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  • 1. The Roots of American Democracy
    • TCI ch3
    • June 25, 2008
  • 2. Day 3 - Notes
    • (write this stuff down)
    • (TCI ch3)
    • Essential Question: What ideas gave birth the the world’s first modern democratic nation?
  • 3. Ideas that shaped Colonial views on gov’t
    • colonial thinkers influenced by Judeo-Christian traditions
    • natural law - belief in moral principles beyond human laws
    • colonial thinkers influenced by Greco-Romans
    • direct democracy - New England town meetings
    • representative gov’t - citizens elect officials to serve country
  • 4. English Roots
    • Magna Carta (1215)- great charter - limited King John’s power (taxation without consent of nobles)
      • established rule of law - gov’t is based on clear and fairly enforced laws and no one is above the law
  • 5. English Roots
    • Petition of Right (1628) - limited gov’t - powers of gov’t are restricted by constitution (arrests/quartering troops)
    • English Bill of Rights (1689) - individual rights - natural rights, rights by virtue of being human (no cruel punishment; jury trial)
  • 6. English Enlightenment Thinkers
    • Thomas Hobbes - in natural state people war, they enter social contract - obey absolute ruler to have peace in society (not democracy)
    • John Locke - all people have natural rights - life, liberty, property - social contract to protect people - BUT - right to overthrow ruler if natural rights not protected
  • 7. French Enlightenment Thinkers
    • Baron de Montesquieu - gov’t should organize to prevent one part from being too powerful - proposed three branches (executive, legislative, judicial) to limit each other - separation of powers
  • 8. French Enlightenment Thinkers
    • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - for social contract to have legitimacy - based on popular sovereignty - people are ultimate source of authority in gov’t
      • if gov’t acted contrary to popular will, people have right to revolt
  • 9. American Revolution: Highlights
    • Mayflower Compact - written agreement for governing colony
    • practice making constitutions and having legislative assemblies
    • French and Indian War - taxes - “no taxation . . .” - tea party - militias - CofCs - Dec of Ind -
  • 10. Articles of Confederation
    • not so great, no money - Shay’s Rebellion
    • but - did defeat and negotiate treaty with Britain successfully and pass Northwest Ordinance
  • 11. Constitutional Convention
    • Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia
    • Geo. Washington presider of meeting
    • James Madison - very excited - creates Virginia Plan before meeting
      • VA Pan - bicameral legislature (lower house elects upper house) based on state population
  • 12. Constitutional Convention
    • New Jersey Plan - unicameral legislature, each states has same number of reps
    • Great Compromise/Connecticut Compromise - one house based on pop, one house based equal reps
  • 13. More Compromises
    • Three-Fifths Compromise - slaves count as 3/5 during census
    • Congress could regulate foreign and interstate commerce but not tax exports
  • 14. Executive Branch
    • Single President
    • Electoral College - special electors to choose president (equal to number of members of Congress)
  • 15. Ratifying Constitution
    • Anti-federalists - opposed to strong central gov’t
    • Federalists - supported Constitution - Hamilton, Madison, John Jay wrote Federalist Papers to convince people to ratify - promised Bill of Rights to appease
    • Ratified in1788, Washington elected president in 1789
  • 16. END OF NOTES
    • that was a lot of notes