PDU 202 Qualitative Research Method: Sampling

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What sampling methods will be used in qualitative research? How do they serve the purpose of the research?

(Lecture slides mostly in English)

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PDU 202 Qualitative Research Method: Sampling

  1. 1. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF SEMESTER GENAP 2013/2014 FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA KULIAH IV - 07 FEBRUARI 2014 SAMPLING IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
  2. 2. SAMPLING IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ONE DAY OBJECTIVES: Mahasiswa mampu: • memahami hakikat sampel pada penelitian kualitatif • memahami berbagai teknik pemilihan sampel pada penelitian kualitatif
  3. 3. SAMPLING image http://www.greenfudge.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Stockholm-Central-Station.jpg PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  4. 4. SAMPLING a method to select a set of individuals from a population, usually intended to represent the population in a research study. (Howitt & Cramer, 2011) image http://www.greenfudge.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Stockholm-Central-Station.jpg PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  5. 5. SAMPLING a method to select a set of individuals from a population, usually intended to represent the population in a research study. (Howitt & Cramer, 2011) image http://www.greenfudge.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Stockholm-Central-Station.jpg PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  6. 6. SAMPLING the individuals selected must be representative from its population image w.mawebcenters.com/ PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  7. 7. SAMPLING the individuals selected must be representative from its population WHY? image w.mawebcenters.com/ PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  8. 8. SAMPLING the individuals selected must be representative from its population WHY? because the result from the sample will be used to generalize to its population image w.mawebcenters.com/ PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  9. 9. SAMPLING the individuals selected must be representative from its population WHY? because the result from the sample will be used to generalize to its population so, we’re expected to use random sampling or other sampling techniques that can make us get the representative samples (Creswell, 2012) image w.mawebcenters.com/ PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  10. 10. but QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
 has a different purpose image evolver.fm PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  11. 11. but QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
 has a different purpose the intent is not to generalize to a population, but to develop an in-depth exploration of a central phenomenon image evolver.fm PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya (Creswell, 2012) ardhiati © 2014
  12. 12. SAMPLING IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH image exploratorium.edu PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  13. 13. SAMPLING IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH should be purposefully or intentionally selects individuals and sites so the researcher can understand the phenomenon at best (Creswell, 2012) image exploratorium.edu PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  14. 14. SAMPLING IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH should be purposefully or intentionally selects individuals and sites so the researcher can understand the phenomenon at best (Creswell, 2012) PURPOSIVE SAMPLING image exploratorium.edu PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  15. 15. TYPES OF PURPOSIVE SAMPLING 1 MAXIMUM VARIATION the researcher samples cases or individuals that differ on some characteristic or trait (e.g., different age groups) • the researcher should identify the characteristic and then find sites or individuals that display different dimensions of that characteristic image loadpaper.com (Creswell, 2012) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  16. 16. TYPES OF PURPOSIVE SAMPLING 2 EXTREME CASE the researcher studies an outlier case or one that displays extreme characteristics • researchers identify these cases by locating persons or organizations that others have cited for achievements or distinguishing characteristics (e.g., certain elementary schools targeted for federal assistance) image loadpaper.com (Creswell, 2012) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  17. 17. TYPES OF PURPOSIVE SAMPLING 3 TYPICAL the researcher studies a person or site that is “typical” to those unfamiliar with the situation • the researcher might ask persons at a research site or even select a typical case by collecting demographic data or survey data about all cases image newmexico.org (Creswell, 2012) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  18. 18. TYPES OF PURPOSIVE SAMPLING 4 THEORY OR CONCEPT the researcher samples individuals or sites because they can help the researcher generate or discover a theory or specific concepts within the theory • the researcher needs a clear understanding of the concept or larger theory expected to emerge during the research image minerva.stkate.edu (Creswell, 2012) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  19. 19. TYPES OF PURPOSIVE SAMPLING 5 HOMOGENEOUS the researcher purposefully samples individuals or sites based on membership in a subgroup that has defining characteristics • the researcher needs to identify the characteristics and find individuals or sites that possess it image art.ngfiles.com (Creswell, 2012) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  20. 20. TYPES OF PURPOSIVE SAMPLING 6 CRITICAL the researcher selects a critical sample because it is an exceptional case and he can learn much about the phenomenon image funfeelingslife.files.wordpress.com (Creswell, 2012) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  21. 21. TYPES OF PURPOSIVE SAMPLING 7 OPPORTUNISTIC undertaken after the research begins, to take advantage of unfolding events that will help answer research questions; it captures the developing or emerging nature of qualitative research nicely and can lead to novel ideas and surprising findings image businessinsider.com (Creswell, 2012) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  22. 22. TYPES OF PURPOSIVE SAMPLING 8 SNOWBALL a form of purposeful sampling that typically proceeds after a study begins and occurs when the researcher asks participants to recommend other individuals to be sampled image mirror.co.uk • researchers may pose this request as a question during an interview or through informal conversations with individuals at a research site (Creswell, 2012) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  23. 23. TYPES OF PURPOSIVE SAMPLING 9 CONFIRMING/DISCONFIRMING a purposeful strategy used during a study to follow up on specific cases to test or explore further specific findings; it also represents a sampling procedure used during a study image colourbox.com (Creswell, 2012) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  24. 24. LET’S RECAP! PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  25. 25. WHEN DOES SAMPLING OCCUR? (Creswell, 2012) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  26. 26. WHEN DOES SAMPLING OCCUR? BEFORE
 DATA COLLECTION AFTER
 DATA COLLECTION (Creswell, 2012) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  27. 27. WHEN DOES SAMPLING OCCUR? to develop many perspectives to describe particularly troublesome or enlightening cases BEFORE
 DATA COLLECTION what is the intent? to describe what is “typical” to those unfamiliar with the case to generate a theory or explore a concept to describe some subgroup in depth to describe a case that illustrate “dramatically” the situation to take advantage of whatever case unfolds AFTER
 DATA COLLECTION what is the intent? to locate people or sites to
 study to explore confirming or disconfirming cases PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya (Creswell, 2012) ardhiati © 2014
  28. 28. WHEN DOES SAMPLING OCCUR? to develop many perspectives to describe particularly troublesome or enlightening cases MAXIMAL VARIATION EXTREME CASE what is the intent? TYPICAL to generate a theory or explore a concept THEORY/CONCEPT to describe some subgroup in depth BEFORE
 DATA COLLECTION to describe what is “typical” to those unfamiliar with the case HOMOGENOUS to describe a case that illustrate “dramatically” the situation to take advantage of whatever case unfolds AFTER
 DATA COLLECTION what is the intent? CRITICAL OPPORTUNISTIC to locate people or sites to
 study to explore confirming or disconfirming cases PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya SNOWBALL CONFIRM/DISCONFIRM (Creswell, 2012) ardhiati © 2014
  29. 29. CHOOSING SAMPLING METHOD DOES NOT DEPEND ON WHETHER IT IS RIGHT OR WRONG, CAUSE EACH ONE OF THEM IS RIGHT. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  30. 30. CHOOSING SAMPLING METHOD DOES NOT DEPEND ON WHETHER IT IS RIGHT OR WRONG, CAUSE EACH ONE OF THEM IS RIGHT. THE RESEARCHERS CAN CHOOSE ANY METHOD THAT SUPPORTS THEM BEST IN ANSWERING THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  31. 31. WANT TO KNOW MORE? Creswell, J. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Howitt, D. & Cramer, D. (2011). Introduction to research methods in psychology (3rd ed.). Harlow, England: Pearson Education Limited.

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