Though Catholicism and the Pueblo Religion are similar they are also incompatible and is a cause of the revolt.
The historical record relied on Europeans for information on the Indians as they were illiterate. It is possible that information is disproportionate.
Indian religious activates were restricted, leading to more resentment for both sides. Native ceremonies were outlawed, Native religious items and alters were seized and or destroyed. Dancing was forbidden. This included the imprisonment or death of priests and medicine men.
Friars considered their body coverings not to be real clothing and their sexual practices were scrutinized.
Forced the fiscals to punish their own.
Cultural differences. Individualism (Spanish) vs. community (Indians)
Morality. The Spanish let the church define theirs, the Indians based theirs on what was right for their community.
The Spanish were forcing their views on the Indians. No divorce, go to mass regularly, and prayer times were stressed by Friars. The Natives were more social and went by a ritual schedule.
When the original Friars died their replacements were inexperienced and lacking charm. Their authority was not always acknowledged.
The Indians starting practicing their religion to get rid of the Friars. The Friars whipped the Pueblos as a result. Punishments continued which led to more resentment on the Pueblos part.
Friars thought martyrdom would prove their love, so they kept coming to New Mexico. The Franciscans welcomed death and dreamed about it.
The Indians only killed when they were pushed too far.
The Indians only killed when they were pushed too far.
1666-1670 drought and famine, the Indian population declined. Settlements were attacked so the Indians could steal food.
The Tewa defied the ban on dancing, hexed the Christians. Indian Witchcraft was blamed for the death of ten this included Friars.
1672 Jumano Indians revolted, burned the church, flogged and killed Father Pedro and crucified him.
1675 Governor Trevino takes action against the medicine men some are hung, some beaten and sold as slaves.
17th Century New Mexico, The Pueblo Revolt, and Its Interpreters
Governors joined forces with the colonists, the community that resulted in egotism at the Indians expense. Civilians allegiance to the Governor waivered often. Indians caught between the Franciscans and the Hispanic Community.
Franciscan missionaries asserted their power and dominance over the Indians. Baptizing thousands in 1608 to force the Crown to stay.
1632-35 was a relatively peaceful period.
As more farmers arrived there was a shift in the power base for Governors, this also complicated relations with Indians.
While there were small uprisings, relations were stable.
Spanish provided protection from Athapascan raids, however they also contributed to the decline in relations to the two tribes. Raids increased, when the drought came relations took a turn for the worse.
Indian relations with Europeans began to strengthen, especially when it came to defense from Athapascans.
Spanish used fear to control the Indians with threats of military action.
1670's Spanish and Indian relationship is unraveling.
Famine of 1670 increased Athapascan raids. Spanish losing power, saw Pueblo actions as embarrassing.
Pohe-yemo's Representative and the Pueblo Revolt of 1680
Pueblos fought against the Franciscans and Spanish colonists. The death toll on August tenth was 21 friars and several Spanish families were killed. The Spanish had to retreat.
El Pope from san Juan thought to be the leader of the revolt though some thought he had help, as the revolt was a huge undertaking.
El Pope chose Pohe-yemo as his identity, whom he was representing. This gave him some anonymity, few knew who he really was. He bragged about his role in the revolt to the chagrin of others. He acted like tyrant, a year later when Otermin returned for reconnaissance Indians spoke out against him.
Domingo Naranjo is thought by some to have plotted and led the revolt. His appearance does fit some witness accounts of Pohe-yemo.
Pedro, Domingo's brother testified to Governor Otermin, claiming to be his brother. He testified about the planning of the revolt and the motive which was to live like they had when the came from the lake of Copala.
Joseph Naranjo Domingos son killed his brother to prevent another revolt and gain favor with the Governor in 1696.
The revolt was carried out by individuals leaders from each pueblo, not by one man alone.
Did the Spaniards loss of authority encourage the revolt?
The natives of New Mexico influenced the Hispanics who settled there, many adopted parts of the culture.
Over a few generations Hispanics and the natives intermixed. This led to a destabilizing effect. Pureblood Spaniards looked down upon those of mixed race (mestizos) and this caused tensions.
Mestizos in the 17th century were able to move within Pueblo and Hispanic social circles. Over time one was unable to differentiate European from Pueblo.
There was little medical care and may Hispanics and sought treatment from the Franciscans at the mission in San Felipe.
Due to the geographic isolation of the Franciscans and the crude treatments many sought treatment from the Pueblos. This lead to further European acceptance of the Pueblo ways.
Beatriz de los Angeles was a well known female shaman. Her treatment killed her partner and led to further scrutiny of her practices.
Many Hispanics sought potions and cures from their native servants.
Hispanics also accepted Athapaskan culture.
These testimonials were taken during the Inquisition, and prove that amalgamation between the two cultures was taking place over time.