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PDU 211 Research Methods: The Process of Conducting Research

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What is scientific research?

What is scientific research?
(Lecture slides mostly in English)

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PDU 211 Research Methods: The Process of Conducting Research PDU 211 Research Methods: The Process of Conducting Research Presentation Transcript

  • The Process of
 Conducting Research PDU 211 Metode Penelitian Semester Gasal 2014/2015 FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA Kuliah I - 18 Agustus 2014
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 One Day Objectives 22 Chapter 1: The Process of
 Conducting Research
 Using Quantitative and
 Qualitative Approaches • Mahasiswa mampu memahami paradigma berpikir ilmiah • Mahasiswa mampu memahami proses sistematis dalam penelitian • Mahasiswa mampu mengidentifikasi karakteristik penelitian kuantitatif dan kualitatif
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 23 Raja Ampat image sevenholidayspot.com/paradise-of-raja-ampat-island.html View slide
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 24 image remotelands.com/preferhotel/130222006_Misool-Eco-Resort image flowerslane.com/diving-vacation/diving-bunaken.html image rahasiaotakjenius.blogspot.com/2013/03/6-tempat-wisata-bawah-laut-indonesia.html image blog.wakatobi.com/wordpress/the-trees-of-the-coral-jungle/ View slide
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 24 WakatobiRaja Ampat TulambenBunaken image remotelands.com/preferhotel/130222006_Misool-Eco-Resort image flowerslane.com/diving-vacation/diving-bunaken.html image rahasiaotakjenius.blogspot.com/2013/03/6-tempat-wisata-bawah-laut-indonesia.html image blog.wakatobi.com/wordpress/the-trees-of-the-coral-jungle/
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 25 image rahasiaotakjenius.blogspot.com/2013/03/6-tempat-wisata-bawah-laut-indonesia.html How do you know that the picture describes the reality about the place?
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 Looking for Reality You’ve probably long suspected that some of the things you “know” may not be true, but how can you really know what’s real? 26 (Babbie, 2011)
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 Looking for Reality You’ve probably long suspected that some of the things you “know” may not be true, but how can you really know what’s real? 26 AGREEMENT
 REALITY logis dan ilmiah, walaupun tidak harus dibuktikan sendiri oleh scientist ORDINARY HUMAN INQUIRY ada hubungan sebab-akibat yang digunakan untuk memprediksi peristiwa mendatang TRADITION AUTHORITY secara ‘turun-temurun’ sudah dianggap sebagai sesuatu yang ‘benar’ ada pihak otoritas yang menyatakan sesuatu sebagai sebuah kebenaran (Babbie, 2011)
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 Looking for Reality 27 AGREEMENT
 REALITY logis dan ilmiah, walaupun tidak harus dibuktikan sendiri oleh scientist ORDINARY HUMAN INQUIRY ada hubungan sebab-akibat yang digunakan untuk memprediksi peristiwa mendatang TRADITION AUTHORITY secara ‘turun-temurun’ sudah dianggap sebagai sesuatu yang ‘benar’ ada pihak otoritas yang menyatakan sesuatu sebagai sebuah kebenaran (Babbie, 2011) SCIENTIFIC NON-SCIENTIFIC
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 28 Mahasiswi A (Angkatan 2010) ‘Berpacaran’ 4 kali selama kuliah di FP UAJ; Pacar 1 bersahabat dengan pacar 2, pacar 3 adalah mantan pacar sahabat A, pacar 4 bersahabat dengan pacar 3
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 Why? 28 Mahasiswi A (Angkatan 2010) ‘Berpacaran’ 4 kali selama kuliah di FP UAJ; Pacar 1 bersahabat dengan pacar 2, pacar 3 adalah mantan pacar sahabat A, pacar 4 bersahabat dengan pacar 3
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 Why? • Lingkaran pertemanan hanya itu-itu saja • Menyukai pria-pria yang sudah pernah dekat dengannya • Menyukai hubungan yang bermasalah • Tidak mau berkomitmen • Tidak tahu apa yang sebenarnya diinginkan 28 Mahasiswi A (Angkatan 2010) ‘Berpacaran’ 4 kali selama kuliah di FP UAJ; Pacar 1 bersahabat dengan pacar 2, pacar 3 adalah mantan pacar sahabat A, pacar 4 bersahabat dengan pacar 3
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 Why? • Lingkaran pertemanan hanya itu-itu saja • Menyukai pria-pria yang sudah pernah dekat dengannya • Menyukai hubungan yang bermasalah • Tidak mau berkomitmen • Tidak tahu apa yang sebenarnya diinginkan 28 Mahasiswi A (Angkatan 2010) ‘Berpacaran’ 4 kali selama kuliah di FP UAJ; Pacar 1 bersahabat dengan pacar 2, pacar 3 adalah mantan pacar sahabat A, pacar 4 bersahabat dengan pacar 3 Is it true?
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 29 Mahasiswa B (Angkatan 2011) Mahasiswa A (Angkatan 2010) Mahasiswa C (Angkatan 2013)
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 29 Mahasiswa B (Angkatan 2011) Mahasiswa A (Angkatan 2010) Mahasiswa C (Angkatan 2013) Berpacaran 1 kali selama kuliah di FP UAJ; Usia pacar: 2 tahun lebih tua Berpacaran 3 kali selama kuliah di FP UAJ; Usia pacar: 2 tahun lebih tua, 1 tahun lebih tua, 2 tahun lebih tua Berpacaran 3 kali selama kuliah di FP UAJ; Usia pacar: 3 tahun lebih tua, 1 tahun lebih tua, 1 tahun lebih tua
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 Why? 29 Mahasiswa B (Angkatan 2011) Mahasiswa A (Angkatan 2010) Mahasiswa C (Angkatan 2013) Berpacaran 1 kali selama kuliah di FP UAJ; Usia pacar: 2 tahun lebih tua Berpacaran 3 kali selama kuliah di FP UAJ; Usia pacar: 2 tahun lebih tua, 1 tahun lebih tua, 2 tahun lebih tua Berpacaran 3 kali selama kuliah di FP UAJ; Usia pacar: 3 tahun lebih tua, 1 tahun lebih tua, 1 tahun lebih tua
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 Why? 30 Alexander McQueen (1969 - 2010) Kurt Cobain (1967 - 1994) Robin Williams (1951 - 2014)
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 Why? 30 Alexander McQueen (1969 - 2010) Kurt Cobain (1967 - 1994) Robin Williams (1951 - 2014) Menggantung diri menggunakan ikat pinggang, kehabisan napas. Mengonsumsi kokain dan obat-obatan lainnya, menyayat pergelangan tangan, dan menggantung diri. Kadar heroin dan diazepam dalam tingkat yang sangat tinggi dalam darahnya, bekas pistol di tangan dan dagu.
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 31 So…
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 31 what’s the main difference
 between scientific research
 and ‘casual research’? So…
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 ResearchTHE DEFINITION Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue. 32 (Creswell, 2012)
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 ResearchTHE DEFINITION Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue. At a general level, research consists of: 32 Pose a question1 2 Collect data to answer the question 3 Present an answer to the question (Creswell, 2012)
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 ResearchTHE IMPORTANCE 33 (Creswell, 2012) Kurt Cobain (1967 - 1994) DEPRESSION
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 ResearchTHE IMPORTANCE Research adds to our knowledge • Contribute to existing information about issues • Gain a deeper understanding of the problems • Fill a void in existing knowledge, provide additional results to confirm or disconfirm results of prior studies 33 (Creswell, 2012) Kurt Cobain (1967 - 1994) DEPRESSION
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 ResearchTHE IMPORTANCE Research improves practice • Helps individuals improve their practices on the job • Helps practitioners evaluate approaches that they hope will work with individuals in their settings • Helps the practitioners build connections with other practitioners 34 Alexander McQueen (1969 - 2010) (Creswell, 2012) DEPRESSION
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 ResearchTHE IMPORTANCE Research informs policy debates • Provides information to policy makers when they research and debate (psychological) topics • Offers results that can help them weigh various perspectives 35 Robin Williams (1951 - 2014) (Creswell, 2012) DEPRESSION
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 The Research ProcessTHE SIX STEPS IN THE PROCESS OF RESEARCH 36 3 421 5 6 (Creswell, 2012)
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 The Research ProcessTHE SIX STEPS IN THE PROCESS OF RESEARCH 36 3 421 5 6 Identifying a research problem Specifying a purpose for research Analyzing and interpreting data Reviewing the literature Collecting data Reporting and evaluating research (Creswell, 2012) 1
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 Quantitative & QualitativeTHE RESEARCH PROCESS 37 3 421 5 6 Identifying a research problem Specifying a purpose for research Analyzing and interpreting data Reviewing the literature Collecting data Reporting and evaluating research (Creswell, 2012)
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 Quantitative & QualitativeTHE RESEARCH PROCESS 37 3 421 5 6 Identifying a research problem Specifying a purpose for research Analyzing and interpreting data Reviewing the literature Collecting data Reporting and evaluating research Quantitative Qualitative Research Designs (Creswell, 2012)
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 Quantitative & QualitativeTHE RESEARCH PROCESS 38 3 421 5 6 Identifying a research problem Specifying a purpose for research Analyzing and interpreting data Reviewing the literature Collecting data Reporting and evaluating research Quantitative Qualitative Research Designs (Creswell, 2012)
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 Quantitative & QualitativeTHE CHARACTERISTICS 39
  • FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 Metode Penelitian ardhiati © 2014 Quantitative & QualitativeTHE CHARACTERISTICS 39 QUALITATIVE Exploring a problem and developing a detailed understanding of a central phenomenon QUANTITATIVE Describing a problem through a description of trends or a need for an explanation of the relationship among variables Providing a major role for the literature Creating purpose statements, research questions, and hypotheses that are specific, narrow, measurable, and observable Collecting numeric data from a large number of people using instruments with preset questions and responses Analyzing trends, comparing groups, or relating variables using statistical analysis, and interpreting results by comparing them with prior predictions Writing the research report using standard, fixed structures and evaluation criteria, and taking an objective, unbiased approach Having the literature review play a minor role Stating the purpose and research questions in a general and broad way so as to the participants’ experiences Collecting data based on words from a small number of individuals so that the participants’ views are obtained Analyzing the data for description and themes using text analysis and interpreting the larger meaning of the findings Writing the report using flexible, emerging structures and evaluative criteria, and including the researchers’ subjective reflexivity and bias
  • Want to know more? Babbie, E. (2011). The basics of social research (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Creswell, J.W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.