interchangeably, definition depends on who you are talking to. We use “EMR,” but CMS, for instance, uses the term “EHR” exclusively.Examples of clinical decision support = care pathwaysAutomatized safety interventions are work process interventions designed into the EMR-These include things like medication safety warnings, prompts to complete certain “evidence-based” safety actions such as a “timeout” before a procedure, and a work process that forces personnel to complete certain “checks” before particular actions can be completed. Essentially, these are attempts to standardize work processes systemically in a way that follows current standards for safety
  • Enterprise resource planning: finance, production, service, customer relationship management, etc.
  • Say a patient comes into the hospital. Before a new medication is even ordered, the following tasks take place in the EMR: A home medication reconciliation takes place (this is a list of medications the patient is taking at home, before entering the hospital) A history is completed and any drug allergies are noted
  • Now say the patient has an emergent medical complaint, such as a migraine headache. Clinicians decide to administer a narcotic medication to the patient. Several tasks are completed in the EMR, some initiated by the clinician, some by the EMR:Documentation of patient symptoms, and evaluation of pain levelOrder selection and entry“black box” alert (because drug is a narcotic)Pharmacy verification, analysis of contra-indications of prescriptionInventory of drugs available in medication dispensary
  • We are still not quite ready to give the drug to the patient. The drug sits in a blister package in a computer controlled medication dispensary. Before the drug actually reaches the patient, the following must take place:Security clearance for drug removal from dispensaryPatient identification verification and double-checkPatient education about the drug they have just received
  • The patient finally has been given the drug! But, we are not done yet. Multiple tasks have yet to be completed, such as:Documentation of drug administrationDocumentation of patient symptoms/response to drug over timeReview of information for future migraine treatment planExtraction of data for insurance billingQuality improvement and data auditing activities i.e. extraction of data related to timeliness of clinician response to patient pain for local QI activityAggregation of data for quality measures reported to external organizationsNot to mention re-opening the record and submitting it as evidence should a lawsuit occur
  • Rewrite to match worksheet
  • Values in Design for Collaborative Systems

    1. 1. Values in Design forCollaborative SystemsMatt Bietz |Cory Knobel | Katie PineUniversity of California, Irvineimage: Reto FetzCTS 2013 | San Diego | May 20, 2013
    2. 2. Who Are We?
    3. 3. Values in Design• Addressing human values in the designprocess• Values may be embodied in technical systemsand devices• Considering values provides benefits– Value alignment with stakeholders– Opens new design opportunities• Especially important for collaborative systems
    4. 4. Agenda13:30-18:00• Designing for People• Values in Design Icebreaker• Electronic Medical Records Stakeholders• Break: 15:30-16:00• Using Values in Design Eliciting Values• EMR Case Study Value-based Design• Wrap-upimage: Reto Fetz
    5. 5. DESIGNINGFOR PEOPLEFrom User-Centered toHuman-Centered Design
    6. 6. User-Centered Design• Understand users• Involved users indevelopment• User-centeredevaluation• Iterative process• Address the wholeuser experience• Include multipleperspectivesA process in which the needs, wants, andlimitations of end users of a product are givenextensive attention at each stage of the designprocess. (Wikipedia)From ISO 9241-210
    7. 7. Shortcomings of UCD• Defines people in functional terms– A person is more than a collection of tasks• Important to consider larger contexts ofactivities• Difficult to include non-functionalrequirements
    8. 8. People are more than Users• Holistic – not just a disembodied task or set ofcognitive process.• Social – not stand-alone organisms• Learning – People adapt and learn. Behaviorschange.• Complex – Human systems are as (or more)complex than technical systems.
    9. 9. Human-Centered Design (1)• Expand design requirements beyond the task• Design to complement human skills• Design in context• Design for change and adaptation• Embrace complexity
    10. 10. Human-Centered Design (2)• Recognize that computer systems structuresocial relationships– Respect other forms of human social organization• Recognize the limits of design• Articulate the values that are at stake– For both system audiences and designers– Whose purposes are served in the development ofthe system?
    11. 11. HCD and Collaborative Systems• Tend to bring together people from differentgroups– Reveals underlying value conflicts• Ongoing and pervasive interaction– Difficult to define boundaries of tasks– Properties of use emerge over time• Embracing this complexity in the designprocess will produce better collaborativesystems
    12. 12. VALUES IN DESIGNor more formallySocial Values in the Designof Information Systems andTechnologyconsiders human values as equaldesign inputs to technicalrequirements
    13. 13. A few examples• Geolocation andsensors• Identity and socialdesirability• Search algorithms• Games
    14. 14. When and where to consider values• Defining goals of the system• Expanding requirements analysis to include allusers who touch the system• When? From the beginning and throughoutthe lifecycle (as well as after release).
    15. 15. How to expose values• Ask where people are dissatisfied with thecurrent system. Think about whatfundamental personal needs are not beingmet?• Conduct observational studies. Watch howpeople use the currentsystem, prototypes, and the redesignedsystem. What motivates their choices andactions?
    16. 16. How to expose values (con’t)• Attach values propositions to evolving systemdesign diagrams and documentation. Whatare the values each design decision impacts?How? Learn to become comfortable talkingabout values as valid aspects of the userexperience• Include values rationale in the finaldocumentation. Make your grounded designresearch transparent.
    17. 17. Making values choices flow with thework of system design• Values in Design – starting with a set of corevalues as guiding design principles• Values-sensitive design – insertingprovocations that continually challenge designassumptions• Values Levers – recognizing when valuesdiscussions are naturally happening andmaking them do productive and creativework.
    18. 18. Case Study: An EMS Field System• Conducted by Joshua Gelman and Cory Knobel in Pittsburgh, PA
    19. 19. Activity: Icebreaker(15m)• Introduce yourselves toothers in your group• Identify a system you havedesigned, worked with, orused• Identify who this systemwas primarily built for –who was the “client” forthe design?image: Reto Fetz
    20. 20. ELECTRONICMEDICALRECORDSA Brief Overview
    21. 21. “We will make sure that every doctor’s officeand hospital in this country is using cutting edgetechnology and electronic medical records sothat we can cut red tape, prevent medicalmistakes, and help save billions of dollars eachyear.”-President Barack Obama, 12/6/2008
    22. 22. Patient CarePatient Chart & HistoryOrder entryTest resultsPrescriptionsManagementSchedulingBed managementAdmissions & dischargesAdministrationBillingSupply managementAccountabilityClinical decision supportAutomatized safety interventionsOutcomes reportingimage: Doug Waldron
    23. 23. EMRs are Getting Bigger• Huge adoption– Both carrots and sticks• Huge expectations– Lower health care costs– Improve patient safety– Increase medicalknowledge• Similar to ERP systems
    24. 24. How do yougive a patientmedicationusing an EMR?image: ShawnOster
    25. 25. First steps in EMR:• Home medication reconciliation• Patient medical history• Note any drug allergiesImage: KOMUnews
    26. 26. • Document patient symptoms• Select drugs and order• “Black box” alert• Pharmacy verification• Check inventoryimage: r.nial.bradshaw
    27. 27. • Security clearance toaccess drugs• Patient verificationand double-check• Patient educationabout the drugimage: Kratka Photography
    28. 28. • Documentation– Treatment– Drug response• Reviewtreatment plan• Bill insurance• Qualityimprovement• Audits / lawsuitsimage: Bill Branson, National Cancer Institute
    29. 29. Activity: Stakeholders(15 min)• Work in same groups• Use the worksheet• Identify who isinvolved andimpacted at eachstep• We will discuss as agroup afterimage: Reto Fetz
    30. 30. IntermissionPlease returnby 4:00pm
    31. 31. Welcome Back!• Designing for People• Values in Design Icebreaker• Electronic Medical Records Stakeholders• Break: 15:30-16:00• Using Values in Design Eliciting Values• EMR Case Study Value-based Design• Wrap-upimage: Reto Fetz
    32. 32. USING VALUESIN DESIGN
    33. 33. Working with Values as Design Inputs• Where can we find values articulated?– In the users– In organizations/institutions– In designers and developers– In societies– In culturesHow can we accommodate these differing values?
    34. 34. How to expose values• Ask where people are dissatisfied with thecurrent system. Think about whatfundamental personal needs are not beingmet?• Conduct observational studies. Watch howpeople use the currentsystem, prototypes, and the redesignedsystem. What motivates their choices andactions?
    35. 35. How to expose values• Attach values propositions to evolving systemdesign diagrams and documentation. Whatare the values each design decision impacts?How? Learn to become comfortable talkingabout values as valid aspects of the userexperience• Include values rationale in the finaldocumentation. Make your grounded designresearch transparent.
    36. 36. Two Research-Based Approaches• Values Provocations– Based on the Value Sensitive Design (VSD)practices developed by Batya Friedman(UW), Alan Börning (UW) and Helen Nissenbaum(NYU)• Values Levers– Based on organizational ethnography research byKatherine Shilton (UMD)
    37. 37. Values Provocations• What are the questions or provocations thatcan prompt discussions of values?• Tools such as VSD Envisioning Cards can serveas consistent reminders to consider variousaspects of human values, both individual andsocial.• How can this translate from discussion intodesign practice?
    38. 38. Values Levers• Identifies the occasions and opportunitieswithin systems and technology developmentfor design/development teams to articulatevalues embedded into built projects• Seven primary levers (to open up the “blackbox” of values discussions duringdevelopment)
    39. 39. VALUES PERSONASCreate a values-basedpersona for your assignedstakeholder.
    40. 40. Using Personas• Profiles of individuals who representstakeholder types• Can be used as a design target• Helps to ground vague design requirements ina concrete example• Typically include brief bio, goals, taskrequirements, skills, personality
    41. 41. Activity: Values Personas(30 min)• Create a value-focusedpersona for your assigned“client”• What do you think they value– At work?– At home?– In life?• Capture these values on flipchartsimage: Reto Fetz
    42. 42. EMR DESIGN CASEOnce upon a time, inthe far-off land ofLabor & Delivery…
    43. 43. EMR Design Case• From hospital fieldwork conducted by KatiePine• A brief example from a nurse’s morning• EMR use in the context of patient care• Basis of next activity – think about how thisfits or conflicts with your persona’s values
    44. 44. Image: hitthatswitch
    45. 45. Photo: ministry health
    46. 46. Image: Birth Sense blog
    47. 47. Image: Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
    48. 48. Image: UMHealthSystem
    49. 49. Activity: Redesign(30 min)• The persona youdeveloped is yourclient• Using the case you justheard– Identify potentialproblems– Propose solutions that fityour client’s values• Use the flip charts tocapture design ideasimage: Reto Fetz
    50. 50. Wrapping Up• Bibliography will beavailable at:http://evoke.ics.uci.edu• Let us know if you havequestions or comments• Please fill out the briefsurvey before you leave
    51. 51. Thank you!!!Matthew Bietzmbietz@uci.eduCory Knobelcknobel@uci.eduKatie Pinekhpine@uci.edu

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