PDU 110 Psychological Measurement: Measurement, Testing, & Assessment

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What's the difference between psychological measurement, testing, and assessment? …

What's the difference between psychological measurement, testing, and assessment?
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  • 1. Measurement, Testing, & Assessment PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS SEMESTER GENAP 2013/2014 FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK INDONESIA ATMA JAYA Kuliah III - 07 Februari 2014
  • 2. One Day Objectives Mahasiswa memahami perbedaan measurement, testing, dan assessment; Mahasiswa memahami fungsi pengukuran psikologis PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 3. The Definition the definition of measurement, testing, and assessment
  • 4. Measurement THE DEFINITION • the process of assigning numbers to represent qualities (properties), the object of measurement is to enable the powerful weapon of mathematical analysis to be applied to the subject matter of science (Campbell, 1960 dalam Chadha, 2009). • the assignment of numbers to objects or events according to some rule (Stevens, 1951 dalam Chadha, 2009). • the assigning of numbers to individuals in a systematic way as a means of representing properties of the individuals (Allen & Yen, 1979). PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 5. (Psychological) Testing THE DEFINITION • the process of measuring psychology-related variables by means of devices or procedures designed to obtain a sample of behavior (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010). • a systematic procedure for obtaining samples of behavior, relevant to cognitive or affective functioning, and for scoring and evaluating those samples according to standards (Urbina, 2004). PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 6. (Psychological) Testing THE DEFINITION PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 7. (Psychological) Testing THE DEFINITION TEST PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 8. (Psychological) Testing THE DEFINITION TEST A B C D E F G H PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 9. (Psychological) Testing THE DEFINITION TEST A B C D E F G PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECT H PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 10. (Psychological) Assessment THE DEFINITION • the gathering and integration of psychology-related data for the purpose of making a psychological evaluation that is accomplished through the use of tools such as tests, interviews, case studies, behavioral observation, and specially designed apparatuses and measurement procedures (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010). • a flexible, not standardized, process aimed at reaching a defensible determination concerning one or more psychological issues or questions, through the collection, evaluation, and analysis of data appropriate to the purpose at hand (Maloney & Ward, 1976 on Urbina, 2004). PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 11. (Psychological) Assessment THE DEFINITION PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECT PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 12. (Psychological) Assessment THE DEFINITION TEST INTERVIEW OBSERVATION PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECT DOCUMENTS/ CASE STUDIES PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 13. Temperament Introvert Perceiving 27 22 45 Extrovert Sensing Feeling Judging 25 Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya Thinking 30 PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS iNtuiting 28 33 10 ardhiati © 2014
  • 14. Temperament Introvert Perceiving 27 22 45 Extrovert Sensing Feeling Judging 25 Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya Thinking 30 PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS iNtuiting 28 33 10 ardhiati © 2014
  • 15. Temperament Introvert iNtuiting Thinking Perceiving 30 27 22 45 Extrovert Sensing Feeling Judging 25 28 33 10 which one is MEASUREMENT, TESTING, and ASSESSMENT PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 16. PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 17. (PSYCHOLOGICAL) ASSESSMENT (PSYCHOLOGICAL) TESTING MEASUREMENT PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 18. The Differences the differences between psychological testing and assessment
  • 19. The Differences BETWEEN TESTING & ASSESSMENT TESTING ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVE OBJECTIVE PROCESS OBJECTIVE ROLE OF EVALUATOR OBJECTIVE SKILL OF EVALUATOR OBJECTIVE OUTCOME OBJECTIVE Typically, to obtain some gauge, usually numerical in nature, with regard to an ability or attribute. Testing may be individual or group in nature. After test administration, the tester will typically add up “the number of correct answers or the number of certain types of responses . . . with little if any regard for the how or mechanics of such content”. The tester is not key to the process; practically speaking, one tester may be substituted for another tester without appreciably affecting the evaluation. Testing typically requires technician-like skills in terms of adminis- tering and scoring a test as well as in interpreting a test result. Typically, testing yields a test score or series of test scores. Typically, to answer a referral question, solve a problem, or arrive at a decision through the use of tools of evaluation. Assessment is typically individualized. In contrast to testing, assessment more typically focuses on how an individual processes rather than simply the results of that processing. The assessor is key to the process of selecting tests and/or other tools of evaluation as well as in drawing conclusions from the entire evaluation. Assessment typically requires an educated selection of tools of evaluation, skill in evaluation, and thoughtful organization and integration of data. Typically, assessment entails a logical problem-solving approach that brings to bear many sources of data designed to shed light on a referral question. (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010) PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 20. The Differences BETWEEN TESTING & ASSESSMENT PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING BASIS PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT More complex; each assessment involves various procedures (interviewing, observation, testing, etc.) and dimensions. 1. DEGREE OF COMPLEXITY Simpler; involves one uniform procedure, frequently unidimensional. 2. DURATION Shorter, lasting from a few minutes to a few hours. Longer, lasting from a few hours to a few days or more. 3. SOURCES OF DATA One person, the test taker. Often collateral sources, such as relatives or teachers, are used in addition to the subject of the assessment. 4. FOCUS How one person or group compares with others (nomothetic). The uniqueness of a given individual, group, or situation (idiographic). 5. QUALIFICATIONS Knowledge of tests and testing procedures. FOR USE Knowledge of testing and other assessment methods as well as of the area assessed (e.g., psychiatric disorders, job requirements). (Urbina, 2004) PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 21. The Differences BETWEEN TESTING & ASSESSMENT PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING BASIS PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT 6. PROCEDURAL BASIS Objectivity required; quantification is critical. Subjectivity, in the form of clinical judgment, required; quantification rarely possible. 7. COST Inexpensive, especially when testing is done in groups. Very expensive; requires intensive use of highly qualified professionals. 8. PURPOSE Obtaining data for use in making decisions. Arriving at a decision concerning the referral question or problem. 9. DEGREE OF STRUCTURE Highly structured. Entails both structured and unstructured aspects. 10. EVALUATION OF Relatively simple investigation of reliability and validity based on group results. RESULTS Very difficult due to variability of methods, assessors, nature of presenting questions, etc. (Urbina, 2004) PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 22. Assessment the process, the approaches, and the tools
  • 23. The Process OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT 1. PREPARATION 2. ADMINISTRATION 3. SCORING & INTERPRETATION (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010; Urbina, 2004) PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 24. The Process OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT 1. PREPARATION • • • Identify the assessment goals as clearly and realistically as possible, selecting the tools needed Ensure that a prepared and suitably trained person administers the test properly The test administrator (or examiner) must be familiar with the test materials and procedures (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010; Urbina, 2004) PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 25. The Process OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT 2. ADMINISTRATION • • Building rapport between the examiner and the examinee Gathering data with the assessment tools (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010; Urbina, 2004) PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 26. The Process OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT 3. SCORING & INTERPRETATION • • ‘Scoring’ each of the assessment tools Doing interpretation of each tools and making inference of the whole interpretation (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010; Urbina, 2004) PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 27. The Approaches OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT 1. COLLABORATIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT the assessor and assessee may work as “partners” from initial contact through final feedback 2. THERAPEUTIC PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT therapeutic self-discovery and new understandings are encouraged throughout the assessment process 3. DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT a psychodynamic or psychoanalytic approach to assessment, as used in this context it refers to the interactive, changing, or varying nature of the assessment; Interactive approach to psychological assessment • EVALUATION (1) • INTERVENTION • EVALUATION (2) (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010) PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 28. The Tools OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010) PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 29. The Tools OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT THE TEST BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATION PORTFOLIO THE INTERVIEW CASE HISTORY COMPUTER AS TOOLS ROLE-PLAY TESTS (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010) PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 30. Testing current uses of psychological tests
  • 31. Current Uses OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS DECISION-MAKING PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH SELF-UNDERSTANDING & PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010) PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 32. Current Uses OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS DECISION-MAKING involves value judgments on the part of one or more decision makers who need to determine the bases upon which to select, place, classify, diagnose, or otherwise deal with individuals, groups, organizations, or programs PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH SELF-UNDERSTANDING & PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010) PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 33. Current Uses OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS DECISION-MAKING PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH used in research in the fields of differential, developmental, abnormal, educational, social, and vocational psychology, among others; provide a well-recognized method of studying the nature, development, and interrelationships of cognitive, affective, and behavioral traits SELF-UNDERSTANDING & PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010) PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 34. Current Uses OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS DECISION-MAKING PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH SELF-UNDERSTANDING & PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT a way to provide clients with information to promote self-understanding and positive growth (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010) PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014
  • 35. Want to Know More? Allen, M.J. & Yen, W.M. (1979). Introduction to measurement theory. California: Brooks/Cole. Chadha, N. K. (2009). Applied Psychometry. New Delhi, India: Sage. Cohen, J., & Swerdlik, M. (2010). Psychological testing and assessment: An introduction to test and measurement (7th ed). Boston: McGraw-Hill. Urbina, S. (2004). Essentials of psychology testing. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. PDU 110 PENGANTAR PENGUKURAN PSIKOLOGIS Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya ardhiati © 2014