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1. Soccer Fitness Testing —Fitness Testing Specific To Soccer—
3 CONTENTS Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Table of Contents Introduction 5 When to Test..................................................................................................6 Compare your Results................................................................................... 7 Controlled Testing ........................................................................................ 8 The Tests........................................................................................................9 Power Testing 12 Long Jump.....................................................................................................12 Vertical Jump................................................................................................ 13 Speed Testing 14 30 Metre Sprint Test..................................................................................... 14 Agility Testing 16 Illinois Agility Test........................................................................................ 16 Maximum Strength Testing 19 One Rep Max Test......................................................................................... 19 Six Rep Max Test........................................................................................... 20
4 CONTENTS Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Strength Endurance Testing 22 Chair Squat Test............................................................................................ 23 Press Up Test................................................................................................. 25 Sit-Up Test.....................................................................................................27 Anaerobic Testing 29 Sprint Fatigue Test........................................................................................ 29 Aerobic Testing 31 12 Minute Run............................................................................................... 31 Flexibility Testing 34 Sit & Reach Test............................................................................................ 35 Groin Flexibility Test.................................................................................... 37 Trunk & Shoulder Rotation Test...................................................................38 Calf Flexibility Test....................................................................................... 40 References 43 Appendix 1: 12 Minute Run to V02max Conversion Table 51
5 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. An important part of any fitness training is fitness testing. First of all, it provides a yard stick against which you can compare your progress. Secondly, it can provide extra motivation for improvement. Finally and most importantly it gives you valuable information with which to form the basis of your training plan. The information you gather from your fitness testing will help you to focus your training. You are able to use the information to see the specific areas which need the most work. You should still train all facets of soccer fitness but it is a good idea to put in extra work to improving your weakest facets. —INTRODUCTION—
6 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. When to Test Fitness testing should first occur at the end of the off season just prior to your preseason training. This is so that you can use this information to plan your preseason training and so that you can see how much improvement has been made over the preseason. Your second set of fitness testing should take place just before the season begins (a week or so beforehand would be ideal). Your subsequent fitness tests serve two purposes. Firstly, you can compare and see how much you have improved your fitness which will give you confidence going into the season and secondly it will allow you to assess where you are at and how you might want to adjust your training to work on any areas that you feel need strengthening. For example, you may find that your speed hasn’t improved and decide that you need to increase the effort that you put into your speed training. It is also a good idea to do a third round of testing mid season to make sure you are keeping the gains you made pre season and again make any necessary adjustments to your training based on the results.
7 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Compare your Results At the end of each test you will find a table with which to compare your results. However, you should keep in mind that the most important factor is comparing your own results with your previous results. The table is a rough guide that is useful for your first round of fitness testing so that you have something against which you can make comparisons. Also, if you like, you can tally up your total score. I like to do this so that when I test again later in the year I can see, at a glance, how much I have gone up overall. You should also analyse and compare in all the individual areas so that you know where to focus your training. In some cases if you over train in certain areas it can have a negative effect in other areas. TIP: After the second round of fitness testing be sure to analyse each result to make sure that you are making improvements in each area. If you notice any areas where there is no improvement this gives you an indication that you may need to adjust your training to work on that area some more.
8 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Controlled Testing It is important that you keep as many variables the same each time you test in order to be able to make accurate comparisons and draw accurate conclusions from the results. Record the following in your results tracker handbook so that you are testing under the same conditions in your subsequent fitness tests: a. What you ate before testing b. When you ate before testing c. Time of day that you tested d. Whether or not you trained the day before testing (not recommended) e. What training you did (if you did do training) f. Where you performed your testing g. Anything else which might influence you results
9 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. The Tests Perform the following tests and record the results in your results tracker handbook. It is important that you perform the exercises in the order they appear below. Power testing Sprint testing Agility testing Maximum Strength Strength Endurance Anaerobic Endurance Aerobic Endurance Flexibility Doing all of this in one session is time consuming and exhausting. For this reason I like to split it up over two sessions. It doesn’t matter whether you split it up into two or three sessions (or even one if you really have to) - the important things to remember are : that the order is followed; and whatever you choose in your first round of testing is done exactly the same in your subsequent rounds in order to get truly comparable results.
10 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. So, if you choose to split up your testing over two days then all your subsequent tests need to be split up between two days. If your first testing was all done in one day then all your subsequent tests should be done in one day. I try to leave at least a couple of days in between the testing days to allow for sufficient recovery. Your circumstances may mean that you don’t have the time to leave this kind of gap. You should try to leave at least one rest day in between. Most importantly you need to keep it consistent. For example, if you left two days in between your first testing sessions then it is important that you leave the same two day gap for your subsequent testing sessions in order to get truly comparable results. For the sake of ease I tend to do the following in one session (because I can perform these in the gym). Maximal strength Strength endurance Flexibility And the following in the second session (which I like to do at the track but a soccer field is also fine) Power testing (this could be done in the first session also if you prefer) Sprint testing Agility testing Anaerobic endurance Aerobic endurance
11 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. How you split them up will depend on your personal circumstances. However, you should try to split up the endurance tests so that no more than two endurance tests are done in one session (i.e. as above – Strength Endurance is on one day and the aerobic and anaerobic endurance are on the other day). It is important to always perform a sufficient warm up before any testing session and a proper cool down at the end of any testing session. Refer to the bonus pre/post training strategies handbook to use as a guide for warming up and cooling down in addition to some nutritional tips. All of the following tests are also outlined in the results tracker handbook so that you can print out the fitness testing results tracker handbook and take them with you to your testing location.
12 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. The two best and simplest tests I have come across to test your explosive power are the long jump and the vertical jump. You can do both if you wish or just choose one or the other. Long Jump 1. Stand still (no running start) with both of your feet on the ground and your feet roughly a foot (30cm) apart. Your toes should be behind a line or other marker. 2. Bend at the knees and swing your arms and jump forward with a two foot take off as far as you can go - land on both feet. 3. Measure the distance from the starting point (from your toes) to where your heels land. 4. Repeat three times and take the best distance. Compare to the table below after your first testing and subsequently compare to your previous results. LONG JUMP TEST MALE FEMALE POOR <1.9m <1.40m FAIR 1.90m-1.99m 1.40-1.54 BELOW AVERAGE 2.00m-2.14m 1.55-1.64 AVERAGE 2.15m-2.29m 1.65-1.79 ABOVE AVERAGE 2.30-2.49 1.80-1.94 VERY GOOD 2.50-2.79 1.95-2.04 EXCELLENT 2.80m-2.90m 2.05-2.49 OUTSTANDING >2.90m >2.50m —POWER TESTING—
13 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Vertical Jump 1. Stand next to a wall (one you are able to mark – or put up a large sheet of paper) with your feet flat on the ground and a pencil or other marker in hand. Reach up with your arm straight and, without lifting your feet from the ground, make a mark. This is your starting point. 2. Bend at the knees and swing your arms and jump as high as you can and make a mark on the wall/paper at the highest point of your jump (as an alternative you could use something that will stick to the wall and stick that as high as you can). 3. Measure between the two marks for your vertical jump height. 4. Take the best of three attempts. Compare to the table below after your first testing and subsequently compare to your previous results. HIGH JUMP TEST MALE FEMALE POOR <25cm <21cm FAIR 26cm-30cm 21-25cm BELOW AVERAGE 31-40cm 26-30cm AVERAGE 41-50cm 31-40cm ABOVE AVERAGE 51-60cm 41-45cm VERY GOOD 61-70cm 46-50cm EXCELLENT 71-80cm 51-60cm OUTSTANDING >80cm >60cm
14 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. There is no point in testing your 100m sprint time as this is not useful for measuring speed for soccer. The 30 metre sprint test is a very simple test with minimal equipment needed and is meaningful for testing your soccer speed. 30 metre sprint test 1. Place two cones (or other objects) 30 metres apart (or 30 yards – just ensure that every time you test that you use exactly the same measurement) – be sure to measure this as accurately as possible so that in your subsequent fitness tests you are able to properly compare your times. 2. Stand with your strong foot behind one of the cones/markers and your other foot in behind ready to sprint – with stopwatch in hand (or with training partner). 3. Sprint as fast as you can to the other cone/marker. 4. If you have a training partner get them to call ready set go and take the time. Otherwise, hold a stopwatch in your hand and press start as you takeoff and stop when you reach the end. You have three attempts. Record your best time in the appropriate section in the result tracker handbook. Make sure to rest sufficiently between attempts so that you are fully recovered. —SPEED TESTING—
15 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Try to use a solid surface. A running track is ideal. Any other hard surface is also fine. Try to avoid grass for this test. The reason to avoid grass is because different weather conditions and times of the year will change the consistency of grass which can have a significant effect on your pace and take off speeds and therefore will not provide you accurate results for comparison. If the grass is muddy you won’t be able to sprint as fast due to less traction. TIP: If you test on a windy day try to run with a cross wind if possible. A headwind or tailwind will also distort your results. 30 METRE SPRINT MALE FEMALE POOR >5.15secs >5.65secs FAIR 5.00-5.15secs 5.40-5.65secs BELOW AVERAGE 4.75-4.99secs 5.15-5.39secs AVERAGE 4.40-4.74secs 4.90-5.14secs ABOVE AVERAGE 4.25-4.39secs 4.65-4.89secs VERY GOOD 4.00-4.24secs 4.50-4.64secs EXCELLENT 3.90-3.99secs 4.40-4.49secs OUTSTANDING <3.90secs <4.40secs
16 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. The test we are going to use for agility is the Illinois agility test. Illinois Agility Test You will need 8 cones/objects and a stopwatch to perform this test. Set up the cones as shown below. There are two diagrams below- one in feet and the other in metres. It doesn’t matter which one you choose so long as you stick with the same one for all your future testing (also, be careful when comparing it with the tables as there are separate tables for the metre and feet tests because the feet test is slightly shorter). ILLINOIS AGILITY TEST (m) MALE FEMALE POOR >19.00secs >23.00secs FAIR 18.50-18.99secs 22.00-23.00secs BELOW AVERAGE 17.50-18.49secs 21.00-21.99secs AVERAGE 17.00-17.49secs 20.0-20.99secs ABOVE AVERAGE 16.50-16.99secs 19.00-19.99secs VERY GOOD 16.00-16.49secs 18.00-18.99secs EXCELLENT 15.00-15.99secs 17.00-17.99secs OUTSTANDING <15.00secs <17.00secs ILLINOIS AGILITY TEST (ft) MALE FEMALE POOR >18.99secs >22.00secs FAIR 18.00-18.99secs 21.00-22.00secs BELOW AVERAGE 17.00-17.99secs 20.00-20.99secs AVERAGE 16.00-16.99secs 19.00-19.99secs ABOVE AVERAGE 15.30-15.99secs 18.00-18.99secs VERY GOOD 14.90-15.29secs 17.00-17.99secs EXCELLENT 14.30-14.8secs 16.50-16.99secs OUTSTANDING <14.30secs <16.500secs —AGILITY TESTING—
17 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. 1. As in the diagram—run 10 metres ( from the starting point. Go around the left hand side of the top cone and run down to the lowest middle cone. Slalom through the middle cones to the top and back down to the bottom. Round the bottom cone and sprint to the top right cone. Round the top right hand cone and sprint to the finish. 2. Perform two tests starting from the “start” and two starting from “finish” (i.e., in reverse). This is to test your agility turning both directions. 3. Take the best time from each side and take their average. This is your time. For example, if you score 17.2 & 16.8 in your first two tests and 17.7 and 17.4 in your second two tests (reverse direction) then your time is 17.1 (16.8 plus 17.4 divided by 2). ILLINOIS AGILITY TEST (m)
18 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. 1. As in the diagram—run 30 feet from the starting point. Go around the left hand side of the top cone and run down to the lowest middle cone. Slalom through the middle cones to the top and back down to the bottom. Round the bottom cone and sprint to the top right cone. Round the top right hand cone and sprint to the finish. 2. Perform two tests starting from the “start” and two starting from “finish” (i.e., in reverse). This is to test your agility turning both directions. 3. Take the best time from each side and take their average. This is your time. For example, if you score 17.2 & 16.8 in your first two tests and 17.7 and 17.4 in your second two tests (reverse direction) then your time is 17.1 (16.8 plus 17.4 divided by 2). ILLINOIS AGILITY TEST (ft)
19 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Maximum strength testing is designed to find out the maximum amount of weight you are able to lift in any given exercise. Always use a training partner when performing the 1RM tests. If you don’t have a training partner then use the 6RM testing (see below). 1RM: One common test for maximal strength is the one rep max (1RM). 1. To perform this test pick a weight close to that which you believe you will only be able to do one repetition of for that exercise. 2. If you are unable to do any proper repetitions (and by proper I mean that you must perform the exercise through its full range of motion and with proper technique) then decrease the weight until you are able to do one proper rep. The weight at which you are able to do one rep is your 1RM. 3. If you are able to do one proper repetition then increase the weight until you get to a weight that you are unable to do one proper rep. The weight you used just before the one you were unable to do is your 1RM. EXAMPLE When performing his 1RM testing Ted tried to squat with a pair of 25kg dumbbells. He was able to perform 1 proper repetition. Ted felt this weight was close to his 1RM so then he attempted 27kg. Again Ted was able to perform 1 proper repetition (but only just). On his third attempt Ted attempted 30kg. Ted was unable to do one proper rep using the 30kg dumbbells. Ted’s 1RM is therefore 27kg. —MAXIMUM STRENGTH TESTING—
20 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Only do 3 attempts per exercise to find your 1RM or you will fatigue yourself for your other exercises. Don’t be too fussy about getting this exactly right as it is just a guideline. Your 1RM will change (hopefully go up!) as you train your muscles anyway. The idea of this test is to give you a starting point. Notice how in the example above Ted went from 27kg to 30 kg in his 2nd and 3rd attempts. Rather than doing a fourth attempt to try to get more accurate it is better to settle for the 27kg. Your 1RM may well actually be 28 or 29kg but it is not important to be this accurate – it is far more important to save your strength for the remaining tests. Perform this test for Squats, Dead lifts, Pull ups and Dips (for proper technique see below). Limit this testing to four exercises. These four exercises give you enough information about the strength in your different muscle groups. 6RM: Alternatively, if you don’t feel comfortable performing the 1RM test or don’t have a training partner for spotting you can do the 6RM test. The same principles apply only with this test you do 6 reps of a particular exercise at a certain weight. Increase the weight until you reach a weight you can only perform 5-6 repetitions of. Remember not to be too fussy as this is only a guideline. If you can only perform 4 repetitions of a weight then the weight you performed prior is your 6RM. If you can only perform 5 reps then this will be your 6RM – remember it is more important to save your strength for the remaining tests than to be too fussy about getting this spot on.
21 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. There are no particularly helpful comparisons to make here in terms of other people. The 1RM and 6RM tests are performed to provide you with comparisons for your future testing to make sure you are getting stronger and just how much stronger you are getting. Squat Technique See page for squatting technique. To add weight hold dumbbells by your sides.
22 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Dead lift Technique The Posture: Place a barbell on the ground. If you are new to dead lifts you should practice using just a bar to begin with until you have mastered the technique. Stand with your feet slightly narrower than shoulder width apart. Pick the bar up with an overhand grip (palms facing towards the body) Bend forward at the hips and then slightly at the knees. The angle of your shins should only be very slight (nearly completely vertical). Your knees should not be much further forward than your ankles. Hold the bar about mid shin with shoulders back, chest up and core tight. Remember to always hold the core tight throughout the movement. Your chest should be directly above the bar. This is your starting position.
23 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. The Movement: From the starting position above slowly stand up with core tight (brace your abdominals) and keeping back straight until you are standing up straight. Your chest should remain over the bar. In the standing position you should not be hyper extending your back (arching back) or shrugging your shoulders up. You should be in a relaxed comfortable standing position with core tight. Lower yourself back down to the starting position by bending first at the hips and then slightly at the knees so that the bar is held about mid shin nearly touching the shin with chest above the bar. Note the following differences between the dead lift and the squat: The angle of the shins is much slighter The angle of your upper legs (between your back and knees) is a lot more vertical than with the squat. With the squat your upper legs bend 90 degrees from the vertical, i.e. they are parallel to the ground. With the dead lift your upper legs will be at no more than a 45 degree angle so your hips will be much higher up. The chest should remain in line with the knees and the bar (as opposed to the squat where the chest is further back)
24 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. The angle of the back is greater in the dead lift (but should still be straight, i.e. not rounded – there should be a straight line between the head and the lower back, that line is just at a greater angle with the dead lift when compared to the squat) You should feel the dead lift in your hamstrings, lower back and glutes. In the squat it should be predominantly your quadriceps, hip flexors and glutes (though you will be working several other muscles as well). The Squat The Dead lift
25 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Pull Up Technique Beginning posture: 1. Hang from a bar with your arms straight. Hold the bar with your palms facing towards you. 2. Keep your shoulders back and lead with your chest. 3. Always look up to where you are pulling yourself to. 4. Have your legs bent and cross your feet together. Movement: 1. Inhale at the bottom of the hanging position and exhale as you pull yourself up. Try to pull from a “dead hang”, that is to say don’t bounce into the pull up. 2. Pull all the way up so that your chin goes above the bar. 3. Don’t use your hips – keep your legs in line with your torso. 4. Lower yourself in a controlled manner to the starting position and repeat as many times as you are able. If you can do more than 6 reps of your body weight you will need to add weight. 5. The easiest way to add weight is by gripping a dumbbell between your legs (up to 10kg) If you need to add more than 10kgs you might want to use a heavy back pack or weight belt.
26 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Dips Technique 1. Start by holding yourself up on parallel bars, or similar with arms straight. 2. Lower yourself so that your shoulders are just below your elbows before lifting yourself back up. 3. Push yourself back up by straightening your arms (elbows not quite locked). Keep your shoulders back and your chest up. Keep your core tight (brace your abdominals) throughout the movement. 4. Like with other exercises inhale as you lower yourself and exhale during the lifting motion.
27 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. For your strength endurance testing you should perform 3 tests. The chair squat test — to test the strength endurance in your lower body; The press up test — to test the strength endurance in your upper body; and The sit-up test — to test the strength endurance in your core. —STRENGTH ENDURANCE TESTING—
28 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Chair Squat Test This test tests your lower body strength endurance. See below for the proper technique for squatting. This test is about pure numbers. There is no time limit but you cannot rest between squats and you should keep a constant rhythm. Once you break that rhythm (i.e. by resting) the test is over. 1. Squat down with a chair underneath you as described below. Make sure the chair is at a height that your thighs will be parallel with the ground at the point you make contact (if the chair is too low put something on it to bring it up to the correct height). 2. As soon as you feel contact with the chair push up (do not use the chair to hold your weight – it is there so that you can tell you are going the full way down). This is one rep. Keep going for as long as you can and count the reps. 3. As an alternative to using the chair (if you think it will be too tempting to use it to rest!), perform the test side on in front of a mirror so that you can make sure you are doing a full squat.
29 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. The posture: Stand with feet shoulder width apart, shoulders back, chest out and stomach tight. Place your arms out in front parallel to the ground. Ensure that your posture is maintained when the arms go out. The movement: Lower your body in a controlled manner until your thighs are parallel to the ground. Your knees should never go in front of your toes. Keep your stomach tight and back straight throughout the movement. Once your thighs are parallel to the ground push back up, in a controlled fashion (don’t bounce up), to the starting position engaging your quads, hamstrings, glutes and abdominal muscles as you push up. Inhale through your nose as you lower your body and exhale through your mouth as you push up.
30 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Press Up Test This test tests your upper body strength endurance. See below for the proper technique for press ups. Perform as many press-ups as you can with no resting. You must remain in the prone position – once you break the prone position the test is over. Lightly touch your forehead against the mat (or a towel if you are not on a mat) to count as a rep. Record your results in the results tracker handbook. The Posture: The starting position for this exercise is called the prone position. This position is used for a number of exercises so it is important to get it right. If you are unsure if you are using the correct posture have someone check it for you or use a mirror. Start by lying flat on the ground and raise yourself up with your arms until your elbows are straight. Your hands should be slightly wider than shoulder width apart for the standard press up and your arms should form a straight line (perpendicular to the ground). Your toes should be pointing towards your head with the balls of your feet touching the ground. Your feet should be no wider than about 30cm apart. Like most exercises your back should be straight throughout the movement.
31 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Don’t let your hips sag or round up. They should be perfectly straight so you will need to keep your stomach tight. The Movement: Lower your body by bending your elbows. Your movement should come from the bending of your elbows. Don’t round your shoulders and keep your back perfectly straight. Lower yourself until your face is just above the ground. Inhale as you lower yourself. Exhale as you push yourself back up to the starting position by straightening your elbows.
32 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Sit Up Test This test tests your abdominal and hip flexor strength endurance. Perform as many sit ups as you can in one minute. 1. Lie on a mat or other soft surface with feet flat and knees bent. There should be a gap of no more than 30cm (12inches) between your heels and buttocks. 2. Fold your arms across your chest and place your hands on your shoulders. Have a training partner hold your feet to the ground or place your feet under a set of dumbbells (or other object). I find 10kg dumbbells are enough to hold your feet down. 3. Engage your abdominals and raise your body upwards and touch your elbows against your knees without moving your hands from your shoulders. 4. Lower yourself back to the ground so that your shoulder blades touch the ground. Complete as many reps as you can within the minute. Ensure that you: do not arch your back; your feet and buttocks stay in contact with the ground; and do not bounce up into the sit up.
33 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Compare your results from the three endurance tests to the tables below after your first test and subsequently compare to your previous results. SQUAT TEST MALE FEMALE POOR <20 <10 FAIR 20-24 10-14 BELOW AVERAGE 25-29 15-19 AVERAGE 30-34 20-24 ABOVE AVERAGE 35-39 25-29 VERY GOOD 40-44 30-34 EXCELLENT 45-50 35-39 OUTSTANDING >50 >40 PRESS UP TEST MALE FEMALE POOR <5 <5 FAIR 5-15 5-7 BELOW AVERAGE 16-20 8-10 AVERAGE 21-25 11-20 ABOVE AVERAGE 26-30 21-25 VERY GOOD 31-40 26-30 EXCELLENT 41-50 31-35 OUTSTANDING >50 >35 SIT UP TEST MALE FEMALE POOR <15 <10 FAIR 15-20 11-15 BELOW AVERAGE 21-25 16-20 AVERAGE 26-30 21-25 ABOVE AVERAGE 31-35 26-30 VERY GOOD 36-45 31-35 EXCELLENT 46-55 36-45 OUTSTANDING >55 >45
34 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. The sprint fatigue test is an easy and effective test to measure anaerobic endurance. Ten 30m sprints are performed and each is timed to determine how much speed is lost over time. All sprints should be performed as fast as possible and from a standing start. 1. Set up 3 cones with cone A the starting point. Set up cone B 30m from cone A and cone C 10m from cone B. 2. Using the lap function on your stopwatch start the timer and sprint from cone A to cone B as fast as possible hitting the lap button as you pass cone B. Slow down towards cone C and turn and return to cone B. 3. After 25 seconds has passed sprint from cone B to cone A – hitting the lap button again when you set off from cone B and when you hit cone A. Slow down to cone D and return to cone A. 4. Again wait until 25 seconds has passed and repeat. Complete a total of ten sprints. —ANAEROBIC TESTING—
35 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Your stopwatch will look something like this. Lap 1: 4.90 Lap 2: 25.23 Lap 3: 4.96 Lap 4: 24.97 Lap 5: 4.97 Lap 6: 25.09 Lap 7: 5.02 Etc Now take the average of the first three times (by adding up the first three times and dividing by 3) and divide by the average of the last three times and multiply by 100 to find your sprint fatigue percentage. Compare to the table below and to your score in your previous test/s. This test is particularly informative for soccer players as often a player has to perform several back to back sprints with little rest. NOTE: Remember that the purpose of this test is so that you know where you are at. The aim is not to try to score highly but rather to get as accurate a result as you can. For this reason don’t be tempted to cheat by not quite going at full tilt in the first few sprints so that your fatigue percentage looks better. Doing this will not give you an accurate result as to how anaerobically fit you are. NB: If your percentage is over 100% then you know you have performed the test incorrectly. Each sprint should be done at your maximum possible speed. SPRINT FATIGUE % MALE FEMALE POOR <70% <70% FAIR 70-79% 70-79% BELOW AVERAGE 80-83% 80-83% AVERAGE 84-86% 84-86% ABOVE AVERAGE 87-89% 87-89% VERY GOOD 90-92% 90-92% EXCELLENT 93-95% 93-95% OUTSTANDING >95% >95%
36 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. I find the 12 minute run to be the easiest and most informative of the aerobic endurance tests. Very little equipment is needed and set up time is minimal. Other tests such as Vo2max tests require too much specialised equipment (and Vo2max can be estimated using the 12 minute run test) and tests such as the Hoff circuit require too much set up time. The beep test is another good and simple test but requires that you have a beep track. The beep test can also be converted into Vo2 max. Quite simply the 12 minute run requires you to run as far as you can within 12 minutes. Don’t be fooled by the simplicity of this test though. Simple doesn’t mean easy! It is physically very hard. Your aerobic testing should always be performed as the very last test (apart from stretching) of any fitness testing session. This is because you are not requiring any explosive movements. If you attempt to perform any of the tests that require more explosive movements after performing the 12 minute run your results will not be very good as a result of the fatigue from the 12 minute run. The easiest way to perform this test is on a running track, firstly because you are not required to do any sharp changes of direction and secondly because of the distance measurements that you can use. Remember though that the distance of a lap on a running track differs depending on what lane you are in. The following are the distances for a standard 400m running track. —AEROBIC TESTING—
37 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Lane 1: 400m Lane 2: 408m Lane 3: 415m Lane 4: 423m Lane 5: 431m Lane 6: 438m Lane 7: 446m Lane 8: 454m Count the number of laps you do and multiply by the corresponding per lap distance depending on what lane you ran in. Measure any additional distance you did beyond the laps. For example if you did 7 laps and 200m in lane 6 then your distance would be 3161 metres ([7x423]+200). The next best alternative to the running track is using a football pitch. Make sure you know the dimensions of the pitch or measure them if you don’t know them. Simply do as many laps of the pitch as you can within the 12 minutes. Count your laps and multiply by the length of a lap. Measure the distance you covered in your final lap to get your total distance. For example, if your pitch is 100m by 65m then one lap equals 330m (100m +65m +100m +65m). If you did 9 laps plus an extra length and width your total distance would be 3135m ([9*330m] +100m +65m).
38 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. To calculate your Vo2 max, use the formula below or use the table in appendix 1. Vo2max = (distance in metres – 504.9) divided by 44.73 For example if I ran 2500 metres in the 12 minutes my Vo2max would be 44.60 ([2500 – 504.90] divided by 44.73). Measure your distance covered and Vo2max scores against the following tables and (more importantly) against your previous result/s. Vo2 MAX MALE FEMALE POOR <35 <26 FAIR 35-39 26-30 BELOW AVERAGE 40-44 31-35 AVERAGE 45-49 36-38 ABOVE AVERAGE 50-54 39-41 VERY GOOD 55-59 42-45 EXCELLENT 60-64 46-50 OUTSTANDING >64 >50
39 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Flexibility is very important for soccer for performance, recovery and injury prevention. This part of training is all too often overlooked or undervalued. It is very important that you improve your flexibility as an athlete. It is also important to test your flexibility. Your weak and strong areas of flexibility will be different depending on the individual—so it is important to test so that you know what areas of flexibility that you most need to work on. —FLEXIBILITY TESTING—
40 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Sit & reach test This test measures your hamstring and lower back flexibility. This version of the test is known as the modified sit & reach test and is good because it takes into account differing sized arms and legs. 1. Sit with your back, shoulders and head flat against a wall and arms stretched out in front of you with your hands on top of each other. Place, or have someone place a box around 30cm high close to your feet. Your legs should be straight. 2. Place a ruler on the box (preferably a 1 metre ruler) so that the zero end touches your fingertips (arms outstretched without moving your back shoulders and head from the wall). If you have a training partner then get them to place the ruler. Otherwise you may need to make a few adjustments but it can be done by yourself. 3. Stretch forward so that your fingertips slide alongside the ruler. You should stretch forward in a slow controlled motion without any jerking or bouncing movements. Your hands should stay together. Repeat three times and on the third time make a mark as far along the box as you can reach or have your partner record how far along the ruler your finger tips have reached.
41 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Compare your results to the table below and your previous result/s. SIT AND REACH MALE FEMALE POOR <5cm <15cm FAIR 5-9cm 15-20cm BELOW AVERAGE 10-14cm 21-25cm AVERAGE 15-24cm 26-35cm ABOVE AVERAGE 25-34cm 36-40cm VERY GOOD 35-39cm 41-50cm EXCELLENT 40-49cm 51-60cm OUTSTANDING >50cm >60cm
42 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Groin Flexibility Sit with the bottoms of your feet facing each other and touching. Lower your knees as far to the ground as is comfortable. Hold onto your ankles and pull your heels toward your groin as far as they will go without your feet loosing contact with each other. Measure the distance between the groin and your heels. Compare your results to the table below and to your previous result/s. GROIN FLEXIBILITY MALE FEMALE POOR >28cm >28cm FAIR 25-28cm 25-28cm BELOW AVERAGE 21-24cm 21-24cm AVERAGE 17-20cm 17-20cm ABOVE AVERAGE 13-16cm 13-16cm VERY GOOD 9-12cm 9-12cm EXCELLENT 5-8cm 5-8cm OUTSTANDING <5cm <5cm
43 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Trunk & Shoulder Rotation 1. Standing side on to a wall reach your left arm out and touch the wall, i.e. You will be arms length away from the wall. Make a mark on the wall with a pencil (or have a piece of paper stuck to the wall if you can’t make a mark on it). This is your centre line. 2. Now stand facing away from the wall with feet shoulder width apart. Hold your arms straight out in front of you and parallel to the floor (your hands should be separate). 3. Rotate your body as far around to the left as you can go without moving your feet. You can move your trunk, hips and shoulders but your feet must stay completely still. Make a mark on the wall or piece of paper as far around as you can twist without bending you arms and keeping them parallel to the floor. Your arms may separate but cannot bend. You may need to adjust the distance you are away from the wall in order to be the right distance to make a mark. 4. Measure the distance from the mark to the middle line. Anything past the line is a positive score whilst anything before the line is a negative score. Repeat for both sides of the body and take the average of the two scores. Compare your score to the table below and your previous result/s.
44 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. TRUNK ROTATION MALE FEMALE POOR <0cm <0cm FAIR 0-4cm 0-4cm BELOW AVERAGE 5-9cm 5-9cm AVERAGE 10-14cm 10-14cm ABOVE AVERAGE 15-18cm 15-18cm VERY GOOD 19-22cm 19-22cm EXCELLENT 22-25cm 22-25cm OUTSTANDING >25cm >25cm
45 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Calf Flexibility 1. Stand facing a wall and bend your left knee so that it touches the wall. Your heel should be flat on the floor. Use a wall without skirting. It may be necessary to do it against a door or filing cabinet if you cannot find a convenient wall without skirting. 2. Move your foot as far back as it can go without your knee loosing contact with the wall and keeping you heel flat to the floor. 3. Measure the distance between the wall and your big toe. Repeat for your other foot and average the two scores. Variations in leg lengths can make comparison between different people misleading. Your best comparison (as always) is with your previous results/s. Now you are ready to set up your fitness testing. It pays to plan out the tests in advance so that there isn’t too much time between the tests for setting up. You can even perform a dummy run fitness testing session so that you are ready for the real session. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
46 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Now you know how to effectively test every area of your soccer fitness! One of the points of testing your soccer fitness is so that you can discover which areas are most in need of improvement. Now that you know which areas to improve in you will need to learn how to improve them. Comprehensive Soccer Conditioning—The Essential Guide to Serious Soccer Fitness is full of information and techniques to improve your soccer fitness in every aspect. Comprehensive Soccer Conditioning will help you to improve your: Agility Speed Power Endurance Strength Balance Co-ordination Click here to get comprehensive Soccer Conditioning — The Essential Guide to Serious Soccer Fitness for just $15. That’s $10 off the normal price!
47 FITNESS TESTING Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Comprehensive Soccer Conditioning will dramatically improve your performance in all of the aspects of soccer fitness training. In addition to this it will: improve your fitness in a way that is relevant to soccer show you how to improve your recovery ability, so that you can train harder, for longer, and more often; teach you injury minimisation strategies; and provide you with program planning ideas to put together a precise program tailored to your specific needs; Click here to get comprehensive Soccer Conditioning — The Essential Guide to Serious Soccer Fitness for just $15. That’s $10 off the normal price!
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49 REFERENCES Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Brian Mac Sports Coach. (2012). Standing Long Jump Test. Retrieved from http://www.brianmac.co.uk/stndjump.htm Brian Mac Sports Coach. (2012). Static Stretching Exercises. Retrieved from http://www.brianmac.co.uk/stretch.htm Butler, R. (2012). How To Do a Basic Lunge Leg Exercise. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/video_2365368_do-basic-lunge-leg-exercise.html Byars A, Keith S, Simpson W, Mooneyhan A, Greenwood M. (2010). The influence of a pre-exercise sports drink (PRX) on factors related to maximal aerobic performance. Retrieved from http://owll.massey.ac.nz/referencing/referencing-online-material-in-apa.php Byars A, Keith S, Simpson W, Mooneyhan A, Greenwood M. (2010). The influence of a pre-exercise sports drink (PRX) on factors related to maximal aerobic performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, Mar 11;7:12. Retrieved from http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20222976 Chan, D. (2011). Fitness Testing Assignment: Soccer. Retrieved from http://physiotherapy.curtin.edu.au/resources/educational-resources/ exphys/99/soccer.cfm Christopher D. Jensen, PhD, MPH, RD. (2006). Fueling and Hydrating for Your Event or Exercise. Retrieved from http://www.powerbar.com/ articles/25/fueling-and-hydrating-for-your-event-or-exercise.aspx Coe, P and Martin, D. (2012). Good Running Form Part 2: Analyze Your Lower-Body. Retrieved from http://www.active.com/running/Articles/ Good_running_form_part_two__Analyze_and_improve_your_lower-body_motion.htm Coe, P and Martin, D. (2012). The Key to Good Running is Good Form. Retrieved from http://www.active.com/running/Articles/ The_key_to_good_running_is_good_form.htm CSTnorth. (2009). Bodyweight Pistol Squat Will Shoot Your Leg Strength Through the Roof. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=mACLxVqkLSs&feature=g-vrec&context=G2edc896RVAAAAAAAAAg Davies, P. Total Soccer Fitness. Sporting Excellence Ltd. RIO Network LLC. Dreyer, D. (2009). Running Form: Midfoot Strikers vs. the Balls of Your Feet. Retrieved from http://www.active.com/running/Articles/Running_Form- Midfoot_Strikers-vs-the-Balls-of-Your-Feet.htm
50 REFERENCES Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Elite Soccer Conditioning.com. (2012). Soccer speed training. Retrieved from http://www.elitesoccerconditioning.com/SpeedTraining/ SpeedTraining.htm Elliott, D. (2011). Ideal Repetition Speed And Rest Periods. Retrieved from http://www.muscleandstrength.com/articles/ideal-repetition-speed-and- rest-periods.html Evans, G. (2011). Adding Weights to Dips, Pull Ups and Push Ups. Retrieved from http://www.livestrong.com/article/540804-adding-weights-to-dips- pullups-pushups/ Expertvillage. (2008). In-Home Triceps Exercises: How to Do Chair Dip Triceps Exercises. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=tKjcgfu44sI ExRx.net. (2012). Speed, Quickness & Agility Training. Retrieved from http://www.exrx.net/ExInfo/Sprint.html ExRx.net. Plyometric Exercises. Retrieved from http://www.exrx.net/Lists/PowerExercises.html grrlathlete.com. (2012). Simple Steps to Optimizing Post-Workout Nutrition. Retrieved from http://www.topendsports.com/nutrition/ simplesteps.htm Hobson, K. (2012). 11 Best Fish: High in Omega-3s—and Environment-Friendly. Retrieved from http://health.usnews.com/health-news/diet- fitness/slideshows/best-fish/12 Intelligent Athlete Academy. (2010). Soccer Training System Demo #1: Quick Feet Series. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UW- eDUDyyFQ Jaggers JR, Swank AM, Frost KL, Lee CD. (2008). The acute effects of dynamic and ballistic stretching on vertical jump height, force, and power. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18841078 Juicebox. (2008). Reducing DOMS (Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness) After a Workout. Retrieved from http://www.gimmiethescoop.com/ reducing-doms-delayed-onset-muscle-soreness-after-a-workout
51 REFERENCES Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Kurz, T. (2012). Stretch Yourself: Errors in Stretching for Sports and Martial Arts. Retrieved from http://www.stadion.com/ column_stretch33.html Lee, J. (2010). The Soccer (Football) 30 meter Sprint Test. Retrieved from http://speedendurance.com/2010/10/10/the-soccer-football-30-meter- sprint-test/ Livestrong. (2009). How To Do Callisthenic Mountain Climber Exercises. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DyeZM-_VnRc Lomax, Eddie. (2007). Aerobic Vs Anaerobic Training. Retrieved from http://www.1speedtraining.com/aerobic-anaerobic-training.html Machars.net. (1998). Normative Data for V02max. Retrieved from http://www.machars.net/v02max.htm Magness, S. (2010). Development of Strength Endurance. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/sjm1368/strength-endurance-training Maxworkouts. (2009). How To The Deadlift Properly. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q2tu_fG3FEY Maxworkouts. (2009). One Legged Squats/ Pistol Squats. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qwXrFXxw2B4&feature=relmfu Medhi. (2007). How To Do Pull-ups and Chin-ups With Proper Technique. Retrieved from http://stronglifts.com/how-to-do-pull-ups-and-chin-ups-with -proper-technique/ Medhi. (2007). How To Perform Dips with Proper Technique. Retrieved from http://stronglifts.com/how-to-perform-dips-with-proper-technique/ Nichols, N. (2008). Open and Closed Chain Exercises. Retrieved from http://www.dailyspark.com/blog.asp? post=fitness_defined_open_and_closed_chain_exercises
52 REFERENCES Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. PhysioAdvisor.com. (2008). Hip Stretches. Retrieved from http://www.physioadvisor.com.au/8109550/hip-stretches-hip-flexibility-exercises- physio.htm PhysioRoom.com. (2012). Groin Stretch (intermediate). Retrieved from http://www.physioroom.com/prevention/stretching4_12.php Professional Soccer Coaching.com. (2009). Agility Drills. Retrieved from http://www.professionalsoccercoaching.com/soccer-drills/Agility- Drills/ Quinn, E. (2010). Stretching and Flexibility for Sports: Learn the difference between flexibility, stretching and warming up. Retrieved from http://sportsmedicine.about.com/od/flexibilityandstretching/a/Flexibility.htm Quinn, E. (2011). Eating After Exercise - What to Eat After a Workout: How much protein and carbohydrate do you need after a workout. Re- trieved from http://sportsmedicine.about.com/cs/nutrition/a/aa081403.htm Quinn, E. (2011). Plyometric Exercises – Using Plyometrics to Build Speed and Power: Plyometric jumping exercises can build power and speed if done properly. Retrieved from http://sportsmedicine.about.com/od/sampleworkouts/a/Plyometrics.htm Quinn, E. (2011). What to Eat Before Exercise: Sports Nutrition Tip – energy food for exercise. Retrieved from http:// sportsmedicine.about.com/od/sportsnutrition/a/EatForExercise.htm Robertson, M. (2012). The Hardcore Lunge: Learn it, Do it, Love it! Retrieved from http://www.t-nation.com/free_online_article/ sports_body_training_performance/the_hardcore_lunge;jsessionid=4D8D9F6930C4CC91CF5A4EA3CEB758E7-mcd01.hydra Ronald Maughan, Ph.D., John B. Leiper and Susan M. Shirreffs. (1996). SPORTS SCIENCE EXCHANGE: REHYDRATION AND RECOVERY AFTER EXERCISE, SSE#62, Volume 9 (1996), Number 3. Retrieved from http://www.gssiweb.com/Article_Detail.aspx? articleid=35&level=2&topic=2 Simopoulos, AP. (2002). The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Bio Medicine and Pharmacotherapy, Oct;56 (8):365-79. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Simopoulos%20AP%5BAuthor% 5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=12442909
53 REFERENCES Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Simopoulos, AP. (2002). The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Bio Medicine and Pharmacotherapy, Oct;56 (8):365-79. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Simopoulos%20AP%5BAuthor% 5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=12442909 Solkin, M. (2012). The Perfect Runner: Improve Your Form. Retrieved from http://www.active.com/running/Articles/ The_perfect_runner__Improve_your_form.htm Sporting Excellence Limited. Flexibility Tests: Modified Sit and Reach Test. Retrieved from http://www.sport-fitness-advisor.com/flexibilitytests.html Sporting Excellence Limited. How to Determine your Level of Soccer Fitness. Retrieved from http://www.sport-fitness-advisor.com/soccer- fitness.html Sporting Excellence Limited. Lower Body Plyometric Exercises. Retrieved from http://www.sport-fitness-advisor.com/plyometricexercises.html Sports Fitness Hut. (2008). Avoid Knee Injuries with Proper Landings from Jumps. Retrieved from http://sportsfitnesshut.blogspot.co.nz/2008/04/ avoid-knee-injuries-with-proper.html St Pierre, B. (2012). How Much Protein Do You Need After A Tough Workout? Retrieved from http://sportsfitnesshut.blogspot.co.nz/2012/04/ how-much-protein-do-you-need-after.html Stein, N. (2011). The Best Sources for Essential Fatty Acids. Retrieved from http://www.livestrong.com/article/390765-the-best-sources-for- essential-fatty-acids/ Stress Management. (2011). How to do Diaphragmatic Breathing. Retrieved from http://www.stress-management-for-peak-performance.com/ diaphragmatic-breathing.html Tarnopolsky MA, Atkinson SA, MacDougall JD, Chesley A, Phillips S, Schwarcz HP. (1992). Evaluation of protein requirements for trained strength athletes. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1474076 TeachPE. (2012). Fitness Tests. Retrieved from http://www.teachpe.com/fitness/fitness_tests.php Themusclehead. (2007). How to Perform Parallel Bar Dips. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WYwiTxnWtho
54 REFERENCES Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. The Walking Site. YourTarget Heart Rate. Retrieved from http://www.thewalkingsite.com/thr.html Topend Sports Network (2012). 30 Metre Dash. Retrieved from http://www.topendsports.com/testing/tests/sprint-30meters.htm Topend Sports Network. (2012). Fitness Testing: Calf Muscle Flexibility Test. Retrieved from http://www.topendsports.com/testing/tests/calf- flex.htm Topend Sports Network. (2012). Fitness Testing: Groin Flexibility Test. Retrieved from http://www.topendsports.com/testing/tests/groin- flexibility.htm Topend Sports Network. (2012). Fitness Testing: Illinois Agility Test. Retrieved from http://www.topendsports.com/testing/tests/illinois.htm Topend Sports Network. (2012). Fitness Testing: PRT Curl-Up Test. Retrieved from http://www.topendsports.com/testing/tests/curl-up-prt.htm Topend Sports Network. (2012). Fitness Testing: Push Up Test at Home. Retrieved from http://www.topendsports.com/testing/tests/home- pushup.htm Topend Sports Network. (2012). Fitness Testing: Sit and Reach Flexibility Test. Retrieved from http://www.topendsports.com/testing/tests/sit-and- reach.htm Topend Sports Network. (2012). Fitness Testing: Sit Up Test at Home. Retrieved from http://www.topendsports.com/testing/tests/home-situp.htm Topend Sports Network. (2012). Fitness Testing: Sprint Fatigue Test. Retrieved from http://www.topendsports.com/testing/tests/sprint-fatigue.htm Topend Sports Network. (2012). Fitness Testing: Squat Test at Home. Retrieved from http://www.topendsports.com/testing/tests/home-squat.htm Topend Sports Network. (2012). Fitness Testing: Standing Long Jump Test (Broad Jump). Retrieved from http://www.topendsports.com/testing/ tests/longjump.htm Topend Sports Network. (2012). Fitness Testing: Trunk Rotation Test. Retrieved from http://www.topendsports.com/testing/tests/trunk-rotation.htm
55 REFERENCES Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. Topend Sports Network. (2012). Fitness Testing: Vertical Jump Test (Sargent Jump, Vertical Leap). Retrieved from http://www.topendsports.com/ testing/tests/vertjump.htm Waehner, P. (2011). Calculating Your Protein Needs. Retrieved from http://exercise.about.com/cs/nutrition/a/protein_2.htm Weir, J. (2011). Alternatives to Barbell Deadlifts. Retrieved form http://www.livestrong.com/article/513046-alternatives-to-barbell-deadlifts/ Wharton, J & P. (2004). How to Stretch Your Calf Muscles. Runners World, August 2011 issue. Retrieved from http://owll.massey.ac.nz/ referencing/referencing-journals-in-apa.php#journal-online Wikipedia. (2012). Aerobic Fitness. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerobic_exercise Wikipedia. (2012). Anaerobic Exercise. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaerobic_exercise Wikipedia. (2012). Closed Kinetic Chained Exercises. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Closed_kinetic_chain_exercises Wikipedia. (2012). Diaphragmatic Breathing. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diaphragmatic_breathing Wikipedia. (2012). Essential fatty acid. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essential_fatty_acid Wikipedia. (2012). Omega-3 fatty acid. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omega-3_fatty_acid Wikipedia. (2012). Stretching. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stretching wiseGEEK. (2012). What is Aerobic Capacity. Retrieved from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-aerobic-capacity.htm
56 APPENDIX 1 Copyright © Sports Conditioning Online Limited 2012 . All rights reserved. APPENDIX 1 12 MINUTE RUN TO V02MAX CONVERSION TABLE Distance covered in metres Distance covered in feet Vo2 Max Distance covered in metres Distance covered in feet Vo2 Max 1500 4921 22.25 2600 8530 46.84 1600 5249 24.48 2700 8858 49.07 1700 5577 26.72 2800 9186 51.31 1800 5906 28.95 2900 9514 53.55 1900 6234 31.19 3000 9843 55.78 2000 6562 33.42 3100 10171 58.02 2100 6890 35.66 3200 10499 60.25 2200 7218 37.90 3300 10827 62.49 2300 7546 40.13 3400 11155 64.72 2400 7874 42.37 3500 11483 66.96 2500 8202 44.60 3600 11811 69.20
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