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Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.
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Ammonia Transformation And Utilization.

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6th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, 2008.

6th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, 2008.

Published in: Technology, Business
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  • 1. S PA C E R ESEA RC H I N ST IT U T E Auburn University Ammonia Transformation and Utilization Henry Brandhorst1, Martin Baltazar-Lopez1 Bruce Tatarchuk2, Don Cahela2, ,and Troy Barron3 1Space Research Institute 2Center for Microfibrous Materials Manufacturing Auburn University 3IntraMicron, Inc. 6th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC) 28 - 30 Jul 2008 Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing
  • 2. S PA C E R ESEA RC H I N ST IT U T E Why Ammonia for Energy? Auburn University Eliminates greenhouse Don’t need fossil fuels gases (CO2, CH4, etc.) or carbon sources Safely transportable Can be synthesized from water and air Ammonia has many desirable features Can be burned directly Storable with high Stirling, diesel hydrogen content or IC engines (17.6%) Can be reformed Source of fuel for into H2 Stirling or IC engine or fuel cells But NH3 poisons PEM FCs Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing
  • 3. S PA C E R ESEA RC H I N ST IT U T E Background Auburn University Study of benefits of ammonia for terrestrial applications Develop processes for Utilize microfibrous materials catalytic reformation of NH3 to encapsulate reforming catalyst Studies on the stability and feasibility of burning Demonstrate an NH3 NH3 and burning NH3 catalytic burner with synthetic reformate Operate a FPSE on hydrogen reformed from ammonia (run on H2, not on reformed NH3 yet) Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing
  • 4. S PA C E R ESEA RC H I N ST IT U T E Microfibrous Materials Introduction Benefits and Attributes Auburn University Activated Carbon Fiber and 2μm Stainless Steel 55-85 μm sorbent entrapped in 2,4,8 μm Ni fibers Definition: Microfibrous Materials provide for the mechanical and electrical entrapment of a particle or fibrous solid within sinter-locked networks of a secondary fibrous matrix Attributes: The volume loading of each phase is relatively independent of the other phase, and adjustable over a wide range compared to current SOA materials and practices Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing
  • 5. S PA C E R ESEA RC H What’s Unique About Microfibrous I N ST IT U T E Materials? Auburn University Based on a simple, paper-making process » Reel-to-reel fabrication demonstrated Multiple materials/material combinations » Metals, polymers, ceramics » e.g. Ni, stainless steels, Ti, Hastelloy, Nicrome, FeCrAl, Cu… Fiber size, length options » Size: 1-50 µm; tow or chopped (1mm – 25 mm) Can include catalysts, sorbents, etc. Able to independently control properties Tailored 3-D structures possible Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing
  • 6. S PA C E R ESEA RC H I N ST IT U T E Why Free-Piston Stirling Engines? Auburn University external source of heat Can operate over a wide input temperature ranges Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing
  • 7. S PA C E R ESEA RC H I N ST IT U T E Why Free-Piston Stirling Engines? Auburn University They are being used on earth and in space applications » Low maintenance and quiet » 80W convertor lifetimes over 25,000 hrs demonstrated » Low or no vibration when used in dual-opposed operation High efficiency » ~37%, depending on Th/Tc » >90% alternator efficiency Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing
  • 8. S PA C E R ESEA RC H I N ST IT U T E Why Free-Piston Stirling Engines? Auburn University High specific mass (~100W/kg) » Only two moving parts that make no contact Many sizes demonstrated » 25 kW (1992) » 35 W, 80 W, 1.2 kW » New NASA 5 kW Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing
  • 9. S PA C E R ESEA RC H Why Ammonia-Fueled Free-Piston I N ST IT U T E Stirling Engines ? Auburn University Ammonia, containing 17.6% hydrogen by mass, could be used with high efficiency and reduced pollution » It is easily stored and transported safely » Flammability limits of NH3 (Vol % in air) only between 15.5% and 27% Optimized NH3 reforming catalysts and the means for entrapping them in a matrix exist » Relatively easy to reform NH3 to H2 Is full reformation the best choice? Of course H2/O2 combustion produces a clean flame and only water » We have demonstrated catalytic combustors for NH3 Including some percentage of H2 in an NH3 stream stabilizes the combustor We’ll use partial NH3 decomposition to show feasibility of producing temperatures that could be used by a free-piston Stirling engine Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing
  • 10. S PA C E R ESEA RC H I N ST IT U T E Schematic Diagram of Test Set Up Auburn University Preliminary burner tests were done by implementing a synthesized hydrogen reforming from NH3 MFC-1 H2 MFC-2 Temperature N2 Monitor Burner MFC-3 O2 Rotameter NH3 Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing
  • 11. Burner Tests 1: NH3 and Air Only Auburn University Cold apparatus » Difficult to ignite » NH3 combustion short-lived Hot apparatus » NH3 combustion ignites » Extinguished when air flow is stopped » Temperature: 740 ºC Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing
  • 12. S PA C E R ESEA RC H I N ST IT U T E NH3 Decomposition Catalyst Bed Auburn University Preparation of catalyst bed » Wet laid material Cellulose, 4 & 8 µm Ni Alumina fibers and 150-250 micron support alumina powder (1:1:3.8) particle (150- Two layers placed on a 250μm) 120 mesh SS screen and sintered in H2 at 1000°C 4& » 8% chloroplatinic acid used 8μm Ni for a loading of 10.8 wt % fiber Pt on the alumina » Dried at 110°C and then calcined in air at 400°C Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing
  • 13. S PA C E R ESEA RC H I N ST IT U T E Ammonia Conversion Auburn University Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing
  • 14. S PA C E R ESEA RC H I N ST IT U T E Ammonia-Air Catalytic Burner Auburn University A disc of microfibrous porous media was used to decompose NH3 into H2 and N2 MFC-1 Air Temperature Monitor Burner Rotameter NH3 Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing
  • 15. S PA C E R ESEA RC H Burner Tests :Catalyst Compared to I N ST IT U T E Synthetic Reformate Auburn University Synthesized reformate of NH3 , air and H2 » Ni media » Stable flame » Temperature: 990ºC NH3 plus air thru catalyzed bed with 4.5 µm media » Stable combustion » Temperature: 940ºC Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing
  • 16. Burner Tests 3: Catalyzed Bed Auburn University NH3 plus air thru catalyzed bed, hot apparatus » Flame confined to media » Temperature: 750 ºC NH3 plus air thru catalyzed bed, hot apparatus » Flame goes into media » Temperature: 765 ºC Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing
  • 17. Burner Tests 4: Catalyzed Bed Auburn University NH3 plus air thru catalyzed bed, 4.5 µm Ni media to prevent flame front going into media » Stable burning » Temperature: 940 ºC NH3 plus air thru catalyzed bed, 4.5 µm Ni media to prevent flame front going into media » Stable burning » Temperature: 940 ºC » Temper probe shown Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing
  • 18. S PA C E R ESEA RC H I N ST IT U T E Hydrogen Burner for FPSE Auburn University Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing
  • 19. S PA C E R ESEA RC H I N ST IT U T E H2 burner coupled to 35We FPSE Auburn University Qb = 0.544kW (1857.8 BTU/hr) Enough to power up the 35We FPSE, which requires approximately 200W of heat Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing
  • 20. S PA C E R ESEA RC H I N ST IT U T E Hydrogen Powered FPSE Auburn University Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing
  • 21. S PA C E R ESEA RC H I N ST IT U T E Summary and Conclusions Auburn University Favorable conditions for flame stability of combustion of hydrogen reformed from ammonia through a catalyst-impregnated microfibrous porous media were obtained » Stable catalytic combustion demonstrated » Temperatures of 940ºC were obtained Feasibility of ignition and combustion of ammonia depends on: » Temperature of the catalyst bed » Porosity and pore size of microfibrous media » Flow rates of NH3 and air The microfibrous media can be shaped to conform to the head of a Free-Piston Stirling Engine » Multilayer media that controls NOx emissions can also be produced Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing
  • 22. S PA C E R ESEA RC H I N ST IT U T E Summary and Conclusions Auburn University A simple and safe Hydrogen burner was constructed and tested with injected air supply and heat recuperation. Based on the findings and feelings of burning Hydrogen with a basic burner, a more sophisticated high efficiency burner can be designed. Demonstrated the feasibility of using a Hydrogen burner using Hydrogen reformed from Ammonia to supply thermal energy to a 35We FPSE. Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing
  • 23. S PA C E R ESEA RC H I N ST IT U T E Thanks for Your Attention Auburn University Center for MicrofibrousSpace Research Institute Materials Manufacturing

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