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Tufts Digital Democracy Course Material on Burma
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Tufts Digital Democracy Course Material on Burma

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Tufts Digital Democracy Course Material on Burma

Tufts Digital Democracy Course Material on Burma

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Tufts Digital Democracy Course Material on Burma Tufts Digital Democracy Course Material on Burma Presentation Transcript

  • D 2 Digital Democracy Monday, February 23, 2009 1
  • D 2 Digital Democracy Working with local partners from oppressed societies to connect people through new technologies that encourage education, communication and civic participation. Monday, February 23, 2009 1
  • Burma’s “Prophet” http://www.netcharles.com/orwell/ Eric Arthur Blair Monday, February 23, 2009 2
  • Burma’s “Prophet” http://www.netcharles.com/orwell/ George Orwell Eric Arthur Blair Monday, February 23, 2009 2
  • Burma’s “Prophet” http://www.netcharles.com/orwell/ George Orwell Eric Arthur Blair By: Shepherds Fairey Monday, February 23, 2009 2
  • Burmese Days Colonial Period 1824-1948 Major ethnic groups ▪ Karen ▪ Karenni ▪ Mon ▪ Shan ▪ Chin ▪ Wa ▪ Arakan ▪ Rohingya ▪ Kachin ▪ Burman Monday, February 23, 2009 3
  • Animal Farm: Burma “Independence” 1948-1989 1948 Aung San assasinated 1962 U Nu overthrown, Ne Win begins “Burmese Way to Socialism.” 1988 Student uprising for democracy Kyaw Tway, male, http://passivepro.blogspot.com/ Eric Elofson - age 20, English Immersion Program Overcoming Obstacles, Creating Opportunities - Section 6, pg 150-154 Monday, February 23, 2009 4
  • Animal Farm: Burma Animal Farm opened my mind to what kind of government is in “Independence” Burma. I can take a lot of parallels in real life with Animal Farm. 1948-1989 (The animals) want to have freedom, but later there is freedom 1948 only for Napoleon. Burma is also like that for the SPDC, the Aung San leaders. Before they become leaders, they say all are equal. But assasinated after they become leaders they change their minds. 1962 U Nu overthrown, When you ask ‘Why do you need more education?’ I see a Ne Win begins parallel. (In) Animal Farm, the animals, they overthrow the man, “Burmese Way to but only a few animals, especially pigs, are educated. The other Socialism.” 1988 animals (end up) facing the same problems. We are refugee Student uprising people, small minority groups. We don’t have an education. So for democracy we need education to be aware of this problem. Kyaw Tway, male, http://passivepro.blogspot.com/ Eric Elofson - age 20, English Immersion Program Overcoming Obstacles, Creating Opportunities - Section 6, pg 150-154 Monday, February 23, 2009 4
  • 1984: Myanmar Population: 60 million Religions Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%, animist 1%, other 2% KHRG Monday, February 23, 2009 5
  • 1984: Myanmar Population: 60 million Religions Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%, animist 1%, other 2% KHRG Monday, February 23, 2009 5
  • 1984: Myanmar Population: 60 million KEY INDICATORS worst best Religions GDP per capita, PPP (constant 2000 international $) ........ 1,446 3.50 Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% Life expectancy at birth (years) ............................................. 61 4.19 (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic Literacy rate (% of people age 15+) ..................................... 90 6.00 1%), Muslim 4%, animist 1%, Human development index (out of 177)............................... 130 3.52 Rule of law other 2% (out of 208) ...................................................... 202 1.87 Voice and accountability (out of 208) .................................. 208 0.69 Digital opportunity index (out of 180) .................................. 176 1.36 Internet users (% of population) ........................................... 0.1 3.07 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Source (by indicator): IMF 2006; World Bank 2006a, 2006a; UNDP 2006; World Bank 2006c, 2006c; ITU 2006, 2004 OpenNet Initiative, Internet Filtering in Burma in 2005: A Country Study, at http://opennet.net/studies/burma/. KHRG from USD0.75 in 2004 and USD0.95–1.50 in straints. As in other areas, however, the state’s 8 Monday, February 23, 2009 5
  • 1984: Myanmar Population: 60 million KEY INDICATORS worst best Religions GDP per capita, PPP (constant 2000 international $) ........ 1,446 3.50 Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% Life expectancy at birth (years) ............................................. 61 4.19 (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic Less than 1% mobile phone & Literacy rate (% of people age 15+) ..................................... 90 6.00 1%), Muslim 4%, animist 1%, Human development index (out of 177)............................... 130 3.52 Rule of law other 2% internet market penetration (out of 208) ...................................................... 202 1.87 Voice and accountability (out of 208) .................................. 208 0.69 Digital opportunity index (out of 180) .................................. 176 1.36 Internet users (% of population) ........................................... 0.1 3.07 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Source (by indicator): IMF 2006; World Bank 2006a, 2006a; UNDP 2006; World Bank 2006c, 2006c; ITU 2006, 2004 OpenNet Initiative, Internet Filtering in Burma in 2005: A Country Study, at http://opennet.net/studies/burma/. KHRG from USD0.75 in 2004 and USD0.95–1.50 in straints. As in other areas, however, the state’s 8 Monday, February 23, 2009 5
  • 1984: Myanmar In Exile: ~4 million Sophisticated network of community based organizations Monday, February 23, 2009 6
  • 1984: Myanmar In Exile: ~4 million Sophisticated network of community based organizations KHRG Monday, February 23, 2009 6
  • Our Research Overcoming Obstacles, Creating Opportunities Youth Perspectives from the Thai-Burma Border www.newwordsmedia.com Youth Perspectives from the Thai-Burma Border Monday, February 23, 2009 7
  • www.newwordsmedia.com Key finding Young Burmese with access to the internet were more likely to identify themselves as activists Monday, February 23, 2009 8
  • Saffron Revolution www.uscampaignforburma.org Mobile phones were used by monks and other citizen journalists to send information to the outside world. Monday, February 23, 2009 9
  • Saffron Revolution www.uscampaignforburma.org Mobile phones were used by monks and other citizen journalists to send information to the outside world. Monday, February 23, 2009 10
  • Saffron Revolution www.uscampaignforburma.org Mobile phones were used by monks and other citizen journalists to send information to the outside world. Monday, February 23, 2009 10
  • constrained context. OpenNet Initiative, Pulling the Plug: A Technical Review of the Internet Shutdown in Burma, at http://opennet.net/research/bulletins/013. Figure 1. Timeline of Events, Aug. 19, 2007 - Oct. 13, 2007 Saffron Revolution Internet in Burma Willfrom Burma are always asking forthat silencing mobiles andand assistance governments learn information as well as requesting for help the “People internet are a necessary step in any crackdown? from [the] outside world but very little of their voices reach the world and most are lost in the endless state of the government vacuum.” — Burmese blogger Monday, February 23, 2009 11
  • How information travels Actions are recorded with mobile phones, uploaded to flash drives, taken across borders, uploaded to servers, sent to trusted contacts. Is there a better way? www.newwordsmedia.com Monday, February 23, 2009 12
  • Burma and its Borders In Burma the cost of a “normal” GSM sim card is 2.5 million kyat. This equals approximately $2000 on the black market conversion rate. At the official rate this is approximately $393,400. A new pre-paid sim costs Dollars Local Currency between $20-$50 US dollars. 4.18 250 Bangladesh 7.77 300 India (Delhi) 6.84 200 Thailand Use restricted to 1 month 14.6 100 China (Yunnan) 50 Burma Monday, February 23, 2009 13
  • Bangladesh: Mobile possibilities • Large populations in refugee camps • Stateless population • Extensive mobile penetration along border allows for reporting and monitoring www.newwordsmedia.com Monday, February 23, 2009 14
  • India: Challenges and opportunities • Relative freedom of expression • Tech support in Delhi • Isolation along border www.newwordsmedia.com Monday, February 23, 2009 15
  • China: Land of the Free? • Borders Kachin and Shan States in Burma • Ruili: largest Chinese city on border • Contact with outside world via China and Chinese technology “I think, to me, the China • Relatively more internet web is totally free.” freedom - Burmese male activist, 26 Monday, February 23, 2009 16
  • Thailand: Increased Opportunities • In Thailand, internet access is frequent. There, we found a correlation between access to internet and self- identification as an activist • Since then, internet access has grown, including affordable and reliable GPRS on mobiles Monday, February 23, 2009 17
  • Burma’s “Prophet” How relevant is 1984? Monday, February 23, 2009 18
  • Burma’s “Prophet” How relevant is 1984? Monday, February 23, 2009 18
  • Solutions http://www.flickr.com/photos/whiteafrican/2736565604/ 1. Education 2. Inter-ethnic dialogue 3. Communication technology Monday, February 23, 2009 19
  • Solutions “I came to study here, I can use computer, I can use email, and I also learn something from internet, I also know more experience.” – Male Student, age 23 http://www.flickr.com/photos/whiteafrican/2736565604/ 1. Education 2. Inter-ethnic dialogue 3. Communication technology Monday, February 23, 2009 19
  • Solutions http://www.flickr.com/photos/whiteafrican/2736565604/ What are your thoughts and ideas? Do you see barriers or solutions? Tweet #digidem Monday, February 23, 2009 20
  • Solutions Democracy • Being heard • Minority rights • Accountability and transparency • Advocacy for change • Access http://www.flickr.com/photos/whiteafrican/2736565604/ What are your thoughts and ideas? Do you see barriers or solutions? Tweet #digidem Monday, February 23, 2009 20
  • Solutions Digital Democracy Democracy • Empowerment of the • Being heard individual • Minority rights • Fall of hierarchies • Accountability and • Wider participation transparency • Democratization of • Advocacy for change information • Access http://www.flickr.com/photos/whiteafrican/2736565604/ What are your thoughts and ideas? Do you see barriers or solutions? Tweet #digidem Monday, February 23, 2009 20
  • Digital Democracy Monday, February 23, 2009 21
  • Virtual Community Center Similar to traditional community centers, VCC is a place for community groups to come together. Monday, February 23, 2009 22
  • Virtual Community Center Community groups can: Have an easy web presence ommunity Community Learn about each others work Group Group Easily partner Receive support Host discussions Overcome distance Overcome different languages Secure Sharing: Citizen Citizen Citizen Messages Data Pictures Phone Computer Computer Videos D 2 Open Source Monday, February 23, 2009 23
  • Virtual Community Center - Mobile A network for map-based micro-blogging, which will be used by individuals and organizations along Burma's borders. Handheld Human Rights: supports inter and intra-group communication for human rights organizations while allowing them to map shared data via mobile phones. The goal is to have more accessible and reliable information about human rights abuses. Crowdsourcing the Constitution: communication between •Facilitates www.newwordsmedia.com political and religious leaders and their constituents by distributing videos of their speeches through mobiles, allowing individuals to respond via SMS. The goal is to engage individuals in the political process. Monday, February 23, 2009 24
  • Virtual Community Center - Mobile A network for map-based micro-blogging, which will be used by individuals and organizations along Burma's borders. Handheld Human Rights: supports inter and intra-group communication for human rights organizations while allowing them to map shared data via mobile phones. The goal is to have more accessible and reliable information about human rights abuses. Crowdsourcing the Constitution: communication between •Facilitates www.newwordsmedia.com political and religious leaders and their constituents by distributing videos of their speeches through mobiles, allowing individuals to respond via SMS. The goal is to engage individuals in the political process. http://www.developmentseed.org/ Monday, February 23, 2009 24
  • Project Einstein “Because Einstein was a refugee but could still do great things” Digital Pen Pals - Photography-based participatory education program linking American students with refugee youth overseas.  Monday, February 23, 2009 25
  • Project Einstein: Digital Pen Pals Peace Culture Let’s Discuss: Happiness History USA Bangladesh Ideas Pictures Let’s Exchange: Lessons Culture Resettled Refugees Photo Books Youth in with American youth Let’s Create: Slideshows refugee camps in US schools Videos D 2 Monday, February 23, 2009 26
  • Cultural Landscape An interactive map where people can describe the past, present and future of their communities http://www.developmentseed.org/ Monday, February 23, 2009 27
  • Cultural Landscape An interactive map where people can describe the past, present and future of their communities •Po Po •Shan •30 years old •This is me as a girl in Myanmar in 1984. I sold masks to survive. www.newwordsmedia.com http://www.developmentseed.org/ Monday, February 23, 2009 27
  • Problem Solution Regional instability Cross-border communication World’s longest running civil Networking among war traditionally divided groups Rampant use of child soldiers Providing 21st century education Over 3.5 million internally displaced persons and Connecting refugees with refugees their resettled communities Severe censorship Freedom of information Monday, February 23, 2009 28
  • D 2 Digital Democracy Mark Belinsky - MBelinsky@dtwo.org - +1-347-439-8431 Emily Jacobi - EJacobi@dtwo.org - +1-347-328-3110 DTWO.ORG Monday, February 23, 2009 29
  • D 2 Digital Democracy Working with local partners from oppressed societies to connect people through new technologies that encourage education, communication and civic participation. Mark Belinsky - MBelinsky@dtwo.org - +1-347-439-8431 Emily Jacobi - EJacobi@dtwo.org - +1-347-328-3110 DTWO.ORG Monday, February 23, 2009 29
  • “Concepts such as truth, justice and compassion cannot be dismissed as trite when these are often the only bulwarks which stand against ruthless power.” -Aung San Suu Kyi Nobel Peace Prize 1991 Monday, February 23, 2009 30