Design It for Learning: Using Multimedia Effectively in Presentations and More CALCON11 | October 15, 2011 Mary Beth Faccioli, MLIS firstname.lastname@example.org Beginning Concepts Transfer: New knowledge and skills must be retrieved from long‐term memory during performance. Multimedia learning: Learning from words and pictures. How We Learn 1) Learning is active. Learning occurs when learners engage in cognitive processing: selecting relevant material, organizing it into a coherent structure, and integrating it with prior knowledge. 2) Capacity is limited. Only a few pieces of information can be processed in working memory at one time. 3) We process in dual channels. We have separate channels for processing visual/pictorial information and auditory/verbal information. The Principles Multimedia Principle: Words and pictures are better than words alone. Why? Cognitive load is balanced between dual channels; learner actively makes associations between words and pictures to deepen learning. What we see in practice: Too much text. What we can do: Incorporate graphics that support instructional goals. Coherence Principle: Interesting yet irrelevant material can hurt learning. Why? It overloads working memory. What we see in practice: Decorative or confusing images; unnecessary music or sounds. What we can do: Limit use of these elements.
Redundancy Principle: The same information presented in multiple forms hurts learning. Why? Requires unnecessary processing—comparing and reconciling—of both narration and on‐screen text. What we see in practice: Lengthy text phrases are read aloud to learners. What we can do: Don’t underestimate the power of your oral presentation. Narrate, use supporting graphics, present key ideas with text to support memory. Related: Spoken words with pictures are preferable to written words with pictures (modality principle). Split Attention Principle: Don’t require learners to divide attention between multiple sources of information. Why? Difficult to hold multiple sources of information in working memory while trying to select, organize and integrate. What we see in practice: a) Written text and spoken words are out of alignment (i.e., completely different). b) Text and pictures are far from each other in time or space. What we can do: a) Ensure written text and spoken words align. b) Ensure words and pictures are contiguous in time and space. From Clark, R.C. and Mayer, R. E. (2008). Elearning and the Science of Instruction (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.