PDU 211 Research Methods: The Process of Conducting Research

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What is scientific research?
(Lecture slides mostly in English)

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PDU 211 Research Methods: The Process of Conducting Research

  1. 1. PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN THE PROCESS OF CONDUCTING RESEARCH SEMESTER GASAL 2015/2016 FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA KULIAH I - 10 AGUSTUS 2015
  2. 2. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN© 2015 Ardhiati Mahasiswa mampu memahami paradigma berpikir ilmiah; Mahasiswa mampu memahami proses sistematis dalam penelitian; Mahasiswa mampu mengidentifikasi karakteristik penelitian kuantitatif dan kualitatif. 01. 03. 02. ONE DAY OBJECTIVES 2
  3. 3. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN 3 RAJA AMPAT IMAGE SOURCE:
 sevenholidayspot.com/paradise-of-raja-ampat-island.html
  4. 4. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN 4 IMAGE SOURCES:
 remotelands.com/preferhotel/130222006_Misool-Eco-Resort;
 blog.wakatobi.com/wordpress/the-trees-of-the-coral-jungle/;
 flowerslane.com/diving-vacation/diving-bunaken.html;
 rahasiaotakjenius.blogspot.com/2013/03/6-tempat-wisata-bawah-laut-indonesia.html
  5. 5. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN 4 RAJA AMPAT WAKATOBI BUNAKEN TULAMBEN IMAGE SOURCES:
 remotelands.com/preferhotel/130222006_Misool-Eco-Resort;
 blog.wakatobi.com/wordpress/the-trees-of-the-coral-jungle/;
 flowerslane.com/diving-vacation/diving-bunaken.html;
 rahasiaotakjenius.blogspot.com/2013/03/6-tempat-wisata-bawah-laut-indonesia.html
  6. 6. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN 5 How do we know that the picture describes reality? IMAGE SOURCE:
 rahasiaotakjenius.blogspot.com/2013/03/6-tempat-wisata-bawah-laut-indonesia.html
  7. 7. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN LOOKING FOR REALITY 6 You’ve probably long suspected that some of the things you “know” may not be true, but how can you really know what’s real? ICON SOURCES: Evolution by Jakob Sagel, Sikh by Simon Child,
 judge by carlotta zampini; from the Noun Project
  8. 8. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN logis dan ilmiah, walaupun tidak harus dibuktikan sendiri oleh ilmuwan AGREEMENT REALITY LOOKING FOR REALITY 6 You’ve probably long suspected that some of the things you “know” may not be true, but how can you really know what’s real? ORDINARY
 HUMAN INQUIRY TRADITION AUTHORITY ada hubungan sebab- akibat yang digunakan untuk memprediksi peristiwa mendatang secara ‘turun- temurun’ sudah dianggap sebagai sesuatu yang ‘benar’ ada pihak otoritas yang menyatakan sesuatu sebagai sebuah kebenaran (Babbie, 2011, p. 3-6) ICON SOURCES: Evolution by Jakob Sagel, Sikh by Simon Child,
 judge by carlotta zampini; from the Noun Project
  9. 9. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN logis dan ilmiah, walaupun tidak harus dibuktikan sendiri oleh ilmuwan AGREEMENT REALITY LOOKING FOR REALITY 7 ORDINARY
 HUMAN INQUIRY TRADITION AUTHORITY ada hubungan sebab- akibat yang digunakan untuk memprediksi peristiwa mendatang secara ‘turun- temurun’ sudah dianggap sebagai sesuatu yang ‘benar’ ada pihak otoritas yang menyatakan sesuatu sebagai sebuah kebenaran (Babbie, 2011, p. 3-6) MORE SCIENTIFIC LESS SCIENTIFIC ICON SOURCES: Evolution by Jakob Sagel, Sikh by Simon Child,
 judge by carlotta zampini; from the Noun Project
  10. 10. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN 8 TOLIKARA, PAPUA HOW DO WE KNOW THAT THIS IS REAL? IMAGE SOURCE:
 news.metrotvnews.com/read/2015/07/17/148328/saat-imam-takbir-pertama-sekelompok-orang-datang-dan-lempari-musala-di-tolikara
  11. 11. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN what’s the main difference
 between scientific research
 and ‘casual research’? 9 So…
  12. 12. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN THE DEFINITION 10 Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue.
  13. 13. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN 2.1. 3.PRESENT AN ANSWER TO THE QUESTION POSE A QUESTION COLLECT DATA TO ANSWER THE QUESTION THE DEFINITION 10 Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue. AT A GENERAL LEVEL, RESEARCH CONSISTS OF: (Creswell, 2012, p. 3)
  14. 14. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN RESEARCH IS IMPORTANT FOR AT LEAST THREE REASONS. THE IMPORTANCE 11 ICON SOURCES: Brain by Vicons Design, Glasses by João Proença,
 Gavel by Diego Naive; from the Noun Project
  15. 15. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN RESEARCH IS IMPORTANT FOR AT LEAST THREE REASONS. Helps individuals improve their practices on the job, helps practitioners evaluate approaches that they hope will work with individuals in their settings, helps the practitioners build connections with other practitioners Provides information to policy makers when they research and debate (psychological) topics, offers results that can help them weigh various perspectives Contribute to existing information about issues, gain a deeper understanding of the problems, fill a void in existing knowledge, provide additional results to confirm or disconfirm results of prior studies IMPROVES PRACTICE ADDS TO OUR KNOWLEDGE INFORMS POLICY DEBATES THE IMPORTANCE 11 (Creswell, 2012, p. 4-6) ICON SOURCES: Brain by Vicons Design, Glasses by João Proença,
 Gavel by Diego Naive; from the Noun Project
  16. 16. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN THE PROCESS 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 IDENTIFYING
 A RESEARCH PROBLEM REVIEWING
 THE LITERATURE SPECIFYING
 A PURPOSE
 FOR RESEARCH COLLECTING
 DATA ANALYZING & INTERPRETING
 DATA REPORTING & EVALUATING RESEARCH ICON SOURCES: Light Bult by Shane David Kenna, Books by Jakub Čaja,
 Map Marker by Sergey Furtaev, Box by Jerome Tave, Thinking by Marek Polakovic
 Pencil by Sabine Wollender; from the Noun Project
  17. 17. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN THE PROCESS 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 IDENTIFYING
 A RESEARCH PROBLEM REVIEWING
 THE LITERATURE SPECIFYING
 A PURPOSE
 FOR RESEARCH COLLECTING
 DATA ANALYZING & INTERPRETING
 DATA REPORTING & EVALUATING RESEARCH (Creswell, 2012, p. 7-11) ICON SOURCES: Light Bult by Shane David Kenna, Books by Jakub Čaja,
 Map Marker by Sergey Furtaev, Box by Jerome Tave, Thinking by Marek Polakovic
 Pencil by Sabine Wollender; from the Noun Project
  18. 18. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN THE PROCESS 13 IDENTIFYING
 A RESEARCH PROBLEM REVIEWING
 THE LITERATURE SPECIFYING
 A PURPOSE
 FOR RESEARCH COLLECTING
 DATA ANALYZING & INTERPRETING
 DATA REPORTING & EVALUATING RESEARCH (Creswell, 2012, p. 7-11) ICON SOURCES: Light Bult by Shane David Kenna, Books by Jakub Čaja,
 Map Marker by Sergey Furtaev, Box by Jerome Tave, Thinking by Marek Polakovic
 Pencil by Sabine Wollender, Statistics by Mateo Zlatar,
 Chat by Martin Chapman Fromm; from the Noun Project 1 2 3 4 5 6
  19. 19. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN THE PROCESS 13 IDENTIFYING
 A RESEARCH PROBLEM REVIEWING
 THE LITERATURE SPECIFYING
 A PURPOSE
 FOR RESEARCH COLLECTING
 DATA ANALYZING & INTERPRETING
 DATA REPORTING & EVALUATING RESEARCH (Creswell, 2012, p. 7-11) ICON SOURCES: Light Bult by Shane David Kenna, Books by Jakub Čaja,
 Map Marker by Sergey Furtaev, Box by Jerome Tave, Thinking by Marek Polakovic
 Pencil by Sabine Wollender, Statistics by Mateo Zlatar,
 Chat by Martin Chapman Fromm; from the Noun Project QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGN 1 2 3 4 5 6
  20. 20. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN THE CHARACTERISTICS 14 Exploring a problem and developing a detailed understanding of a central phenomenon Describing a problem through a description of trends or a need for an explanation of the relationship among variables Providing a major role for the literature Creating purpose statements, research questions, and hypotheses that are specific, narrow, measurable, and observable Collecting numeric data from a large number of people using instruments with preset questions and responses Analyzing trends, comparing groups, or relating variables using statistical analysis, and interpreting results by comparing them with prior predictions Writing the research report using standard, fixed structures and evaluation criteria, and taking an objective, unbiased approach Having the literature review play a minor role Stating the purpose and research questions in a general and broad way so as to the participants’ experiences Collecting data based on words from a small number of individuals so that the participants’ views are obtained Analyzing the data for description and themes using text analysis and interpreting the larger meaning of the findings Writing the report using flexible, emerging structures and evaluative criteria, and including the researchers’ subjective reflexivity and bias QUALITATIVEQUANTITATIVE (Creswell, 2012, p. 11-19) ICON SOURCES: Light Bult by Shane David Kenna, Books by Jakub Čaja,
 Map Marker by Sergey Furtaev, Box by Jerome Tave, Thinking by Marek Polakovic
 Pencil by Sabine Wollender; from the Noun Project
  21. 21. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA © 2015 Ardhiati PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN WANT TO KNOW MORE? BABBIE, E. (2011). THE BASICS OF SOCIAL RESEARCH (5TH ED.). BELMONT, CA: WADSWORTH CENGAGE LEARNING. CRESWELL, J.W. (2012). EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH: PLANNING, CONDUCTING AND EVALUATING QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH (4TH ED.). BOSTON, MA: PEARSON EDUCATION, INC.

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