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More content in less time

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Slides from my LavaCon 2013 presentation More Content in Less Time.

Slides from my LavaCon 2013 presentation More Content in Less Time.

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  • 1. More Content in Less Time Applying the secrets of Lean Thinking and Agile Programming to the creation of content. Mark Baker Analecta Communications Inc @mbakeranalecta #leancontent @LavaCon
  • 2. Productivity is key • Manufacturing • Product design • Software development • Content development © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 2
  • 3. Lean product development • Toyota produces a new vehicle in one year compared to two to three years for North American competition. • Toyota produces better cars at competitive prices yet makes more money © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 3
  • 4. Agile programming • State of Florida Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System – Started 1990, estimated $32M, delivery 1998 – As of 2002, spent $170M, estimated $230M, delivery 2013 • State of Minnesota Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System – Started 1999, finished 2000, cost 1.1 million. © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 4
  • 5. Lean thinking • Toyota Production System (TPS) • “Lean Thinking” study of TPS – James P. Womack – Daniel T. Jones – Studied Toyota and other companies – Derived set of principles dubbed “Lean Thinking” © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 5
  • 6. Principles • • • • • Specify value: waste is any process that does not add value to the customer. In order to identify waste, you must first specify what is of value. Identify the value stream: trace how value is added to a product at each stage of the productive process. Waste is all the steps in the process that do not add value. Flow: The productive process should flow without interruption, without waiting, and without unnecessary movement. Pull: Nothing should be produced until it is needed by the next step in the process. Perfection: An organization must be committed to building and maintaining a culture in which every employee is dedicated to reducing waste and improving quality. Womack and Jones, pp 16-26. © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 6
  • 7. Lean Software Development • Application of Lean ideas to software development – Fusion with Agile • Mary Poppendieck • Tom Poppendieck © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 7
  • 8. Principles • • • • • • • Eliminate waste: Waste is any process that does not add value to the customer. In order to identify waste, you must first specify what is of value. Amplify learning: Product development is a learning process. Decide as late as possible: The later you decide, the better information your decision is based on. Deliver as fast as possible: “Without speed, you cannot delay decisions.” Empower the team: Self direction is required to decide late and execute quickly. Build integrity in: Useful content must evolve over time. See the whole: Optimize the system as a whole, not in pieces. © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 8
  • 9. Lean Product Design • Managing the Design Factory • Donald Reinertsen • Disciplined optimized approach to generating design information © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 9
  • 10. Batch and Queue Manufacturing © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 10
  • 11. Manufacturing Flow © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 11
  • 12. Batch and Queue Content © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 12
  • 13. Documentation beefs • The spec keeps changing • The developers won’t review the docs – Carrot approach – Stick approach © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 13
  • 14. Content Flow © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 14
  • 15. Promotes learning • Errors are discovered sooner • Errors in content result from defects in knowledge • Fix the defects in your knowledge so you can produce better content faster © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 15
  • 16. More efficient • Better utilization of resources • No crunch at the end of the project • Errors detected sooner means better understanding, which means fewer errors are made © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 16
  • 17. Catches more errors • Reviewers can focus on one issue at a time • Catch developers while details fresh in their minds © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 17
  • 18. Improves completeness • Reviewer reading a book can’t see the trees for the forest • Focusing on one issue leads developers to ask where related issues are discussed © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 18
  • 19. Builds awareness • When work flows, workers can see how their work affects the rest of the process. • With incremental review, developers can see how their work affects documentation • More likely to inform writers of design changes © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 19
  • 20. Waterfall design process Requirements System design Analysis Program Design Coding Testing Delivery © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 20
  • 21. Waterfall doesn’t work • Keep trying to “get it right the first time” • But we never do! • Insanity: doing the same thing over and over and expecting different results Einstein © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 21
  • 22. Why waterfall fails • Design generates information – Go from not knowing how to knowing how – At the start you have little information – At the end you have a lot of information • Decisions fixed at the beginning are based on very little information © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 22
  • 23. Information theory • Events that are less probable contain more information. • The closer our first-pass success rate is to 100 percent, the lower the information generation rate. This means that if we succeed at doing things right the first time we will have driven all information generation out of our design process. Reinertsen, Managing the Design Factory, pp 69,79 © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 23
  • 24. Embrace change • Information will increase • Designs will change • Content requirements will change • Content will change © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 24
  • 25. Agile software development • Iterative development • User stories • Frequent deliveries to customer • Keep your options open • Do the simplest thing that works • Refactor constantly © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 25
  • 26. Agile content development • Iterative development • User stories • Frequent deliveries to customer • Keep your options open • Do the simplest thing that works • Refactor constantly © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 26
  • 27. Iterative development • Develop content in small chunks • Use incremental review • Harmonize content development with product development © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 27
  • 28. User stories • Support user tasks • Use personas • Minimalism – Deliver only content that is known to be of value to customers © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 28
  • 29. Frequent deliveries to customer • Publish continuously • Make sure content is published to all alpha and beta tests, internal and external • Mark pages as unreviewed with appropriate cautions, but make sure they are read early and often • Provide a feedback mechanism © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 29
  • 30. Keep your options open • Learn first, then write • Start as late as possible – More information is available later • Isolate volatility – Media – Subject matter © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 30
  • 31. Do the simplest thing that works • Don’t try to guess what future needs will be. – You will guess wrong and waste effort • Do the simplest thing that works today • The simplest solution will be easiest to change when future needs arise © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 31
  • 32. Refactor constantly • Maintain simplicity by refactoring to eliminate complexity and redundancy © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 32
  • 33. Evenness • You don’t win the Tour de France by trying to win all stages • Different techniques optimize different parts of the process • Strive for evenness • Optimize the whole rather than the parts © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 33
  • 34. No Best Practices • “Best practices are only ‘best’ in certain contexts to achieve certain objectives. A change in either the context or the objective can quickly transform a ‘best practice’ into a stupid approach.” Donald Reinertsen Managing the Design Factory, p3. © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 34
  • 35. Reading List • Lean Thinking, James P. Womack and Daniel T. Jones, The Free Press, 2003. • The Toyota Way, Jeffrey K. Liker, McGraw Hill, 2004. • Managing the Design Factory, Donald G. Reinertsen, The Free Press, 1997. • Lean Software Development, Mary Poppendieck and Tom Poppendieck, Addison Wesley, 2003. © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 35
  • 36. Reading List • Every Page is Page One • By Mark Baker • XML Press – http://xmlpress.net/publications/eppo/ • The Every Page is Page One design pattern is well adapted to lean content development. © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 36
  • 37. Contact information • Mark Baker • Analecta Communications Inc. • www.analecta.com • mbaker@analecta.com • @mbakeranalecta • +1 613 422 9400 © Analecta Communications Inc. 2013 37