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PDU 211 Research Methods: Qualitative Data Analysis

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How to analyze qualitative data research? …

How to analyze qualitative data research?
(Lecture slides mostly in English)

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  • 1. PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN SEMESTER GASAL 2013/2014 FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA Kuliah X - 04 November 2013 QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 2. Chapter 13. QUALITATIVE
 DATA ANALYSIS (Babbie, 2011) ONE DAY OBJECTIVE Mahasiswa mampu mengidentifikasi ciri-ciri dari masingmasing metode analisis data kualitatif ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 3. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya INTRODUCTION TO QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 4. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya INTRODUCTION TO QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS: The nonnumerical examination and interpretation of observations, for the purpose of discovering underlying meanings and patterns of relationships. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 5. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya INTRODUCTION TO QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS: The nonnumerical examination and interpretation of observations, for the purpose of discovering underlying meanings and patterns of relationships. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 6. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya INTRODUCTION TO QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS: The nonnumerical examination and interpretation of observations, for the purpose of discovering underlying meanings and patterns of relationships. PATTERN A PATTERN B PATTERN C ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 7. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya INTRODUCTION TO QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS: The nonnumerical examination and interpretation of observations, for the purpose of discovering underlying meanings and patterns of relationships. PATTERN A PATTERN B MEANING B PATTERN C ardhiati © 2013 MEANING A MEANING C PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 8. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya LINKING THEORY & ANALYSIS ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 9. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya LINKING THEORY & ANALYSIS “Plausible relationships proposed among concepts and sets of concepts.” (Strauss & Corbin, 1994) ! Theories represents our best understanding of how life operates. The more our research confirms a particular set of relationships among particular concepts, however, the more confident we become that our understanding corresponds to social reality. ! Although qualitative research is sometimes undertaken for purely descriptive purposes, it is also focuses primarily on the search for explanatory patterns. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 10. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya LINKING THEORY & ANALYSIS ! DISCOVERING ardhiati © 2013 PATTERNS PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 11. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya LINKING THEORY & ANALYSIS ! DISCOVERING ! PATTERNS CROSS-CASE ANALYSIS (Huberman & Miles, 1994) in examining the data, the researcher will look for patterns
 appearing across several observations that typically
 represent different cases under study. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 12. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya LINKING THEORY & ANALYSIS ! DISCOVERING ! PATTERNS CROSS-CASE ANALYSIS (Huberman & Miles, 1994) in examining the data, the researcher will look for patterns
 appearing across several observations that typically
 represent different cases under study. ! ! ardhiati © 2013 VARIABLE-ORIENTED The focus of the analysis would be on interrelations among variables, and the people observed would primarily be the carriers of those variables; The aim here is to achieve a partial, overall explanation using relatively few variables. CASE-ORIENTED The researcher attempts to understand a particular case fully;
 the researcher would look more closely into a particular case. PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 13. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya LINKING THEORY & ANALYSIS ! DISCOVERING ! PATTERNS WAYS OF LOOKING FOR PATTERNS (Lofland, et al., 2006) some questions the researcher might ask himself, in order
 to make sense out of the data: ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 14. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya LINKING THEORY & ANALYSIS ! DISCOVERING ! PATTERNS WAYS OF LOOKING FOR PATTERNS (Lofland, et al., 2006) some questions the researcher might ask himself, in order
 to make sense out of the data: ! ! MAGNITUDES of the topic happens or experienced by the research participants ! STRUCTURES or types/dimension of the topic happens or experienced by the research participants ! PROCESSES of how the topic happens or experienced by the research participants ! CAUSES of the topic happens or experienced by the research participants ! ardhiati © 2013 FREQUENCIES of the topic happens or experienced by the
 research participants CONSEQUENCES of the topic happens or experienced by the research participants PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 15. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya LINKING THEORY & ANALYSIS ! GROUNDED THEORY METHOD This approach begins with observations rather than hypotheses and seeks to discover patterns and develop theories from the ground up, with no preconceptions, although some research may build and elaborate on earlier grounded theories. (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 16. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya LINKING THEORY & ANALYSIS ! GROUNDED THEORY METHOD This approach begins with observations rather than hypotheses and seeks to discover patterns and develop theories from the ground up, with no preconceptions, although some research may build and elaborate on earlier grounded theories. (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) ! Stages of constant comparative method: 1. “Comparing incidents applicable to each category.” Once a concept arose in the analysis of one case, the researcher looks for evidence of the same phenomenon in other cases. When they found the concept arising in the several cases of several nurses, the researcher compares the different incidents. 2. “Integrating categories and their properties.” Here the researcher begins to note relationships among concepts. 3. “Delimiting the theory.” Eventually, as the patterns of relationships among concepts become clearer, the researcher can ignore some of the concepts that were initially noted but are evidently irrelevant to the inquiry. 4. “Writing theory.” Finally,the researcher must put his or her findings into words to be shared with others. The act of communicating our understanding of a topic actually modifies and even improves your own grasp of it. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 17. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya LINKING THEORY & ANALYSIS ! SEMIOTICS “science of signs” and has to do with symbols and meanings. It’s often associated with content analysis. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 18. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya LINKING THEORY & ANALYSIS ! SEMIOTICS “science of signs” and has to do with symbols and meanings. It’s often associated with content analysis. ! Although semiotics is based on language, language is but one of the many sign systems of varying degrees of unity, applicability, and complexity. Morse code, etiquette, mathematics, music, and even highway signs are examples of semiotic systems. (Manning & Cullum-Swan, 1994) ! ardhiati © 2013 There is no meaning inherent in any sign, however.
 Meanings reside in minds. So, a particular sign
 means something to a particular person.
 However, the agreements we have about the
 meanings associated with particular signs make
 semiotics a social science. PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 19. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya LINKING THEORY & ANALYSIS ! CONVERSATION ANALYSIS seeks to pursue that aim through an extremely close
 scrutiny of the way we converse with one another. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 20. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya LINKING THEORY & ANALYSIS ! CONVERSATION ANALYSIS seeks to pursue that aim through an extremely close
 scrutiny of the way we converse with one another. ! Fundamental assumption of CA (Silverman, 1993): 1. Conversation is a socially structured activity. Like other social structures, it includes established rules of behavior. 2. Conversations must be understood contextually. The same utterance will have totally different meanings in different contexts. 3. CA aims to understand the structure and meaning of conversation through excruciatingly accurate transcripts of conversations. Not only are the exact words recorded, but all the uhs, ers, bad grammar, and pauses are also noted. Pauses, in fact, are measured to the nearest tenth of a second. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 21. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya QUALITATIVE DATA PROCESSING ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 22. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya QUALITATIVE DATA PROCESSING CODING ardhiati © 2013 MEMOING CONCEPT MAPPING PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 23. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya QUALITATIVE DATA PROCESSING CODING MEMOING Classifying or categorizing individual pieces of data— coupled with some kind of retrieval system. Together, these procedures allow the researcher to retrieve materials he may later be interested in. Writing memos or notes to yourself and others involved in the project. Some of what the researcher writes during analysis may end up in his final report; much of it will at least stimulate what he writes. ardhiati © 2013 CONCEPT MAPPING Putting the concepts in a graphical format to helps the researcher to think out relationships among concepts even more clearly. PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 24. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya QUALITATIVE DATA PROCESSING CODING MEMOING Classifying or categorizing individual pieces of data— coupled with some kind of retrieval system. Together, these procedures allow the researcher to retrieve materials he may later be interested in. Writing memos or notes to yourself and others involved in the project. Some of what the researcher writes during analysis may end up in his final report; much of it will at least stimulate what he writes. ardhiati © 2013 CONCEPT MAPPING Putting the concepts in a graphical format to helps the researcher to think out relationships among concepts even more clearly. PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 25. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR QUALITATIVE DATA ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 26. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR QUALITATIVE DATA ! The advent of computers, both mainframe and personal, has been a boon to quantitative research, allowing the rapid calculation of extremely complex statistics. ! The importance of the computer for qualitative research has been somewhat more slowly appreciated. Some qualitative researchers were quick to adapt the basic capacities of computers to nonnumerical tasks, but it took
 a bit longer for programmers to address the specific needs
 of qualitative research. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 27. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR QUALITATIVE DATA NUD*IST (Nonnumeric Unstructured Data, Index Searching, and Theorizing) ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 28. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR QUALITATIVE DATA NVivo ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 29. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya EVALUATING THE QUALITY OF QUALITATIVE DATA ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 30. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya EVALUATING THE QUALITY OF QUALITATIVE DATA ! There are often clear guidelines for evaluating the quality of quantitative research. For example, the researcher can note the size of the sample, the manner in which it was selected, and the completion rate achieved. The questionnaire items are standardized and open to scrutiny. He can also use statistical tests to assess research findings. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 31. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya EVALUATING THE QUALITY OF QUALITATIVE DATA ! There are often clear guidelines for evaluating the quality of quantitative research. For example, the researcher can note the size of the sample, the manner in which it was selected, and the completion rate achieved. The questionnaire items are standardized and open to scrutiny. He can also use statistical tests to assess research findings. ! Judging the quality of qualitative research is more elusive. 1. VALIDITY or CREDIBILITY 2. RELIABILITY or DEPENDABILITY ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 32. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya EVALUATING THE QUALITY OF QUALITATIVE DATA 1. VALIDITY or CREDIBILITY ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 33. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya EVALUATING THE QUALITY OF QUALITATIVE DATA 1. VALIDITY or CREDIBILITY ! In quantitative research, it involves the question of whether the researcher is measuring what he says he is measuring. ! In qualitative research, more than quantitative research, the researcher
 pays special attention to understanding life as the participants see it.
 So the questions sometimes look like don’t measure what the
 researcher says he is measuring, but if we look through the answers
 and the contexts deeply, it is measuring the ‘right’ topic. ! That’s why some qualitative researchers prefer to use the term
 credibility in the place of validity in this context. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 34. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya EVALUATING THE QUALITY OF QUALITATIVE DATA 2. RELIABILITY or DEPENDABILITY ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 35. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya EVALUATING THE QUALITY OF QUALITATIVE DATA 2. RELIABILITY or DEPENDABILITY ! In quantitative research, this is a question of whether a measurement or observational technique would yield the same data if it were possible to measure or observe the same thing several times independently. ! In the case of categorizing raw data, such as those produced by
 in-depth interviews or by open-ended answers to survey questions,
 the researcher can ask more than one person to undertake the
 coding or categorizing process independently and see if they
 produce the same results. In most aspects of social research,
 however, the concept of reliability is more elusive, since what
 we are observing may be constantly changing, and the act
 of measuring (such as asking a question) may have an affect
 on the person being studied. ! In qualitative research, the basic concept of reliability, which
 some qualitative researchers prefer to call dependability,
 is meaningful for qualitative research. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 36. PART 4. QUALITATIVE
 RESEARCH METHODS (Howitt & Cramer, 2011) ONE DAY OBJECTIVE Mahasiswa mampu mengidentifikasi ciri-ciri dari masingmasing metode analisis data kualitatif ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 37. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya THEMATIC ANALYSIS The analysis of textual material (newspapers, interviews, and so forth) in order to indicate the major themes to be found in it. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 38. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya THEMATIC ANALYSIS The analysis of textual material (newspapers, interviews, and so forth) in order to indicate the major themes to be found in it. ! The researcher does not identify the overall topic of text. Instead the researcher would dig deeper to identify a variety of themes which describe significant aspects of the text. ! The analytic work is there for the researcher to organize the textual material by defining the main themes which seem to represent the text effectively. ! Thematic analysis is not a single, identifiable approach
 to the analysis of qualitative data. There is
 no accepted, standardized approach to
 carrying out a thematic analysis, so different
 researchers do things differently. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 39. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya THEMATIC ANALYSIS ! Almost certainly, thematic analysis is the approach to qualitative analysis most likely to be adopted by newcomers to qualitative analysis: ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 40. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya THEMATIC ANALYSIS ! Almost certainly, thematic analysis is the approach to qualitative analysis most likely to be adopted by newcomers to qualitative analysis: ! It needs less knowledge of the intricacies of the theoretical foundations of qualitative research than most other qualitative techniques; ! No particular theoretical orientation is associated with thematic analysis and it is flexible in terms of how and why it is carried out; ! Thematic analysis does not demand the intensely closely detailed analysis which typifies conversation analysis, for example. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 41. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya THEMATIC ANALYSIS ! Almost certainly, thematic analysis is the approach to qualitative analysis most likely to be adopted by newcomers to qualitative analysis: ! It needs less knowledge of the intricacies of the theoretical foundations of qualitative research than most other qualitative techniques; ! No particular theoretical orientation is associated with thematic analysis and it is flexible in terms of how and why it is carried out; ! Thematic analysis does not demand the intensely closely detailed analysis which typifies conversation analysis, for example. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 42. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya GROUNDED THEORY Ultimately the aim is to produce a set of
 categories into which the data fit closely and
 which amounts to a theoretical description of
 the data. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 43. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya GROUNDED THEORY Ultimately the aim is to produce a set of
 categories into which the data fit closely and
 which amounts to a theoretical description of
 the data. ! Grounded theory employs a variety of techniques designed
 to ensure that researchers enter into the required intimate contact
 with their data as well as bringing into juxtaposition different aspects of the data. The approach has a lot of aficionados across the wide cross-section of qualitative research – though its use is less than universal. ! The categorization system is basically the theory though the method does involve attempts to generalize the theory beyond the immediate data. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 44. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya GROUNDED THEORY ! Several elements of this description of grounded theory
 warrant highlighting: ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 45. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya GROUNDED THEORY ! Several elements of this description of grounded theory
 warrant highlighting: ! Consists of guidelines for conducting data collection, data
 analysis and theory building, which may lead to research which
 is closely integrated to social reality as represented in the data; ! Systematic. In other words, the analysis of data to generate theory
 is not dependent on a stroke of genius or divine inspiration, but on
 perspiration and application of general principles or methods; ! Involves inductive guidelines rather than deductive processes. This is very different from what is often regarded as conventional theory building (sometimes described as the ‘hypothetico-deductive method’); ! Requires that theory should develop out of an understanding of the complexity of the subject matter; ! The theory-building process is a continuous one rather than a sequence of critical tests of the theory through testing hypotheses. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 46. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya GROUNDED THEORY ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 47. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya DISCOURSE ANALYSIS Discourse is designed to do things linguistically
 and that the role of the discourse analysts is to
 understand what is being done and how it is
 done through speech and text. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 48. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya DISCOURSE ANALYSIS Discourse is designed to do things linguistically
 and that the role of the discourse analysts is to
 understand what is being done and how it is
 done through speech and text. ! Discourse analysis emphasizes the ways in which language
 interacts with society, especially in the nature of dialogue in
 ordinary conversation. ! Discourse analysis does not treat language as if it were essentially representational – language is not simply the means of articulating internal mental reality. Quite the reverse, discourse analysis is built on the idea that truth and reality are not identifiable or reachable through language. ! As such, discourse analysis employs ‘speech act theory’ (Austin, 1975) which regards language as part of a social performance. The phrase discourse analysis may arouse pictures of a well-established empirical method of analyzing people talking, interviews and so forth. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 49. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya DISCOURSE ANALYSIS ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 50. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya CONVERSATION ANALYSIS Conversation analysis studies the structure of conversation by the detailed examination of successive turns or contributions to a conversation. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 51. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya CONVERSATION ANALYSIS Conversation analysis studies the structure of conversation by the detailed examination of successive turns or contributions to a conversation. ! The approach in conversation analysis is to study the various things which can occur next and not the most likely thing to occur next as probably would be the objective of a mainstream quantitative psychologist. ! Although there is a conversationally presented opportunity for another person to take over the conversation, there is no requirement that they do. Hence there are two possible things which can happen next – one is that the conversation shifts to another speaker and the other is that the original speaker carries on speaking. The question is just how this happens and the consequences for the later conversation of its happening. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 52. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya CONVERSATION ANALYSIS ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 53. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya INTERPRETATIVE PHENOMENOLOGICAL Its primary concern is with providing a detailed description and interpretation of the accounts of particular experiences or phenomena as told by an individual or a small number of individuals. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 54. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya INTERPRETATIVE PHENOMENOLOGICAL Its primary concern is with providing a detailed description and interpretation of the accounts of particular experiences or phenomena as told by an individual or a small number of individuals. ! IPA assumes that people try to make sense of their experiences
 and the method describes how they do this and what it may
 mean. ! Interpretative phenomenological analysis acknowledges,
 however, that the researcher’s own conceptions form the basis of
 the understanding of the phenomenological world of the person
 that is being studied. This means that the researcher can never,
 entirely, know this personal world but can only approach
 somewhere towards accessing it. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 55. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya INTERPRETATIVE PHENOMENOLOGICAL ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN
  • 56. FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya WANT TO KNOW MORE? Babbie, E. (2011). The basics of social research (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education. Howitt, D. & Cramer, D. (2011). Introduction to research methods in psychology (3rd ed.). Harlow, England: Pearson Education Limited. ardhiati © 2013 PDU 211 METODE PENELITIAN

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