Congressional Lawmaking <ul><li>Day 11 </li></ul><ul><li>TCI ch12 </li></ul><ul><li>July 8, 2008 </li></ul>
Notes - Day 11 <ul><li>(TCI Ch12) </li></ul><ul><li>Essential Question: How do laws  really  get made? </li></ul><ul><li>(...
Notes part 1 - Convening a New Congress <ul><li>before a new Congress convenes, lawmakers from each party meet to choose C...
Committee Assignments <ul><li>leaders of each party decide number of seats each party gets on committees </li></ul><ul><ul...
First Day of New Congress <ul><li>first day begins with series of ceremonies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House votes for Speaker...
Notes part 2 - Working in Committee <ul><li>Cmtes choose chairpersons - often by seniority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>member of...
Assigning Bills to Comte <ul><li>bills must be introduced by a member of Congress - no matter who thought of it </li></ul>...
Bills in Committee <ul><li>committee chair decides what to do with the bill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ignore the bill - it won...
Path in Subcommittee <ul><li>phase 1: hearings - gather info and hear testimony from “experts” </li></ul><ul><li>phase 2: ...
House Rules Comte <ul><li>In the Senate - a bill reported out of comte is ready to be voted on </li></ul><ul><li>In House ...
Notes part 3 - Debating and Voting on House and Senate Floor
Majority Party Controls Debate <ul><li>Speaker of the House and Senate Majority Leader determine which bills will be debat...
House Debate <ul><li>House Rules Comte has to limit floor debate - 435 members can take too much time </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Senate Debate <ul><li>Senate allows unlimited debate (usually) </li></ul><ul><li>filibuster - prolonged debate to prevent ...
Amendments <ul><li>amendments to bills should be related </li></ul><ul><ul><li>riders - amendment to bill with no relation...
Voting on a Bill <ul><li>voice vote - aye or no - presiding officer decides who was louder </li></ul><ul><li>standing vote...
Influences on Legislators <ul><li>interest groups - try to get legislators to vote certain way </li></ul><ul><li>party lea...
Notes - last part <ul><li>Final Steps in the Legislative Process </li></ul>
Congress Speaks as One <ul><li>a bill passed in the House must be passed in the Senate and vice versa </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
President Takes Action <ul><li>President has 10 days to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sign the bill into law </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Override Veto <ul><li>Congress can override veto with 2/3 vote of House and Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>difficult to do <...
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Day 11 notes

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Day 11 notes

  1. 1. Congressional Lawmaking <ul><li>Day 11 </li></ul><ul><li>TCI ch12 </li></ul><ul><li>July 8, 2008 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Notes - Day 11 <ul><li>(TCI Ch12) </li></ul><ul><li>Essential Question: How do laws really get made? </li></ul><ul><li>(do notes in sections with phases?) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Notes part 1 - Convening a New Congress <ul><li>before a new Congress convenes, lawmakers from each party meet to choose Congressional leadership </li></ul>
  4. 4. Committee Assignments <ul><li>leaders of each party decide number of seats each party gets on committees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>majority party ensures control of each committee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>some comtes more desired/important </li></ul><ul><li>new members get less desired comtes </li></ul>
  5. 5. First Day of New Congress <ul><li>first day begins with series of ceremonies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House votes for Speaker, gets oath of office, swears in all House members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VP swears in Senate members </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Notes part 2 - Working in Committee <ul><li>Cmtes choose chairpersons - often by seniority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>member of majority party </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Assigning Bills to Comte <ul><li>bills must be introduced by a member of Congress - no matter who thought of it </li></ul><ul><li>Congressperson who introduces bill is the Sponsor </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker of House or presiding officer of Senate assigns bill to committee </li></ul>
  8. 8. Bills in Committee <ul><li>committee chair decides what to do with the bill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ignore the bill - it won’t become law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assign to subcommittee for study </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Path in Subcommittee <ul><li>phase 1: hearings - gather info and hear testimony from “experts” </li></ul><ul><li>phase 2: markup - members amend (make changes) to the bill </li></ul><ul><li>phase 3: report - send bill back to full comittee </li></ul><ul><li>full committee - more hearings, amendments, send to full House or Senate for floor vote </li></ul>
  10. 10. House Rules Comte <ul><li>In the Senate - a bill reported out of comte is ready to be voted on </li></ul><ul><li>In House - bill must first go to House Rules Comte </li></ul><ul><ul><li>schedules bill for debate or vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>influenced by Speaker of the House </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Notes part 3 - Debating and Voting on House and Senate Floor
  12. 12. Majority Party Controls Debate <ul><li>Speaker of the House and Senate Majority Leader determine which bills will be debated and for how long </li></ul>
  13. 13. House Debate <ul><li>House Rules Comte has to limit floor debate - 435 members can take too much time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>usually 30 min for each party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bill sponsor or main opponent usually determines who speaks </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Senate Debate <ul><li>Senate allows unlimited debate (usually) </li></ul><ul><li>filibuster - prolonged debate to prevent passing a bill (no vote taken) </li></ul><ul><li>cloture - 2/3 of Senate can vote to cut off debate </li></ul>
  15. 15. Amendments <ul><li>amendments to bills should be related </li></ul><ul><ul><li>riders - amendment to bill with no relation to subject </li></ul></ul><ul><li>easy way to get pet projects passed </li></ul>
  16. 16. Voting on a Bill <ul><li>voice vote - aye or no - presiding officer decides who was louder </li></ul><ul><li>standing vote - supporters/opponents stand to be counted </li></ul><ul><li>roll-call vote - each members vote is recorded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate - clerk calls name records vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>House - electronic voting system </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Influences on Legislators <ul><li>interest groups - try to get legislators to vote certain way </li></ul><ul><li>party leaders - try to get legislators to vote certain way </li></ul><ul><li>colleagues - “logrolling” - members vote for each other’s stuff </li></ul>
  18. 18. Notes - last part <ul><li>Final Steps in the Legislative Process </li></ul>
  19. 19. Congress Speaks as One <ul><li>a bill passed in the House must be passed in the Senate and vice versa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>must work out differences so bills are identical - joint conference comte </li></ul></ul><ul><li>up-or-down vote - bill gets voted on again, no more chances for changes </li></ul>
  20. 20. President Takes Action <ul><li>President has 10 days to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sign the bill into law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>veto the bill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>take no action - becomes law anyway at end of 10 days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>if not 10 days remaining - pocket veto </li></ul>
  21. 21. Override Veto <ul><li>Congress can override veto with 2/3 vote of House and Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>difficult to do </li></ul></ul>

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