Achivements and general needs of a preschooler
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Achivements and general needs of a preschooler

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Achivements and general needs of a preschooler Achivements and general needs of a preschooler Presentation Transcript

  • ACHIVEMENTS AND GENERALNEEDS OF A PRESCHOOLERDefinition of a preschoolerA preschooler is a child from 3 -5 years
  • Average achievement of a three yearspreschooler• Physical or biologic• Weight: 12.5-16.5 kg (approximately)• Height 90.5-1001 cm –Gained 8cm in 3rd year• Pulse 105+ 15 (average beats 95 beats /minute• Respirations 25+ 5/minute• Blood pressure10/65+24/25• Motor walks a straight line• Walks backwards• Walks on tiptoes
  • Av three yrs cont…• Runs without looking at feet• Catches ball with extended arms• Kicks a ball• Jumps from height of several centimeters• Rides tricycle using pedals, turns wide corners• Builds a tower of 9-10 blocks• Copies a circle• Uses blunt scissors with one hand to cut• Shows preference for handedness
  • Av three yrs cont…• Puts beads on strings• Can help with simple household tasks•• SELF CARE• Dressing skills• Can put on a coat without assistance• Can undress self in most instances•• TOILETING AND GROOMING• Can pull pants up and down• Can go to toilet alone• Brushes teeth with help
  • Av three yrs cont…• PSYCHOSOCIAL• Beginning development of sense of initiative (3-5 years)• Still egocentric in thought and behavior• Alternates between reality and imagination• Able to share but expresses idea of “mine”• Less dependent on parents but needs reassurance and help• Tolerates short separation from parents• Fears the dark• May have dreams and night mares• Knows own sex
  • Av three yrs cont…• PSYCHOSEXUAL• Phallic stage (3-6Years)• This is also known as the oedipal period (familyromance)• Childhood sexuality reaches a peak• They grow more aware of their sex organs• Boys and girls experience a period of initialattachment to the parents of opposite sex andhostility towards the parent of the same sex
  • Av three yrs cont…• Boys encounter the Oedipus complex in whichthey desire their mothers sexually whileexperiencing an increased hostility towardstheir father• The girls encounter what is known as theElectra complex in which they want theirfathers and find their mothers on the way• The feelings may be hidden but sometimesthey can speak it out by saying “I hate you”
  • Av three yrs cont…• Boys encounter the Oedipus complex in whichthey desire their mothers sexually whileexperiencing an increased hostility towardstheir father• The girls encounter what is known as theElectra complex in which they want theirfathers and find their mothers on the way• The feelings may be hidden but sometimesthey can speak it out by saying “I hate you”
  • Av three yrs cont…• INTUITIVE –PROJECTIVE FAITH• Children follow religion because it is expected ofthem. They are influenced mostly by parents• INTELLECTUAL OR COGNITIVE MORALDEVELOPMENT• (2-4 YEARS)• This is a period of language acquisition• Egocentric and bases problem solution on onlyone aspect
  • Av three yrs cont…• Tries to please and conforms to requests• Characteristic of thought include animism andrealism• Able to follow directional commands• Has a beginning of understanding of time•• LANGUAGE• Can obey two prepositional commands such ason, under• Uses four word sentences
  • Av three yrs cont…• Uses four word sentences• Asks why• Uses plurals• Gives sex and full names• Names figures in a picture• Has vocabulary of 800-1000 words• Child is intelligible 90% of time
  • Av three yrs cont…• PLAY STIMULATION• Like things that squish, move, talk make noisesuch as:• Books about known things like animals, fruits etc.• Crayon paints, climbing apparatus, transportationtoys, tricycle wagons, dump trucks, dolls carriage• Play telephone, music, record player and toydishes• Try to answer their questions relating to sexaccurately according to age.
  • Av three yrs cont...• Train your child in your faith (religion)• Never keep your children neutral
  • : Average achievements of a 4 yearspreschooler• Physical• Weight is approximately 13.5-19.5kg• Has gained 2.27 kg during the fourth year• Height approximately 95-109 cm• Has increased 8cm in the 4th year• Has doubled birth length• Pulse 100 + 10 beats per minute• Average 92 beats/ minute• Respirations 24 +4/minute• Blood pressure 100/66+ 20mm/hg
  • Av 4yrs cont…• MOTOR• Runs on tip toes• Balances on one foot 3-5 seconds• Jumps from greater heights• Pedal a tricycle quickly and can turn sharp corners• Catches ball with extended arms and with hands• Hops on preferred foot• Climbs ladders, trees, playground equipment• Alternates feet when descending stairs• Copies a square• Draws a simple face• Cuts around pictures with scissors
  • Av 4yrs cont…• SELF CARE• Manages spoon with little spilling• Can eat with fork held in fingers• Dressing skills• Buttons side buttons, small buttons• Can put on socks with help• Put on shoes (not laces) without help• Knows back from front of clothe
  • Av 4yrs cont…• TOILET AND GROOMING SKILLS• May bath self with assistance• Washes and dry hands without supervision• Usually dry at night•• PSYCHOSOCIAL• Sense of initiative (3-5 years)• Egocentric-is unable to see other’s point of viewand cant understand why others don’t seechildren
  • Av yrs cont…• Tends to be impatient and selfish• Usually separates easily from parents• Physically and verbally aggressive• Still have fears• Dreams and night mares continues• Sexually curious• Demonstrates strong attachment for parentsof opposite sex
  • Av 4yrs cont…• Jealousy of siblings may be evident• More cooperative in play although remind othersof ownership• Psychosexual and spiritual (same as 3-6 years)• Classifies objects according to one characteristic• Not able to conserve matter• Continue to believe that thoughts cause events
  • Av 4yrs cont…• Obeys because parents set limits not becauseof understanding between right and wrong• Highly imaginative• Concept of time improving especially inrelation to sequence of daily routines• Use alibis to excuse behavior
  • Av 4yrs cont…• MORAL• Preconventional morality (4-7 years)• You do it for me; I’ll do it for you•• RECEPTIVE LANGUAGE• Understands directives (on, under, in, back, front)•• Expressive language• Name one or more colors correctly• Uses “I”• Counts to five• May use profanity for attention• Uses 3-7 word sentence• Has a vocabulary of 1500 words
  • Av 4yrs cont…• PLAY AND STIMULATION• Plays cooperatively with others• Interested in the world•• Provide:• Hand puppet, dolls, blackboard, chalk, paper,scissors, clay, finger paints, swings, work bench,blocks, garden toys to encourage imagination,creativity and motor activities
  • : Average achievements of a 5 yearspreschooler• PHYSICAL• Weight 15.4-21.4 kg• Has gained 2.27 kg during the fifth year• Height 103- 115 cm. Gained 8 cm in fifth year• Pulse 95 + 15 (average 90 beats/ minute)• Respiration 22+ 3/minute• Blood pressure 100/60 + 14/10• Head size-adult head size nearly reached• Anticipates immediate toilet needs
  • Av 5yrs cont…• MOTOR• Skips alternate feet• Jumps rope and over objects• Walks a balance beam• Imitates dance steps if taught• Catches a ball smoothly with hands• Balances on one foot 8-10 seconds• Copies a triangle• Crosses vertical lines• Copies letters, may be able to print own name• Draws a three part man
  • Av 5yrs cont…• SELF CARE• Feeding skills• Select fork over spoon when appropriate•• Dressing skills• May be able to lace shoes• Manages zippers in back•• Toilet and grooming skills• Wipes self independently• Flushes toilet after each use• Bathes self• Combs hair with help• Can blow nose when asked
  • Av 5yrs cont ….• PSYCHOSOCIAL• Sense of initiative (3-5 years)• Continues to be egocentric• Separates easily from parents• Independent and trustworthy• Has fantasies and day dreams• Looks for parental encouragement and support• Engages in cooperative play• Very industrious• Appropriately relates to adults outside family
  • Av 5yrs cont…• PSYCHOSEXUAL• Phallic stage (3-6 years)• SPIRITUAL• Intuitive –projective faith• PREOPERATIONAL THOUGHT• Classifies objects according to relationships that are similar• Accurately describes events• Aware of cultural differences in others• Has time orientation• Improving using words with increased meaning• Very curious
  • Av 5yrs cont…• RECEPTIVE LANGUAGE• Carries out instructions with 3 suggested taskssuch as wash hands, dry them and and sit down• EXPRESSIVE LANGUAGE• Names primary colors• Asks meaning of words• Names penny, nickel etc• Repeats sentences of 12 or more syllables• Counts to 10• Has a vocabulary of 2100 words
  • Av 5yrs cont…• PLAY TIMULATION• Plays competitive exercise games• Loves to transport things in trucks, cars and wagons• Therefore provide:• Simple games for competitive and team play• Jump rope for motor activity• Constructive toys, paper dolls• Opportunities for collecting nature specimens forcreative activity• Color sets, books, puzzles for quiet play
  • General needs of preschooler• NEEDS OF A PRESCHOOLER• Preschoolers have emotional social needs andphysiologic biologic needs• The needs are influenced by accomplishments duringinfancy and the toddler period•• EMOTIONAL SOCIAL NEEDS• Love and security• Love and security continues to be essential• They begin to develop a preference for one parent.
  • Needs cont• Guidance• Adults should respect the individuality ofchildren and through guidance help them toexpand their skills, develop their potential andmaster self control• Parents should set limits to children behaviorswhich give children a feeling of security• Suggestions not commands are made inpositive form
  • Need cont..• Commands are seldom necessary but are more effectivewhen given in positive rather than negative form• Children are reassured when their parents help them tosolve problems as they arise• Give choices when possible•• Dependence progressing to independence• They strive to become independent in self care activitiesdesiring to please their parents and significant others.• They also have a sense of delight with each new skill
  • Needs cont..• Nursery school• The schools offer for experimentation,exercising the imagination, creative activity,problem solving and socializing• The schools also increase the capacity forindependent action, self confidence andfeelings of security in a variety of situations•
  • Need cont…• Separation• Five year olds should be prepared to enter the world oftheir peers as well as developing a sense of self as anindividual•• Discipline leading to self control• A positive approach to discipline involvesreinforcement and consistency in the socializationprocess of which the end goal for the child is selfcontrol• Problems which should be dealt with are:
  • Needs cont…• Bed time problem-sleep• All children are likely to experience sleep problems• Dreams or nightmares may be due to fairy tales or television• Find the cause and deal with it accordingly•• Selfishness• Children are not born with ability to share with others what is theirs• Slowly they learn the joy of giving and of sharing with others• Development of ownership is necessary before they can learn to begenerous with others• Help children to learn to share with others
  • Needs cont…• Hurting others• This can happen accidentally and therefore ignored• The child who hurt other purposely can be helped by• Identifying with the group, accepting them and beingloved by them• Physical outlets should be provided enabling the childto work off excess energy and relieve feelings offrustration• Praise should be given for achievements in the groupand solitary play and for those kind acts the child doesfor others
  • Needs cont…• Destructiveness• Parents should learn to differentiate between accidental and intentionaldestruction of objects that may value highly• Accidental destruction may be due to:• -Boundless energy• -Endless curiosity••• To avoid accidental destruction:• Remove valuable objects• Provide space for the child to play without danger of breakage or harm tohouse furnishings• Children should be helped to direct their energy into appropriate activities•
  • Needs cont…• Developing self esteem• -Preschoolers need to be encouraged to develop self esteem byfamily members, teachers, peer opinions regarding adequacies,acquisition of motor, language and self care skills•• PHYSIOLOGICAL- BIOLOGIC NEEDS• Control of bodily functions• By the end of the preschool period children are adequatelyindependent in toileting skills• Accidents may still happen during periods of stress or illness or ifchildren are involved in play activities• The child may be helped by giving less fluid in the evening
  • Needs cont…• The child is said to have encopresis if there is no physiologiccause and the child continues to have uncontrolled stoolpassage beyond the time the bowel control is expectedabout 3-4 years. (Incontinence of feces)• The general causes of enuresis and encopresis may be:• -Too rigid toilet training• -Too early training• -Overtraining• -Lack of training• -An organic problem such as diarrhea or megacolon• -Poor parent child relationship• Parents should find the cause and deal with it accordingly
  • Needs cont…• HEALTH PROMOTION AND ANTICIPATORY GUIDANCE• Nutrition• Preschoolers enjoy five meals a day to keep up with energydemands• Take care of the child’s likes and dislikes• Accident prevention•• Some reasons why accidents occur at this stage are:• Children explore outside the home and into the neighborhood• They play with peers• Rides bicycles• Play activities become rougher• Forgets rules for safety at the height of play
  • Needs cont ….• Therefore:– Adults (parents) should discuss with children safety in the homeand at play– Discuss about fire prevention– Teach how to roll on the ground to smoother flames shouldtheir clothes catch fire– If they participate in water activities swimming lessons shouldbe provided– Teach safety when crossing streets– Parents should know where their children play and the potentialdangers in the neighborhood• Health supervision by a physician or nurse is another need.Therefore parents should be encouraged to continue tobring their preschoolers to the under fives clinic.
  • Needs cont…• Parent education• Health care providers should shareinformation on the developmental needs ofthe preschooler so that parents can use theinformation in care giving and supervision