+ Killer Mountain with its Hot Ashes Intan Nadiah Binti Mohd Satimin 2010217256 – BM1115B
+ What is Volcano? Apertures on earth crust allowing magma from the upper mantel to escape releasing the gasses and ashes that highly contain sulphur. Irazu Volcano Aperture
+ Where it is located ? These dangerous mountain located throughout the pacific ring of fire, this ring of fire is actually the trench between the tectonic plates. The trench allows the magma travel due to it weak point. Illustrated ring of fire (purple)
+ The Eruption Pressure from the magma chamber kick start the activity forcing the magma up through the conduit and out to the volcano vents. When the magma chamber has been completely filled, the type of eruption partly depends on the amount of gasses and silica in the magma. The amount of silica determines how sticky (level of viscosity) the magma is and water provides the explosion potential of steam. Any obstacle such as small opening on the vent increase the pressure and maximize the harm of explosion. The visualization of eruption
+ The Volcano - Krakatoa An island located in the Sunda Strait, Indonesia. In the year 1883, the explosion had killed 36 417 people. The explosion could be heard nearly 3000 miles from it origin point, which makes it the loudest sound ever heard in the modern history. The shock wave was transmitted around the globe. Krakatoa, Indonesia
+ The Volcano - Krakatoa With the Volcanic Explosive Index (VEI) of 6, the eruption is about 13 times the nuclear bomb that hit Hiroshima, Japan. This cataclysmic explosion can be heard as far as Perth, West Australia and the island of Rodrigues, near Mauritius. The eruption destroyed 2/3 of the island. Anak Krakatau, formed due to the effect of the eruption.
+ The Volcano - Tambora An active stratovolcano located on the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. The 1815 eruption lead to ‘Year without Summer’ with an approximate VEI of 7 (the largest volcanic eruption in the modern history).
+ The Volcano – Tambora ‘Year without Summer’ is summer climate abnormalities caused the average global temperature falls by 0.4 – 0.7°C.
+ The Aftermath – Tambora 71 000 people were kill due to the eruption causing volcanic ash falls and sulphuric fumes in the atmosphere. Due to the massive eruption, the scale of the aftermath spread around the world within a month causing temperature dropped in the Europe on July as low as 13˚C. This event is unnatural because on that month is Summer, which the reading is between 24 - 27˚C.
+ The Aftermath – Tambora The dropping of the temperature is due to the sulphuric density on the atmosphere creating a thin film reflecting the sun from entering the atmosphere of the earth. This activity cause temperature dropped and the disappearance of the sun or known as ‘Year without Summer’. In the 1816, the world is in poverty due to the Tambora eruption aftermath. There are no sunlight and the water is polluted with sulphuric causing a high pH level.
+ The Aftermath - Tambora The agricultural sector are doomed due to the decreasing growth rate of their products. The crops are not right up to their standards and most of the agricultural land are destroyed due to the acidic rain. Throughout the year, acidic rain has been reported and it gave catastrophic side effect to the environment as well as humans.
+ The Aftermath - Tambora Rain is a major factor for transmitting the sulfur from the atmosphere in liquid form that will destroy the land, water and also human (in fume form). The land became acidic because of the rain fall; the activity causes the agriculture industry dropped or slow in growth.
+ The Aftermath - Tambora Aquatic animal were killed due to the acid in the water, this cause the reducing source of food for the human survival. Animal and human faced difficulties in term of water for drinking causes death.
+ Solutions Predicted there will be a major eruption. A prevention is needed to keep human race to survive. As a technology and knowledge are develop within time, we are capable to create solutions for this catastrophic activity. The solutions are in form of infrastructure, agriculture and geographic planning.
+ Solution – Infrastructure Dwellings are the most important thing in human as a place for their shelters. Designing dwelling that is seismic, acidic and volcanic prove are a main factors for solution.
+ Solution – Infrastructure Seismic – to have a seismic house or dwellings, the house foundation must be isolated with the structure. To maximize the resistance, isolating the structure and the floor will increase the resistance of the building to withstand a greater scalar ritcher.
+ Solution – Infrastructure Acidic – to prevent from corroding due to the acidic rain, limestone facade will be used to act as a protection code for the corrosion. Limestone are the best neutralizer for sulfur so that the water that will be discharge from the house will be balance in pH.
+ Solution - Infrastructure Other than dwellings, infrastructures to divert the water that been brought by the tsunami so that it will not destroy the existing infrastructure. Trench design for highways can be use as sewage when the event happen. Tsunami happens when the eruption causes earthquake; the earthquake will move the tectonic plates causing tsunami.
+ Business Opportunities By having a green house and hydroponic agriculture, the food production can be secure and also will not be polluted when volcanic activity happens. This will maintain the food production and also will give a business opportunity even when in emergency.
+ Business Opportunity Fish farming technology is one of the solution and also a business opportunity for young fisherman to create a new living without killing the fish. This technology will also prevent the volcanic activity destruction reducing the food source of the human being.
+ References The Great Tambora Eruption in 1815 and Its Aftermath Richard B. Stothers Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815, Progress in Physical Geography 1 June 2003: 230-259. Iberia in 1816, the year without a summer, Ricardo M. Trigo