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PDU 211

METODE
PENELITIAN
SEMESTER GASAL 2013/2014

FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA

Kuliah V ...
Chapter 7.

THE LOGIC OF
SAMPLING
(Babbie, 2011)
ONE DAY OBJECTIVES
• Mahasiswa mampu memahami hakikat sampel pada
suatu p...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

KEPUASAN PASIEN

Rumah Sakit Cepat Sembuh (RSCS)

{

ardhiati ...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

KEPUASAN PASIEN

Rumah Sakit Cepat Sembuh (RSCS)

{

OUTPUT PE...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

KEPUASAN PASIEN

Rumah Sakit Cepat Sembuh (RSCS)

{

OUTPUT PE...
KEPUASAN PASIEN

FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

Rumah Sakit Cepat Sembuh (RSCS)

SAMPLE

POPU...
KEPUASAN PASIEN

FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

Rumah Sakit Cepat Sembuh (RSCS)

SAMPLE

POPU...
KEPUASAN PASIEN

FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

Rumah Sakit Cepat Sembuh (RSCS)

SAMPLING

SA...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

DEFINITION & TYPES OF

SAMPLING

the process of selecting indi...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

DEFINITION & TYPES OF

SAMPLING

the process of selecting indi...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

THE THEORY AND LOGIC OF

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
selecting sample...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

THE THEORY AND LOGIC OF

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
selecting sample...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

THE THEORY AND LOGIC OF

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
selecting sample...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
POPULATIO...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
to whom t...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
to whom t...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
to whom t...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
to whom t...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
to whom t...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
to whom t...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
to whom t...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
to whom t...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
to whom t...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
to whom t...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
to whom t...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

TYPES OF

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING
a type o...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

TYPES OF

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING
a type o...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

TYPES OF

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING
a type of p...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

TYPES OF

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING
a type of p...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

TYPES OF

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING
a type of p...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

TYPES OF

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING
a type of p...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

TYPES OF

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
STRATIFIED SAMPLING
a method fo...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

TYPES OF

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
STRATIFIED SAMPLING
a method fo...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

THE LOGIC AND DEFINITION OF

NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING
There are...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

THE LOGIC AND DEFINITION OF

NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING
There are...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

TYPES OF

NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING
RELIANCE ON AVAILABLE SUBJEC...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

TYPES OF

NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING
RELIANCE ON AVAILABLE SUBJEC...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

TYPES OF

NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING
PURPOSIVE OR JUDGMENTAL SAMP...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

TYPES OF

NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING
PURPOSIVE OR JUDGMENTAL SAMP...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

TYPES OF

NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING
SNOWBALL SAMPLING
a nonproba...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

TYPES OF

NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING
QUOTA SAMPLING
a type of non...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

TYPES OF

NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING
SELECTING INFORMANTS
selecti...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

MULTISTAGE CLUSTER SAMPLING
a multistage sampling in which nat...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

MULTISTAGE CLUSTER SAMPLING
a multistage sampling in which nat...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

MULTISTAGE CLUSTER SAMPLING
a multistage sampling in which nat...
Chapter 4.

THE PROBLEMS OF
GENERALISATION AND
DECISION MAKING IN
RESEARCH
(Howitt & Cramer, 2011)
ONE DAY OBJECTIVE
Mahas...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS

Pengaruh Pelatihan Time-M...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS

1

UNIVERSALISM

Pengaruh...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS

1

UNIVERSALISM
MANUSIA ‘...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS

1

UNIVERSALISM
MANUSIA ‘...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS

1

UNIVERSALISM
MANUSIA ‘...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS

1

UNIVERSALISM
MANUSIA ‘...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS

1

UNIVERSALISM
MANUSIA ‘...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS
2

Pengaruh Pelatihan Time...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS
2

SAMPLING & GENERALISATI...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS
2

SAMPLING & GENERALISATI...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS
2

SAMPLING & GENERALISATI...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS
2

SAMPLING & GENERALISATI...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS
2

SAMPLING & GENERALISATI...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS
2

SAMPLING & GENERALISATI...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS
2

SAMPLING & GENERALISATI...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS
2

SAMPLING & GENERALISATI...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS
2

SAMPLING & GENERALISATI...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS
2

SAMPLING & GENERALISATI...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS
3

Pengaruh Pelatihan Time...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS
3

STATISTICS & GENERALISA...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS
3

STATISTICS & GENERALISA...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS
3

STATISTICS & GENERALISA...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS
3

STATISTICS & GENERALISA...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS
3

STATISTICS & GENERALISA...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

LIMITATIONS
3

STATISTICS & GENERALISA...
FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI
Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya

WANT TO KNOW MORE?
Babbie, E. (2011). The basics of social res...
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PDU 211 Research Methods: Sampling

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How to select group of people from your population research to be the participants?
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Transcript of "PDU 211 Research Methods: Sampling"

  1. 1. PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN SEMESTER GASAL 2013/2014 FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA Kuliah V - 16 September 2013 SAMPLING ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  2. 2. Chapter 7. THE LOGIC OF SAMPLING (Babbie, 2011) ONE DAY OBJECTIVES • Mahasiswa mampu memahami hakikat sampel pada suatu penelitian • Mahasiswa mampu memahami berbagai teknik pemilihan sampel pada penelitian kuantitatif & kualitatif ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  3. 3. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya KEPUASAN PASIEN Rumah Sakit Cepat Sembuh (RSCS) { ardhiati © 2013 OUTPUT PENELITIAN: Tingkat kepuasan pasien ➔ Puas/Tidak Puas } PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  4. 4. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya KEPUASAN PASIEN Rumah Sakit Cepat Sembuh (RSCS) { OUTPUT PENELITIAN: Tingkat kepuasan pasien ➔ Puas/Tidak Puas } Jumlah pasien per tahun 2012: 508.972 ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  5. 5. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya KEPUASAN PASIEN Rumah Sakit Cepat Sembuh (RSCS) { OUTPUT PENELITIAN: Tingkat kepuasan pasien ➔ Puas/Tidak Puas } Responden penelitian 1.112 Jumlah pasien per tahun 2012: 508.972 ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  6. 6. KEPUASAN PASIEN FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya Rumah Sakit Cepat Sembuh (RSCS) SAMPLE POPULATION ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  7. 7. KEPUASAN PASIEN FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya Rumah Sakit Cepat Sembuh (RSCS) SAMPLE POPULATION ardhiati © 2013 the set of all the individuals of interest in a particular study a set of individuals selected from a population, usually intended to represent the population in a research study PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  8. 8. KEPUASAN PASIEN FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya Rumah Sakit Cepat Sembuh (RSCS) SAMPLING SAMPLE POPULATION ardhiati © 2013 the set of all the individuals of interest in a particular study a set of individuals selected from a population, usually intended to represent the population in a research study PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  9. 9. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya DEFINITION & TYPES OF SAMPLING the process of selecting individuals, events, observations, or objects to be observed ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  10. 10. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya DEFINITION & TYPES OF SAMPLING the process of selecting individuals, events, observations, or objects to be observed Two types of sampling methods: ! ! ardhiati © 2013 Probability sampling Nonprobability sampling PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  11. 11. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya THE THEORY AND LOGIC OF PROBABILITY SAMPLING selecting samples in accordance with probability theory ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  12. 12. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya THE THEORY AND LOGIC OF PROBABILITY SAMPLING selecting samples in accordance with probability theory • a branch of mathematics that provides the tools researcher needs: (1) to devise sampling techniques that produce representative samples (2) to statistically analyze the results of their sampling • ardhiati © 2013 a fraction or a proportion of all the possible outcomes (Gravetter, 2010) PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  13. 13. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya THE THEORY AND LOGIC OF PROBABILITY SAMPLING selecting samples in accordance with probability theory • a branch of mathematics that provides the tools researcher needs: (1) to devise sampling techniques that produce representative samples (2) to statistically analyze the results of their sampling • a fraction or a proportion of all the possible outcomes (Gravetter, 2010) In order to provide useful descriptions of the total population, a sample of individuals from a population must contain essentially the same variations that exist in the population. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  14. 14. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING PROBABILITY SAMPLING POPULATION ardhiati © 2013 SAMPLE PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  15. 15. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING PROBABILITY SAMPLING to whom the researcher applying the research conclusion POPULATION ardhiati © 2013 to whom the researcher collecting the data SAMPLE PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  16. 16. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING PROBABILITY SAMPLING to whom the researcher applying the research conclusion POPULATION ardhiati © 2013 to whom the researcher collecting the data SAMPLING SAMPLE PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  17. 17. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING PROBABILITY SAMPLING to whom the researcher applying the research conclusion POPULATION CONCLUSION ardhiati © 2013 to whom the researcher collecting the data SAMPLING SAMPLE DATA PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  18. 18. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING PROBABILITY SAMPLING to whom the researcher applying the research conclusion POPULATION to whom the researcher collecting the data SAMPLING CONCLUSION SAMPLE DATA ! REPRESENTATIVENESS AND PROBABILITY OF SELECTION ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  19. 19. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING PROBABILITY SAMPLING to whom the researcher applying the research conclusion POPULATION to whom the researcher collecting the data SAMPLING CONCLUSION SAMPLE DATA ! REPRESENTATIVENESS AND PROBABILITY OF SELECTION A sample is representative of the population: ! if the aggregate characteristics of the sample closely approximate those same aggregate characteristics in the populations; ! if all members of the population have an equal chance of being selected in the sample. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  20. 20. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING PROBABILITY SAMPLING to whom the researcher applying the research conclusion POPULATION CONCLUSION ! SAMPLING ardhiati © 2013 to whom the researcher collecting the data SAMPLING SAMPLE DATA BIAS PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  21. 21. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING PROBABILITY SAMPLING to whom the researcher applying the research conclusion POPULATION CONCLUSION ! SAMPLING to whom the researcher collecting the data SAMPLING SAMPLE DATA BIAS Those selected are not typical or representative of the larger population they’ve been chosen from. Bias doesn’t have to be intentional. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  22. 22. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING PROBABILITY SAMPLING to whom the researcher applying the research conclusion POPULATION CONCLUSION ! SAMPLING ardhiati © 2013 to whom the researcher collecting the data SAMPLING SAMPLE DATA ERROR PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  23. 23. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING PROBABILITY SAMPLING to whom the researcher applying the research conclusion POPULATION CONCLUSION ! SAMPLING to whom the researcher collecting the data SAMPLING SAMPLE DATA ERROR the naturally occurring discrepancy, or error, that exists between a sample statistic and the corresponding population parameter (Gravetter, 2010) PROBABILITY THEORY: ! if many independent random samples are selected from a population, the sample statistics provided by those samples will be distributed around the population parameter in a known way ! gives us formula for estimating how closely the sample statistics are clustered around the true value ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  24. 24. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING PROBABILITY SAMPLING to whom the researcher applying the research conclusion POPULATION CONCLUSION ! RANDOM ardhiati © 2013 to whom the researcher collecting the data SAMPLING SAMPLE DATA SELECTION PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  25. 25. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya SOME CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING PROBABILITY SAMPLING to whom the researcher applying the research conclusion POPULATION CONCLUSION ! RANDOM to whom the researcher collecting the data SAMPLING SAMPLE DATA SELECTION each element has an equal chance of selection independent of any other event in the selection process ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  26. 26. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya TYPES OF PROBABILITY SAMPLING SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING a type of probability sampling in which the units composing a population are assigned numbers; a set of random numbers is then generated, and the units having those numbers are included in the sample. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  27. 27. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya TYPES OF PROBABILITY SAMPLING SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING a type of probability sampling in which the units composing a population are assigned numbers; a set of random numbers is then generated, and the units having those numbers are included in the sample. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  28. 28. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya TYPES OF PROBABILITY SAMPLING SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING a type of probability sampling in which every kth unit in a list is selected for inclusion in the sample ➔ systematic sample with a random start ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  29. 29. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya TYPES OF PROBABILITY SAMPLING SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING a type of probability sampling in which every kth unit in a list is selected for inclusion in the sample ➔ systematic sample with a random start 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  30. 30. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya TYPES OF PROBABILITY SAMPLING SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING a type of probability sampling in which every kth unit in a list is selected for inclusion in the sample ➔ systematic sample with a random start 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 5 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 15 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 25 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 35 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 45 ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  31. 31. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya TYPES OF PROBABILITY SAMPLING SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING a type of probability sampling in which every kth unit in a list is selected for inclusion in the sample ➔ systematic sample with a random start 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 5 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 15 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 25 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 35 41 ! 2 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 45 in using this sampling techniques, the researcher should carefully examine the nature of the list, especially if the elements are arranged in any particular order ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  32. 32. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya TYPES OF PROBABILITY SAMPLING STRATIFIED SAMPLING a method for obtaining a sample by grouping the units composing a population into homogeneous groups (or strata) before sampling ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  33. 33. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya TYPES OF PROBABILITY SAMPLING STRATIFIED SAMPLING a method for obtaining a sample by grouping the units composing a population into homogeneous groups (or strata) before sampling ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  34. 34. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya THE LOGIC AND DEFINITION OF NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING There are times when probability sampling would not be appropriate even if it were possible. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  35. 35. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya THE LOGIC AND DEFINITION OF NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING There are times when probability sampling would not be appropriate even if it were possible. selecting samples in some way not suggested by probability theory ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  36. 36. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya TYPES OF NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING RELIANCE ON AVAILABLE SUBJECTS stopping people at a street corner or some other location, contacting people who are the easiest to access, etc. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  37. 37. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya TYPES OF NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING RELIANCE ON AVAILABLE SUBJECTS stopping people at a street corner or some other location, contacting people who are the easiest to access, etc. ! this method does not permit any control over the representativeness of a sample, sometimes called “convenience” or “haphazard” sampling ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  38. 38. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya TYPES OF NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING PURPOSIVE OR JUDGMENTAL SAMPLING a type of nonprobability sampling in which the units to be observed are selected on the basis of the researcher’s judgment about which ones will be the most useful or representative ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  39. 39. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya TYPES OF NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING PURPOSIVE OR JUDGMENTAL SAMPLING a type of nonprobability sampling in which the units to be observed are selected on the basis of the researcher’s judgment about which ones will be the most useful or representative ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  40. 40. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya TYPES OF NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING SNOWBALL SAMPLING a nonprobability sampling method, whereby each person interviewed may be asked to suggest additional people for interviewing ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  41. 41. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya TYPES OF NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING QUOTA SAMPLING a type of nonprobability sampling in which units are selected into a sample on the basis of prespecified characteristics, so that the total sample will have the same distribution of characteristics assumed to exist in the population being studied ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  42. 42. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya TYPES OF NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING SELECTING INFORMANTS selecting someone who is well versed in the social phenomenon that the researcher wish to study and who is willing to tell him what s/he knows about it ! ardhiati © 2013 not to be confused with a respondent (people who provide information about themselves) PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  43. 43. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya MULTISTAGE CLUSTER SAMPLING a multistage sampling in which natural groups (clusters) are sampled initially, with the members of each selected group being subsampled afterward ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  44. 44. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya MULTISTAGE CLUSTER SAMPLING a multistage sampling in which natural groups (clusters) are sampled initially, with the members of each selected group being subsampled afterward ! involves the repetition of two basic steps: listing ! sampling ! ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  45. 45. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya MULTISTAGE CLUSTER SAMPLING a multistage sampling in which natural groups (clusters) are sampled initially, with the members of each selected group being subsampled afterward ! involves the repetition of two basic steps: listing ! sampling ! ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  46. 46. Chapter 4. THE PROBLEMS OF GENERALISATION AND DECISION MAKING IN RESEARCH (Howitt & Cramer, 2011) ONE DAY OBJECTIVE Mahasiswa mampu memahami konsep universalisme dan generalisasi dalam penelitian ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  47. 47. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS Pengaruh Pelatihan Time-Management Skill terhadap Jumlah Pacar pada Mahasiswa FP UAJ ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  48. 48. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 1 UNIVERSALISM Pengaruh Pelatihan Time-Management Skill terhadap Jumlah Pacar pada Mahasiswa FP UAJ ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  49. 49. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 1 UNIVERSALISM MANUSIA ‘SAMA’ ➡ ‘pembuatan’ teori/ pendekatan psikologis ➡ pengambilan kesimpulan Pengaruh Pelatihan Time-Management Skill terhadap Jumlah Pacar pada Mahasiswa FP UAJ ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  50. 50. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 1 UNIVERSALISM MANUSIA ‘SAMA’ ➡ ‘pembuatan’ teori/ pendekatan psikologis ➡ pengambilan kesimpulan Pengaruh Pelatihan Time-Management Skill terhadap Jumlah Pacar pada Mahasiswa FP UAJ 2 ardhiati © 2013 SAMPLING & GENERALISATION PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  51. 51. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 1 UNIVERSALISM MANUSIA ‘SAMA’ ➡ ‘pembuatan’ teori/ pendekatan psikologis ➡ pengambilan kesimpulan Pengaruh Pelatihan Time-Management Skill terhadap Jumlah Pacar pada Mahasiswa FP UAJ 2 SAMPLING & GENERALISATION ➡ ardhiati © 2013 hasil pada sampel digeneralisasi ke populasi PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  52. 52. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 1 UNIVERSALISM MANUSIA ‘SAMA’ ➡ ‘pembuatan’ teori/ pendekatan psikologis ➡ pengambilan kesimpulan Pengaruh Pelatihan Time-Management Skill terhadap Jumlah Pacar pada Mahasiswa FP UAJ 3 STATISTICS & GENERALISATION 2 SAMPLING & GENERALISATION ➡ ardhiati © 2013 hasil pada sampel digeneralisasi ke populasi PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  53. 53. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 1 UNIVERSALISM MANUSIA ‘SAMA’ ➡ ‘pembuatan’ teori/ pendekatan psikologis ➡ pengambilan kesimpulan Pengaruh Pelatihan Time-Management Skill terhadap Jumlah Pacar pada Mahasiswa FP UAJ 3 STATISTICS & GENERALISATION ➡ ardhiati © 2013 hasil perhitungan statistik pada sampel sebagai dasar pengambilan kesimpulan ke populasi 2 SAMPLING & GENERALISATION ➡ hasil pada sampel digeneralisasi ke populasi PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  54. 54. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 2 Pengaruh Pelatihan Time-Management Skill terhadap Jumlah Pacar pada Mahasiswa FP UAJ ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  55. 55. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 2 SAMPLING & GENERALISATION Pengaruh Pelatihan Time-Management Skill terhadap Jumlah Pacar pada Mahasiswa FP UAJ ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  56. 56. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 2 SAMPLING & GENERALISATION Pengaruh Pelatihan Time-Management Skill terhadap Jumlah Pacar pada Mahasiswa FP UAJ sampling POPULASI ardhiati © 2013 SAMPEL PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  57. 57. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 2 SAMPLING & GENERALISATION Pengaruh Pelatihan Time-Management Skill terhadap Jumlah Pacar pada Mahasiswa FP UAJ sampling POPULASI ardhiati © 2013 penelitian dilakukan terhadap sampel SAMPEL PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  58. 58. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 2 SAMPLING & GENERALISATION Pengaruh Pelatihan Time-Management Skill terhadap Jumlah Pacar pada Mahasiswa FP UAJ generalisation sampling POPULASI ardhiati © 2013 penelitian dilakukan terhadap sampel SAMPEL PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  59. 59. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 2 SAMPLING & GENERALISATION Pengaruh Pelatihan Time-Management Skill terhadap Jumlah Pacar pada Mahasiswa FP UAJ hasil yang diperoleh di sampel digunakan digeneralisasikan ke populasi generalisation sampling POPULASI ardhiati © 2013 penelitian dilakukan terhadap sampel SAMPEL PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  60. 60. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 2 SAMPLING & GENERALISATION Pengaruh Pelatihan Time-Management Skill terhadap Jumlah Pacar pada Mahasiswa FP UAJ AKURAT? hasil yang diperoleh di sampel digunakan digeneralisasikan ke populasi generalisation sampling POPULASI ardhiati © 2013 penelitian dilakukan terhadap sampel SAMPEL PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  61. 61. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 2 SAMPLING & GENERALISATION Pengaruh Pelatihan Time-Management Skill terhadap Jumlah Pacar pada Mahasiswa FP UAJ TEKNIK SAMPLING AKURAT? hasil yang diperoleh di sampel digunakan digeneralisasikan ke populasi generalisation sampling POPULASI ardhiati © 2013 penelitian dilakukan terhadap sampel SAMPEL PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  62. 62. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 2 SAMPLING & GENERALISATION TEKNIK SAMPLING ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  63. 63. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 2 SAMPLING & GENERALISATION TEKNIK SAMPLING ! CONSIDERATIONS: ! ! ardhiati © 2013 Varians sampel < varians populasi Jumlah individu di sampel : jumlah di populasi PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  64. 64. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 2 SAMPLING & GENERALISATION TEKNIK SAMPLING ! CONSIDERATIONS: ! ! ! FACTS: ! ! ardhiati © 2013 Varians sampel < varians populasi Jumlah individu di sampel : jumlah di populasi Convenience sampling Population of interests PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  65. 65. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 3 Pengaruh Pelatihan Time-Management Skill terhadap Jumlah Pacar pada Mahasiswa FP UAJ hasil yang diperoleh di sampel digunakan digeneralisasikan ke populasi generalisation sampling POPULASI ardhiati © 2013 penelitian dilakukan terhadap sampel SAMPEL PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  66. 66. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 3 STATISTICS & GENERALISATION Pengaruh Pelatihan Time-Management Skill terhadap Jumlah Pacar pada Mahasiswa FP UAJ hasil yang diperoleh di sampel digunakan digeneralisasikan ke populasi generalisation sampling POPULASI ardhiati © 2013 penelitian dilakukan terhadap sampel SAMPEL PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  67. 67. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 3 STATISTICS & GENERALISATION Pengaruh Pelatihan Time-Management Skill terhadap Jumlah Pacar pada Mahasiswa FP UAJ AKURAT? hasil yang diperoleh di sampel digunakan digeneralisasikan ke populasi generalisation sampling POPULASI ardhiati © 2013 penelitian dilakukan terhadap sampel SAMPEL PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  68. 68. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 3 STATISTICS & GENERALISATION Pengaruh Pelatihan Time-Management Skill terhadap Jumlah Pacar pada Mahasiswa FP UAJ STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE AKURAT? hasil yang diperoleh di sampel digunakan digeneralisasikan ke populasi generalisation sampling POPULASI ardhiati © 2013 penelitian dilakukan terhadap sampel SAMPEL PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  69. 69. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 3 STATISTICS & GENERALISATION STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  70. 70. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 3 STATISTICS & GENERALISATION STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE ! STATISTIK INFERENSIAL: ! ardhiati © 2013 ada HUBUNGAN atau PENGARUH: memang ada hubungan atau pengaruh atau lainnya ATAU karena kebetulan? PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  71. 71. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 3 STATISTICS & GENERALISATION STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE ! STATISTIK INFERENSIAL: ! ! WHAT TO DO: ! ardhiati © 2013 ada HUBUNGAN atau PENGARUH: memang ada hubungan atau pengaruh atau lainnya ATAU karena kebetulan? Significance Level 0.05 or 0.01 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  72. 72. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya WANT TO KNOW MORE? Babbie, E. (2011). The basics of social research (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Howitt, D. & Cramer, D. (2011). Introduction to research methods in psychology (3rd ed.). Harlow, England: Pearson Education Limited. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN

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