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Effective interviewing techniques

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  • 1. EFFECTIVE INTERVIEWING TECHNIQUESDR. BALAKRISHNAN MUNIAPAN Email: bala.hrm@gmail.com
  • 2. INTRODUCTION & ICE BREAKER
  • 3. INTRODUCTION & ICE BREAKER Your name; Your current knowledge and experience in interviewing; What do you hope to achieve from this workshop?
  • 4. DR. BALAKRISHNAN MUNIAPAN Born and received early education in Sg Petani, Kedah. Holds BEcons (UKM), MSc (HRM) (Portsmouth, UK) CIWT,(ACAP, AUST), DBA (Philippines). Brings over 18 years of experience from various fields such as, manufacturing management, corporate training, consultancy and education. Presented papers at seminars & international conferences in several countries in Asia, Australia, Africa & Europe. Currently based in Kuching, Sarawak with an Australian branch campus university involved in teaching & research in HRM. Facilitates international DBA/MBA programs in OB & HRM in Vietnam & Philippines.
  • 5. WORKSHOP OUTCOME Analyze CVs and application forms for greater understanding of the candidate; Gain the personal skills necessary to conduct interviews effectively; Design appropriate questions for interview; Be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of interviews as a selection process; Use basic procedures and protocol before, during and after interview; and Use the appropriate criteria and select suitable employees.
  • 6. WORKSHOP METHODOLOGY Short lectures, exercises, role plays, group discussions & presentations, and case studies approach will be used to enhance your learning experience. You are encouraged to discuss, contribute & share from your own knowledge & experience on issues related to selection and interviewing. Research in adult learning shows that a deeper level of learning occurs when there is active participation on the part of the participants.
  • 7. GROUND RULES FOR LEARNING Active listening (not just hearing) Appreciate others viewpoint (diversity) Off your mobile or in silent mode Have fun as you LEARN
  • 8. Effective interviewing techniques is critical to hire the right person for theright job to achieve your organizational VISION & MISSION.
  • 9. Vision & Mission StatementThe mission statement is “not a trophy that decorates office walls, but an organic body of beliefs and a foundation of guiding principles we hold in common.” Howard Schultz, Founder of Starbucks
  • 10. ACTIVITY 1 - ASSESSMENT
  • 11. ACTIVITY 2 – ROLE PLAY
  • 12. INTERVIEW EXPERIENCE What is the best & worst experience that you have had as an interviewer What made these experiences – best/worst? What would have prevented the worst & improved the best experience?
  • 13. MODULE 1: PRE-INTERVIEW STAGE
  • 14. RECRUITMENT & SELECTIONRecruitment is the process of generating a pool of capable people to apply for employment to an organization.Selection is the process by which managers and others use specific instruments to choose from a pool of applicants a person or persons most likely to succeed in the job.
  • 15. RECRUITMENT & SELECTIONMost Hiring Managers make their selection decision withinthe first 5 minutes of the interview. Source: Harvard StudyMore than 75 % of turnover can be tracedback to poor interviewing and hiringpractices. Source: Harvard StudyIf an untrained interviewer uses anunstructured interview format, then theprobability of hiring the best applicant is lessthan 15 %. Source: Michigan State University
  • 16. IMPORTANCE OF SELECION The Importance of Selecting the Right Employees Legal Costs ofOrganizational Obligations Recruiting and Performance (Unfair Hiring Dismissal)
  • 17. SELECTION PROCESS Job Analysis  The process of identifying basic task and skill requirements for a specific job by studying superior performers. Job Description  A concise document that outlines the role expectations and skill requirements for a specific job. Job Specification  The knowledge, skills, and abilities required for the job incumbent.
  • 18. SELECTION TOOLS Application forms, CV analysis Tests - General Ability, IQ, EQ, SQ, etc. Work Samples Personality questionnaires Reference Checks Handwriting Analysis etc. Astrology, Numerology, Face reading, etc Demonstration or presentation INTERVIEWS plus some of the above tools.
  • 19. CV ANALYSIS Start with the JOB DESCRIPTION & JOB SPECIFICATION Know the ESSENTIAL & DESIRABLE job criterias Experiences – Where, When, What, Duration, Achievements? Review the CVs against the criteria (Essential & Desirable) Check the QUALIFICATIONS (VERY IMPORTANT)
  • 20. MISREPRESENTATION ON QUALIFICATIONFacts of the Case The Claimant (CL) had misled his employer on his professional qualification when applying for employment with the latter. Upon discovery of this fraud some nine years later, the company, invoked the condition in CL’s declaration form and summarily dismissed CL from his position as Head of Internal Audit Department. CL challenged his dismissal being without just cause or excuse.
  • 21. MISREPRESENTATION ON QUALIFICATIONHeld By the Court CL had stated in his application form that he had obtained the ICMA qualification. Further, he had also signed the declaration form that stated that he was liable to summary dismissal if any of the information contained in his application form was found to be untrue. CL could not tender any proof that he actually had the ICMA qualification in question. CL had thus misled the company about his professional qualifications and was therefore properly and justifiably dismissed - Mohamed Noordin Mohamed v. Malaysia International Shipping Corporation Bhd [2006] 1 ILR 57.
  • 22. MISREPRESENTATION ON QUALIFICATION (COMMENTS) What saved the company was the declaration by CL in his Application Form which stated “I hereby certify that the particulars furnished by me are true and accurate in every detail. If employed, in the event of a discovery of any misrepresentation of acts, willful or otherwise I will be subjected to summary dismissal.” One wonders after nine years working in the company and a promotion to the head of department whether qualification is a matter for consideration or the employee’s work performance. Obviously, what mattered here was the “questionable” integrity of the employee which resulted in his dismissal.
  • 23. PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW (TELEPHONE) Use phone interviews as a way to quickly assess a pool of applicants and identify applicants to pursue further. Prepare before making the call. Review the applicants CV and know the ESSENTIAL & DESIRABLE criteria’s. Have the applicants CV in front to clarify information and to refer to his or her experience as needed. Communicate clearly about the position and what it will entail. Assess the applicants skills and experience and get a feel on how these will translate into work environment. Find out how serious the applicant is to know if it is worth proceeding to a future interview.
  • 24. EMPLOYMENT TEST What Tests MeasurePhysical Intellectual Emotion Spirit (BQ) (IQ) (EQ) (SQ)
  • 25. WORK SAMPLES & DEMONSTRATIONS Measuring Work Performance Directly Work Leadership Situational DemoSamples Assessment Testing
  • 26. BACKGROUND INVESTIGATION Former Employers Current Supervisors Sources of Google Search Information Written References Social Networking Sites
  • 27. BACKGROUND INVESTIGATION1. Include on the application form a statement for applicants to sign explicitly authorizing a background check.2. Use telephone references if possible and be persistent in obtaining information.3. Ask open-ended questions to elicit more information from references.
  • 28. ONLINE BACKGROUND INVESTIGATION
  • 29. LIMITATIONS OF BACKGROUND INVESTIGATION Legal Issues: Defamation Employer Background Ethical Investigations Issues: Guidelines Privacy Supervisor Reluctance
  • 30. INTERVIEWING An interview is a procedure designed to obtain information from a person through oral responses to oral inquiries A selection interview is a selection procedure designed to predict future job performance on the basis of applicants’ oral responses to oral inquiries
  • 31. TYPES OF INTERVIEWS Selection Interview Types of Appraisal Interview Interviews Exit Interview
  • 32. INTERVIEW FORMATS Interview FormatsUnstructured or Structured Nondirective or Interview Directive Interview
  • 33. INTERVIEW FORMATS Structured Interview : directive interview following a set of sequence of questions Non-structured Interview: non- directive ask questions as they come to mind
  • 34. INTERVIEW CONTENT Types of QuestionsSituational Behavioral Job-Related StressInterview Interview Interview Interview
  • 35. INTERVIEW CONTENT Situational Interview: questions focus on the individual’s ability to project what his/her behavior would be in a given situation. Behavioral interview: ask questions to describe how they reacted to actual situation in the past. Stress Interview: in which applicant is made uncomfortable by a series of rude questions.
  • 36. MODULE 2: THEINTERVIEW STAGE
  • 37. INTERVIEWAn interview is a “presentation of self” for the interviewer, the interviewee, and the organization.
  • 38. INTERVIEWInterview is a selection procedure designed to predict future job performance on the basis of an applicant’s responses to oral inquiries
  • 39. INTERVIEWING CHALLENGE What are the steps and factors necessary to conduct an effective interview?
  • 40. OUTCOMES OF POOR INTERVIEWING Bad image Bad job fit and eventual firing (legal cost) Compounding turnover Loss of productivity Lowering morale Costs to recruit again Costs to train
  • 41. CASE STUDY Ali was feeling pleased with himself as he had been called to attend an interview for the vacant post of Market Research officer in ABC Sdn Bhd. He had put on his new white shirt and colorful tie which he had bought especially for the interview. According to the company’s letter, his interview was to start at 10.00 am but when he arrived at 9.45 am, he found there were 10 other candidates waiting to be interviewed. The receptionist told him to take a seat and apologized for the delay. His interview was now scheduled for 12.00 noon.
  • 42. CASE STUDY (CONT’D) At 12.15pm, he was called into the interview room where he found himself faced by there stern-looking interviewers. The man in the middle said, “Are you Ali bin Bakar?” Ali confirmed his information. There was some confusion while the other two interviewers looked through some papers, exchanged files and whispered together. Ali stood patiently. Eventually, the man on the right said, “Don’t you want to sit down? We can’t interview you while you’re standing, you know!” Ali immediately sat on the seat facing the interview panel and said, “I would like to thank you for calling me for this interview. I would be pleased to explain why I think I can contribute to your organization as a Marketing Officer.”
  • 43. CASE STUDY (CONT’D) Upon which, one of the interviewers said, “Young man, just answer our question, please. Why are you wearing such a colorful tie? Don’t you think it is important to dress conservatively in the office?” Before Ali had a chance to respond, the interviewer seated in the middle asked, “What do you think of our company’s product?”Ali’s heart sank. This was not what he had expected at all. He began to regret having applied to this company for a job. Identify the mistakes made by the interviewers in the case and how might the interview process be done more professionally?
  • 44. LESSONS ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------
  • 45. EFFECTIVE INTERVIEWSuggestions: 1 Structure Your Interview 2 Prepare for the Interview 3 Establish Rapport 4 Ask Questions 5 Close the Interview 6 Review the Interview
  • 46. EFFECTIVE INTERVIEW Structure the Interview: 1. Base questions on actual job duties. 2. Use job knowledge, situational or behavioral questions, and objective criteria to evaluate interviewee’s responses. 3. Use descriptive rating scales (excellent, fair, poor) to rate answers. 4. Use multiple interviewers or panel interviews. 5. If possible, use a standardized interview form. 6. Take control of the interview.
  • 47. INTERVIEW STRUCTURE1. Job interest2. Current work status3. Work experience4. Educational background5. Self assessment
  • 48. STRUCTURED INTERVIEWAll candidates go through the same interview process (i.e., same opportunity to perform)  Same questions  Same process (e.g., time, interviewers)  Same evaluation criteria
  • 49. MAJOR BENEFITSSTRUCTURED INTERVIEW1. Increased interviewer comfort2. Improved documentation3. Viewed as professional4. Reduced likelihood of litigation5. Improved job performance
  • 50. NUMBER OF INTERVIEWERS Single Interviewer Sequential Interviews Panel Interview
  • 51. PANEL INTERVIEW - TIPS 3-5 Interviewers Knowledgeable about target job Well prepared Be diverse
  • 52. OPENING THE INTERVIEW Welcome the candidate, introduce yourself, the panels and the positions Provide the candidate with an overview of how the process will be conducted Don’t spend a lot of time “warming the candidate up”
  • 53. TOP FOUR WARMING UP QUESTIONS 1. Tell me a little about yourself. 2. What is your greatest strength? 3. What is your greatest weakness? 4. Where do you want to be in 5 years?
  • 54. NUMBER OF QUESTIONS Number ofInterview Length Questioning Time Questions40 minutes 20 minutes 4 or 5 questions60 minutes 40 minutes 8 or 9 questions90 minutes 70 minutes 14-15 questions120 minutes 100 minutes 20-22 questions  Estimate 5 minutes per question  20 minutes for other activities
  • 55. EXAMPLES OF QUESTIONSSituational Questions1. Suppose a co-worker was not following standard work procedures. The co-worker Is more experienced than you and claimed the new procedure was better. What would you do?2. Suppose you were giving a sales presentation and a difficult technical question arose that you could not answer. What would you do?Past Behavior Questions3. Based on your past work experience, what is the most significant action you have ever taken to help out a co-worker?4. Can you provide an example of a specific instance where you developed a sales presentation that was highly effective?Background Questions5. What work experiences, training, do you have for working in a teamwork environment?6. What experience have you had with direct point-of-purchase sales?Job Knowledge Questions7. What steps would you follow to do a brainstorming session with a group of employees on safety?8. What factors should you consider when developing a television advertising campaign?Note: These questions provide structure, insofar as they are job-related and the employer canbe consistent in asking them of all candidates.
  • 56. SAMPLE QUESTIONS1. How did you choose this line of work?2. What did you enjoy most and what did you like least about your last job?3. What has been your greatest frustration or disappointment on your present job? Why?4. What were the circumstances surrounding your leaving your last job?5. Why should we be hiring you?6. What do you expect from this employer?7. What are three things you will not do in your next job?8. What would your last supervisor say your three weaknesses are?9. What are your major strengths?10. How can your supervisor best help you obtain your goals?11. How did your supervisor rate your job performance?12. What are your career goals during the next 1–3 years? 5–10 years?13. How will working for this company help you reach those goals?14. What did you do the last time you received instructions with which you disagreed?15. What are some things about which you and your supervisor disagreed? What did you do?16. Which do you prefer, working alone or working with groups?17. What motivated you to do better at your last job?18. Do you consider your progress in that job representative of your ability? Why?19. Do you have any questions about the duties of the job for which you have applied?20. Can you perform the essential functions of the job for which you have applied?
  • 57. INTERVIEWER & INTERVIEWEE What happens between the interviewee tends to have a greater influence on the interview dominates the interview session?
  • 58. PROBLEMATIC CANDIDATESProfile of a Problematic Candidate May not answer questions accurately May want to talk all the time May contradict your views May be argumentative May have strong views on a number of things May use rude language and disrespectful May not keep eye-contact May like to show off connections
  • 59. BEHAVIORAL INTERVIEW Based on the principle that critical behaviors contribute to job success These critical behaviors can be broken down into three components: descriptions of tasks; actions taken; results or outcomes In Behavioral Interview (BI), the candidate can be directed to describe specific situations in past jobs that demonstrate these key behaviors The interviewer can assess the success of those key behaviors and how they match to the job
  • 60. BEHAVIORAL INTERVIEW Shooting for the STARS = Situation T = Task A = Action R = Results
  • 61. BEHAVIORAL INTERVIEW STARS - Describe the situation you were in T - Describe the task for which you were responsible A - Describe the specific action you took R - Describe the results of your actions
  • 62. SAMPLE BI QUESTIONS Describe a situation in which you were able to use persuasion to successfully convince someone to see things your way. Give me a specific example of a time when you used good judgment and logic in solving a problem. Give me an example of a time when you set a goal and were able to meet/achieve/ exceed it.
  • 63. THE BEST USE OF BI When looking for specific behaviors tied to KSAs When the interviewers have time and resources to develop good behavioral questions based on job and organizational analysishttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lI16yjQ_K50&NR=1
  • 64. BI ON EXCELLENT SERVICE Here are Sample Questions1. How do you know if your customers are satisfied? Please give a specific example.2. Please describe a situation when you didn’t have enough time to completely satisfy a particular customer. How did you handle the situation?3. How have you handled a difficult customer interaction? [dissatisfied/angry customer]4. What do you think your customers would say about your work?
  • 65. PRACTICAL ACTIVITY
  • 66. MODULE 3: EFFECTIVE LISTENING
  • 67. Listening implies a choice. You mustchoose to participate in the process of listening.
  • 68. EFFECTIVE LISTENING Control the Environment Be Alert Be Mentally Prepared Be Emotionally Prepared Provide feedback
  • 69. EFFECTIVE LISTENING Analyzing key points Looking for unspoken messages Keeping an open mind Asking questions that clarify Reserving judgment Taking meaningful notes
  • 70. BODY LANGUAGE Positive Signals Negative Signals Leaning forward = interest  Crossed arms = defensive Smiling = friendly  Tapping feet = nervous or Nodding = attentive and bored alert  Lack of eye contact = Eye contact = curious and untrustworthy focused  Leaning back= discomfort
  • 71. CLOSING THE INTERVIEW Ask the candidate if they have any final questions Determine interest in continuing the process Inform the candidate of “next steps” in the process Thank the candidate DO NOT MAKE ANY PROMISES
  • 72. INTERVIEWING DON’T’S!! Stereotyping Inconsistency in questioning Snap judgment Halo/horn effect Nonverbal bias Projections Contrast effect Recency effects
  • 73. ACTIVITY 3 – ROLE PLAY
  • 74. MODULE 4: POSTINTERVIEW DECISION
  • 75. RATING/RANKINGPoints to consider about applicant: Arrived on time Was appropriately dressed, well groomed, neat, etc. Had effective communication skills … was articulate Maintained effective eye contact, posture, body language, etc. Used effective active listening skills Asked reasonable and applicable questions Answered questions completely … answers adequately described applicable past work and life experiences
  • 76. RATING/RANKINGPoints to consider about applicant: Answers focused on skills, knowledge and accomplishments when describing past work experiences Seemed well informed about the industry, organization, business and the actual advertised job/position Demonstrated how his/her background would contribute to the advertised job/position Remarks about past managers, supervisors and colleagues were positive, neutral, or negative  You will have to interpret these based as much on the former employer/colleague as on the applicant – “there’s two sides or more to every story”
  • 77. RATING/RANKING Points to consider about applicant:  Past work style compares favorably to the advertised job/position (e.g., works well in teams; can work independently; creativity; customer service; etc.)  Past work history is logical and typical  Career moves  Promotions  Reasons for leaving past employers  Has experienced logical salary and responsibility progressions
  • 78. RATING/RANKINGPoints to consider about applicant: Salary history, if volunteered by applicant, is typical of industry norms for positions he/she held (e.g. from salary.com, salaryexpert.com, monster.com, datamasters.com, local wage reviews, etc.) Provided objective references, if requested for background and reference checks Seemed genuinely enthused and interested in the advertised job/position Is available now or within acceptable timeframe Needs to give current employer reasonable notice
  • 79. RATING/RANKING INTERVIEW WORKSHEET INTERVIEW ELEMENT WEIGHTING RATING VALUES: NOTES: SPECIFIC INTERVIEW QUESTIONS (X) Total1. N 5 4 3 2 1 x A2. N 5 4 3 2 1 x A3. N 5 4 3 2 1 x A4. N 5 4 3 2 1 x A5. N 5 4 3 2 1 x AAdditional notes/comments:
  • 80. POST-INTERVIEW Tabulate rating/ranking scores Discuss interviews Select “best qualified” Document choices / recommendations Communicate top choice(s) to the hiring official Give documentation to HR representative
  • 81. SELECT WISELY Matching process Outcome is best fit to:  organizational values  job objectives  job specifications  competencies  proven record of performance
  • 82. LOOK FOR THE ABILITY TO…. Cooperate and negotiate Handle range of tasks Respond to changes in direction and priorities Accept new challenges, responsibilities, assignments & ideas
  • 83. CASE STUDY
  • 84. CASE STUDY Ali began his first day at ABC Sdn Bhd with some trepidation. It was such a huge place. He had reported to the Administration office which was positioned conveniently at the main door. One of the officers there had taken down his personal particulars and sent him straight to the Market Research Department where he was to be employed as a Trainee Officer. When he got there the Head of Department was on leave and the office was almost deserted as a major survey was being carried out by the staff which had required them all to go outstation. Ali was shown to a desk which obviously belonged to another officer and told to read some magazines and brochures until the Head of Department came to brief him.
  • 85. CASE STUDY (CONT’D) The next morning the manager arrived very early and was surprised to find Ali already at his desk. She was a bit shocked because Ali’s clothing looked crumpled and somehow he did not seem smart as he had been during the interview. She walked over to Ali and said, “Good morning. I am Margaret, the Head of Market Research. You’re here very early.’ Ali looked sleepy and replied, ‘Actually, I ‘m not really early, I slept here in the office last night.’ Margaret was astounded. ‘Why did you do that?” Ali admitted his problem. ‘Last night I couldn’t find the exit. All the doors led to other offices or cupboards so in the end I had no choice. I slept on the floor!’
  • 86. LESSONS ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------
  • 87. WORKSHOP OUTCOME Analyze CVs and application forms for greater understanding of the candidate; Gain the personal skills necessary to conduct interviews effectively; Design appropriate questions for interview; Be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of interviews as a selection process; Use basic procedures and protocol before, during and after interview; and Use the appropriate criteria and select suitable employees.
  • 88. DR. BALAKRISHNAN MUNIAPAN Email: bala.hrm@gmail.comhttp://www.freewebs.com/balakrishnanmuniapan/