PDU 202 Qualitative Research Method: Data Analysis

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There are five steps in analyzing qualitative data. What are they? And what things should be considered before starting the analysis?

(Lecture slides mostly in English)

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PDU 202 Qualitative Research Method: Data Analysis

  1. 1. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF SEMESTER GENAP 2013/2014 FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIAATMA JAYA KULIAH X - 04 APRIL 2014 QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS
  2. 2. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS ONE DAY OBJECTIVES: Mahasiswa mampu: • Memahami kerangka dan proses pengolahan dan analisis data kualitatif; • Melakukan analisis data kualitatif. image gestionando.biz
  3. 3. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 (Creswell, 2012)
  4. 4. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 ANALYZING QUALITATIVE DATA REQUIRES UNDERSTANDING HOW TO MAKE SENSE OF TEXT AND IMAGES SO THAT YOU CAN FORM ANSWERS TO YOUR RESEARCH QUESTIONS. (Creswell, 2012)
  5. 5. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 PUT YOURSELF IN SOMEONE ELSE’S SHOES AND TRY TO UNDERSTAND HOW IT FEELS TO BE HIM/HER image kendascrafts.blogspot.com
  6. 6. ANALYZING QUALITATIVE DATA few things to consider before
  7. 7. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 WHAT IS THIS?
  8. 8. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 WHAT IS THIS? have no idea?
  9. 9. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 THIS?
  10. 10. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 THIS? no?
  11. 11. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 THIS? no? HOW ABOUT THIS?
  12. 12. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 image gundameisters.blogspot.com PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 (Creswell, 2012)
  13. 13. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 image gundameisters.blogspot.com PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 Analyzing qualitative data is an inductive process1 (Creswell, 2012)
  14. 14. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 WILL YOU PRODUCE THIS PICTURE PERFECTLY... image dragoart.com
  15. 15. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 WILL YOU PRODUCE THIS PICTURE PERFECTLY... WITHOUT CREATING IT SIMULTANEOUSLY FROM THE BEGINNING? image dragoart.com
  16. 16. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 Analyzing qualitative data involves a simultaneous process 2 image dragoart.com PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 (Creswell, 2012)
  17. 17. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 WILL YOU PRODUCE THIS PICTURE PERFECTLY... image dragoart.com
  18. 18. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 WILL YOU PRODUCE THIS PICTURE PERFECTLY... WITHOUT LOOKING BACK TO EACH STEPS YOU TOOK BEFORE? image dragoart.com
  19. 19. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 Analyzing qualitative data is an iterative phase3 image dragoart.com PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 (Creswell, 2012)
  20. 20. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 CAN YOU DESCRIBE THE WHOLE IMAGES WITH FEW LIGHTING?
  21. 21. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 CAN YOU DESCRIBE THE WHOLE IMAGES WITH FEW LIGHTING? NO?
  22. 22. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 (Creswell, 2012) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 image rsblog.ca
  23. 23. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 The researchers analyze the data by reading it several times and conducting analysis each time 4 (Creswell, 2012) PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 image rsblog.ca
  24. 24. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 WHICH FROM THE ABOVE IS THE RIGHT WAY OF DRAWING?
  25. 25. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 WHICH FROM THE ABOVE IS THE RIGHT WAY OF DRAWING? INDEED. ALL OF THEM.
  26. 26. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 Analyzing qualitative data is an eclectic process5 PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 (Creswell, 2012)
  27. 27. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 WHAT DO YOU THINK SHE IS DOING? image vaultdenimmpls.wordpress.com
  28. 28. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 STILL THINKING THE SAME? image vaultdenimmpls.wordpress.com
  29. 29. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 STILL THINKING THE SAME? WHICH ONE IS THE RIGHT ONE? image vaultdenimmpls.wordpress.com
  30. 30. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 STILL THINKING THE SAME? WHICH ONE IS THE RIGHT ONE? INDEED. THEY BOTH ARE. image vaultdenimmpls.wordpress.com
  31. 31. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 The interpretation depends on the researcher’s perspective 6 PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 (Creswell, 2012)image vaultdenimmpls.wordpress.com
  32. 32. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 LET’S RECAP!
  33. 33. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 few things to consider before analyzing qualitative data (Creswell, 2012)
  34. 34. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 few things to consider before analyzing qualitative data (Creswell, 2012)
  35. 35. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 few things to consider before analyzing qualitative data INDUCTIVE PROCESS SIMULTANEOUS PROCESS ITERATIVE PHASE SEVERAL TIMES PROCESSES RESEARCHER’S PERSPECTIVE ECLECTIC PROCESS (Creswell, 2012)
  36. 36. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 few things to consider before analyzing qualitative data so, it is important to: (Yin, 2011) CHECKING & RECHECKING THE ACCURACY THOROUGH & COMPLETE ANALYZING ACKNOWLEDGING BIASES
  37. 37. ANALYZING QUALITATIVE DATA phases of
  38. 38. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 ANALYZING QUALITATIVE DATA (Yin, 2011)
  39. 39. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 ANALYZING QUALITATIVE DATA COMPILE DATABASE DISASSEMBLE DATA REASSEMBLE DATA INTERPRET DATA CONCLUDE (Yin, 2011)
  40. 40. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 ANALYZING QUALITATIVE DATA COMPILE DATABASE DISASSEMBLE DATA REASSEMBLE DATA INTERPRET DATA CONCLUDE (Yin, 2011) 1 2 3 4 5
  41. 41. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 ANALYZING QUALITATIVE DATA COMPILE DATABASE DISASSEMBLE DATA REASSEMBLE DATA INTERPRET DATA CONCLUDE (Yin, 2011) 1 2 3 4 5
  42. 42. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 ANALYZING QUALITATIVE DATA (Yin, 2011) analysis is likely to occur
 in a nonlinear fashion
  43. 43. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 1. COMPILE DATABASE
  44. 44. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 1. COMPILE DATABASE FROM THE SUBJECT THEMSELVES FROM THE FAMILIES FROM THE COMMUNITY
  45. 45. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 1. COMPILE DATABASE FROM THE SUBJECT THEMSELVES FROM THE FAMILIES FROM THE COMMUNITY BASED ON THE ‘SUBJECT’
  46. 46. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 1. COMPILE DATABASE FROM HOME FROM OFFICE FROM CHURCH BASED ON DAILY ACTIVITIES LIFE FROM PARK
  47. 47. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 1. COMPILE DATABASE The arrangement can be customized, but make sure to: • MAKE IT SYSTEMATIC • MAKE IT CONSISTENT (Yin, 2011)
  48. 48. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 2. disassemble data (Yin, 2011)
  49. 49. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 2. disassemble data memo writing (Yin, 2011)
  50. 50. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 2. disassemble data memo writing (Yin, 2011) “Read the transcripts in their entirely several times. Immerse yourself in details, trying to get a sense of the interview as a whole before breaking it into parts.” (Agar, 1980 in Creswell, 2012)
  51. 51. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 2. disassemble data memo writing CODING NOT CODING (Yin, 2011)
  52. 52. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 2. disassemble data CODING THE DATA VISUAL MODEL OF THE CODING PROCESS (Creswell, 2012)
  53. 53. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 2. disassemble data CODING THE DATA VISUAL MODEL OF THE CODING PROCESS (Creswell, 2012) initially read through text data divide the text into segments of information labels the segments of information with codes reduce overlap and redundancy of codes collapse codes into themes
  54. 54. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 3. REassemble data
  55. 55. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 3. REassemble data
  56. 56. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 3. REassemble data (Yin, 2011)
  57. 57. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 3. REassemble data The researchers are proactively sifting and sorting their ideas, searching for patterns. (Yin, 2011)
  58. 58. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 3. REassemble data IMPORTANT PROCEDURES DURING THE PROCESS (Yin, 2011)
  59. 59. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 3. REassemble data IMPORTANT PROCEDURES DURING THE PROCESS 1. CONSTANT COMPARISON 2. NEGATIVE INSTANCES 3. RIVAL THINKING (Yin, 2011)
  60. 60. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 3. REassemble data Successful reassembling means that the researchers should be seeing the broader themes or outline of their entire analysis. (Yin, 2011)
  61. 61. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 4. INTERPRET DATA (Yin, 2011)
  62. 62. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 4. INTERPRET DATA (Yin, 2011) Interpreting may be considered the craft of giving the researchers’ own meaning to their reassembled data and data arrays.
  63. 63. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 4. INTERPRET DATA (Yin, 2011) Interpreting may be considered the craft of giving the researchers’ own meaning to their reassembled data and data arrays. COMPLETENESS FAIRNESS EMPIRICAL ACCURACY VALUE-ADDED CREDIBILITY
  64. 64. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 4. INTERPRET DATA MODES OF INTERPRETING A QUALITATIVE STUDY: (Yin, 2011)
  65. 65. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 4. INTERPRET DATA MODES OF INTERPRETING A QUALITATIVE STUDY: DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION & A CALL FOR ACTION EXPLANATION (Yin, 2011)
  66. 66. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 4. INTERPRET DATA MODES OF INTERPRETING A QUALITATIVE STUDY: DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION & A CALL FOR ACTION EXPLANATION depends on the purpose of the study (Yin, 2011)
  67. 67. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 4. INTERPRET DATA THE RESEARCHERS CAN START THE INTERPRETATION IN SEVERAL WAYS: (Yin, 2011)
  68. 68. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 4. INTERPRET DATA THE RESEARCHERS CAN START THE INTERPRETATION IN SEVERAL WAYS: The researchers already may know the main theme of the research by stating a possible subtitle for a qualitative study The researchers may have analytically observed important, new, and persistent patterns in the research data The researchers should always be able to start an interpretation with their original research questions and build around them 1 2 3 (Yin, 2011)
  69. 69. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 5. CONCLUDE (Yin, 2011)
  70. 70. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 5. CONCLUDE The spirit of a conclusion lies in such concepts as “lesson learned” and “implications of the research,” as well as more pragmatic slogans such as “pratical implications”. (Yin, 2011)
  71. 71. PDU 202 METODE KUALITATIF Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014 5. CONCLUDE The spirit of a conclusion lies in such concepts as “lesson learned” and “implications of the research,” as well as more pragmatic slogans such as “pratical implications”. (Yin, 2011) Calling for New Research Challenge Conventional Generalizations New “Discoveries” Making Substantive Propositions Generalizing
  72. 72. WANT TO KNOW MORE? Creswell, J. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Yin, R.K. (2011). Qualitative research from start to finish. Spring Street, New York: The Guilford Press.

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