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    Training And Development Training And Development Document Transcript

    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011Study of the Principle for Team Working Techniques And Team working effectiveness At Shoppers Stop NAME OF STUDENT NAME OF COURSE MODULE NAME OF DEPARTMENT SUBMITTED TO NAME OF UIVERSITY TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 1
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011 Dissertation Submitted to the …………………………………. In Partial fulfillment of the requirements ofMaster of Business Administration, awarded by the ……………………………. (May 2011) TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 2
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011 DECLARATIONTo be written by the student. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 3
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011 TABLE OF CONTENTSDECLARATION .................................................................................................................................................. 3DEDICATION AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................................... 8CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................. 9 1.1. BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: ........................................................................................................................9 1.1.1. Defining Team: ..........................................................................................................................................10 1.1.2. Defining Team Work: ................................................................................................................................11 1.1.3. Defining Team Building: ............................................................................................................................12 1.1.4. Types of Team: ..........................................................................................................................................13 1.1.5. The Team Task: .........................................................................................................................................14 1.1.6. Team Effectiveness: ..................................................................................................................................14 1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: .....................................................................................................................................16CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: ............................................................................................................. 17 2.1 INTRODUCTION: ................................................................................................................................................18 2.1.1 The advantages and disadvantages of a Team Work: ................................................................................18 2.1.2 Motivation Theories associated with Team Work: ....................................................................................19 2.1.2.1 Mc Gregor’s Theory of X and Y: ..............................................................................................................19 2.1.2.2. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: ................................................................................................................20 2.1.2.3. Herzbergs motivation hygiene theory: .................................................................................................21 2.1.2.4 Theory of Group Development and Behaviour: ......................................................................................22 2.1.2.5. Team Role Theory - Meredith Belbin: ....................................................................................................25 2.1.2.6. Theory of Interpersonal Communication: ..............................................................................................28 2.1.2.7. Knowledge, Skill, and Ability (KSA) Requirements for Teamwork: ........................................................31 2.1.2.8. Obstruction in Team Work: ....................................................................................................................33 2.1.2.9 Conflict Resolution in Team Work: .........................................................................................................35 2.1.2.10. Communication style: ..........................................................................................................................36 2.1.2.11. Listening: ..............................................................................................................................................39 2.1.2.12. Training: ...............................................................................................................................................41 2.1.2.13. Goal Setting and Performance Management: .....................................................................................41 2.2 CONCLUSIVE REMARKS: ...........................................................................................................................................44CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .............................................................................................................. 44 3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN: .................................................................................................................................................45 3.2 RESEARCH METHOD:...............................................................................................................................................45 3.3 QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH: .......................................................................................................................................45 3.4 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: .........................................................................................................................................45 3.5 DATA COLLECTION: .................................................................................................................................................46 3.6 QUESTIONNAIRES: ..................................................................................................................................................46 3.7 APPENDIX II...........................................................................................................................................................47 3.7.1 Questionnaire A: ........................................................................................................................................47 3.8 APPENDIX II...........................................................................................................................................................47 3.8.1 Questionnaire B:.........................................................................................................................................47 TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 4
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011 3.9 STRUCTURED INTERVIEW:.........................................................................................................................................48 3.10 SAMPLING STRATEGY: ...........................................................................................................................................49 3.11DATA ANALYSIS: ....................................................................................................................................................49 3.12 LIMITATION: ........................................................................................................................................................49 3.13 RESOURCES: ........................................................................................................................................................50 3.14. ETHICAL CONSIDERATION ......................................................................................................................................50 3.13 DISSERTATION SCHEDULE: ......................................................................................................................................51 3.14 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY: .....................................................................................................................................51 3.15: CONCLUSION: .....................................................................................................................................................52CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS OF DATA................................................................................................... 53 4.1 PERCEPTION OF EMPLOYEE’S AT SHOPPERS STOP: .........................................................................................................53 4.2 “JO JITA WOHI SIKANDER” – "WINNERS ARE CHAMPIONS!" (HINDU BUSINESS LINE, 2003) .................................................53 4.3 FACTORS DETERMINING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF WORKING AS A TEAM:...............................................................................56 4.3.1 The Four Factors of Execution: ..................................................................................................................58 4.4 TRAINING:.............................................................................................................................................................59 4.4.1 Induction programmes: .............................................................................................................................59 4.5 DATA ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................................................60CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ......................................................................................... 67 5.1 FINDINGS: .............................................................................................................................................................67 5.1.1. The main positive trends observed are summarized below: ....................................................................67 5.1.2 The main improvement area observed is summarized below: ..................................................................67 5.2 SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO OVERCOME THE ABOVE PROBLEM: ..................................................................68 5.2.1 Recommendation 1: ...................................................................................................................................68 5.2.2 Recommendation 2: ...................................................................................................................................68 LIST OF TABLES:TABLE 1. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TEAM AND WORKING GROUP....................................................................................11TABLE 2.COLLABORATING DATA....................................................................................................................................60TABLE 3 CO-EXISTING DATA ...............................................................................................................................................61TABLE 4. CO-CREATING DATA.............................................................................................................................................62TABLE 5 COMPENSATING DATA ...........................................................................................................................................63TABLE 6. CO-OPERATING DATA...........................................................................................................................................64TABLE 7 DATA FOR CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENTS ..................................................................................................................65 LIST OF FIGURES:FIGURE 1. BELBIN TEAM ROLE MODEL; SOURCE: HTTP://WWW.EMERALDINSIGHT.COM/JOURNALS.HTM?ARTICLEID=1573032&SHOW=HTML ............................................... 10FIGURE 2TEAM BUILDING. SOURCE: HTTP://WWW.LAYNETWORKS.COM/TEAM-BUILDING.HTML..............................................13FIGURE 3 TEAM EFFECTIVENESS MODEL. SOURCE:KATZENBACH & SMITH, 1993. ........................................................15FIGURE 4 STAGES OF TEAM EFFECTIVENESS. SOURCE:HTTP://TECHDOERTIMES.COM/BOOSTING-EFFECTIVENESS/FOUR-STAGES-OF- TEAM-EFFECTIVENESS ............................................................................................................................................... 22 TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 5
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011FIGURE 5BELBINS TEAM ROLES. SOURCE:HTTP://WWW.BNE.UWE.AC.UK/FLIC/CONSTRUCTION_SITE/6069/SECTION8.HTM.......25FIGURE 6. COLLABORATING CHART REPRESENTATION ..............................................................................................................61FIGURE 7. CO-EXISTING CHART REPRESENTATION ...................................................................................................................62FIGURE 8 CO-CREATING CHART REPRESENTATION ..................................................................................................................63FIGURE 9 COMPENSATING CHART REPRESENTATION ...............................................................................................................64FIGURE 10. CO-OPERATING REPRESENTATION CHART .............................................................................................................65FIGURE 11 CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENTS REPRESENTATION CHART ..........................................................................................66 TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 6
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011ABSTRACTTeam work is considered as a powerful tool which contributes to the success of a company.Team work culture is introduced from the day one, the employee gets hired and all activitiesrevolve around developing a team work culture in the employee. His performance is monitoredfrom day one and feedback given as and when required to correct the actions. Growth andexpansion is a long continuing development that engross a collection of actions intended toincrease the personal and professional skills of a worker with the assistance of on-the-job andoff-the-job learning and development. The achievement of any team solely lies on the assortmentof appropriate technique to approach a problem and in a proper way. This includes involvementof team members in deciding the right course of action to approach a problem. This constructsthe common sense of accountability and sense of custody towards the besieged objective. Theawareness of employees plays a very decisive role in making a triumphant team. Thisdissertation critically investigates various theories of motivation and team work to get an in-depth understanding of what motivates team members to remain committed to the achieve teamgoals. This study also focuses its attention on the important ingredients of team dynamics andteam work that are instrumental in team working effectiveness.The main aim of this dissertation is to Study the ―Principle for Team Working Techniques andTeam Working Effectiveness‖. For this study "Shoppers Stop" a leading retail chain store inIndia has been selected. The information has been collected with the aid of survey technique andpre-decided opinion poll from large number of respondents. The opinion poll contains two sets ofquestions with 15 questions each, one for team members and other for department managers. Thedissertation emphasizes different confronts, advantages and disadvantages, and obstacles faced inteam work environment and the challenges that the team manager and team member face in theprocess of achieving the desired team goals and to become an effective team. In the conclusion,this study puts forward commendation and further suggestions to Shoppers Stop that desires toadvance the efficacy of teams to achieve greater success and strong hold in the market. This is auseful construct of work that offers abundant scope for investigating the philosophies of team TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 7
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011work milieu and its usefulness, this topic can be used by readers for further insight into thissubject. DEDICATION AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSTo be written by the student. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 8
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION1.1. BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE:Academic literature highlights the significance of team for organizational success in the today‘seconomy." Many articles have been written about designing empowered or self directed teams"(Byham & Wilson, 1991; Bailey, 1996).The use of team has expanded as an answer tocompetitive challenges. ―Teams are ubiquitous". Teams are the critical unit that ‗‗gets thingsdone‘‘ in all field like software development, Olympic hockey, disease outbreak response, orurban warfare. In this complex, technological sophisticated world the need for rapid response,collaboration among team members has led to outcomes that could not be accomplished byindividuals alone‖. (Source: Psychology Journal, Marks, 2006). ―Team working has been a focalpoint of interest for practitioners and academics for more than half a century‖ (Bayerlein, 2000cited in Van Hootegem et al, 2005) Antoni, (2005:174) highlighted that in the past manycompanies in order to increase their effectiveness and to match with international competitionused team work. However according to Watson, (1994), ―The team working is regarded as amixed blessing of success and failure‖The main focus of this study is on ―TEAM WORK‖ in an organisational setting. This includesteam that provide customer services in departmental store. Attention is restricted to studies ofteam effectiveness in terms of performance, attitudinal, or behavioural, are captured fromindividual team and organisation. Research indicates that team work in an organization is usefulfor increasing effective and soft operations of a section. The dissertation includes a case studybased research work which took place at Shoppers Stop in a chain of stores in Hyderabad, India.The research also considered organization and its employee‘s outlook on team work.The output of this research gives insights to team work and its significance as well as a betterperception of team creation and team development techniques in the store. This piece of studylargely focuses on the analysis of the development of teams at Shopper Stop, Hyderabad. Asthere is hardly any study present on Indian departmental store on team work effectiveness, thisresearch is useful in revealing the hidden facts on team work. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 9
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011 Figure 1. BELBIN TEAM ROLE MODEL; SOURCE: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1573032&show=html1.1.1. Defining Team:Larson and Lafasto, (1989) cited in Manion et al. (1996:5) defined that,‖ A team has two or morepeople and a specific performance objective or recognizable goal to be attained. Coordination ofactivity among team members is required to achieve the team goal or objective‖.A team is a "high-performing task group whose members is actively interdependent and sharecommon performance objectives"(Frances and Young, 1992).From the above definition it can be implied that the difference between a team and a groupcomes from the shared goal of the team. It is imperative to note down that not all groups areteams. Table.1 provides the differentiating guideline between team and working group: TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 10
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011 Table 1. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TEAM AND WORKING GROUP Team Working Group Common leadership roles focused leadership role Collective work Individual work Discuss, decides and execute Discuss decides and delegates Open-ended discussions Efficient meetingsTeam differs from working group in the aspect that team requires individual and mutualaccountability. Team requires debate, discussions, brainstorming sessions to reach consensus.Katzenback and Smith Douglas, (1993) stated that "Team is a small number of people withcomplementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals andapproach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable".In addition Archer, (1996:36) listed the principle characteristics of a team as follows: Successful teams have clearly defined short term and long term goals which are specific and measurable. Have clarity of commitment to team objective Support creativity and innovation Successful teams have proven daily objectives which help to achieve goals.1.1.2. Defining Team Work:Team work is the practice in which a group of individuals perform jointly and try to accomplishthe common objective. The members of the team may come together voluntarily, or have vestedinterest in achieving common goal. The affiliates of the team realize what is obligatory fromthem and what they anticipate from other members of the assemblage. In team work individualmembers have to keep away personal differences to work together to reach their common goal.Successful communication among the team associates, information distribution and constructionof a sagacity of unison in the team is imperative for accomplishment of the team effort. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 11
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011According to Robbins, (1998) there are three types of team operational planning. They are―problem solving teams, management quality circles and product development teams”. ―Problemsolving teams‖ have a small number of employees from the same department; they meet onweekly basis to discuss on issues such of quality, efficiency and improving working conditions.The conceptualization of team effectiveness is based on the common sense of an input–process–output formulated by McGrath (Salas et al., 1992). In this framework, inputs refer to thecomposition of the team individual characteristics and resources at multiple levels (individual,team, and organisation). The activities performed by the team members, determines jobcommands. "Although team processes are by definition dynamic, they are most typicallyaddressed in static terms—as constructs that emerge over time as team members interact and theteam develops"(Kozlowski et al., 1999). "Output has three facets: (a) performance judged byrelevant others external to the team; (b) meeting of team-member needs; and (c) viability, or thewillingness of members to remain in the team" (Hackman, 1987).1.1.3. Defining Team Building:Team Building is collection of different activities designed for improving team performance.Team building can range from activities like mutual trust building exercise to multifarioussimulations, a multi-day team building crowd evaluation, and lively participative games. TeamBuilding is focused towards the following activities: Motivating a team Improving team productivity Making the workplace more enjoyable Improving communication within the team Developing self-regulation strategies Learning strengths and weaknesses Bringing everyone "onto the same page", including goal settingKatzenbach and Smith Douglas (1999) "A demanding performance challenge tends to create ateam. The quest tom perform better is further significant to team victory than team-buildingactivities, unique spur, or team managers with superlative performances. In reality, teamsfrequently plan such challenging performances and activities without much support from the TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 12
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011management authority. Conversely, potential teams without such challenges usually fail tobecome teams."Pheiffer (The Encyclopaedia of Team-Building Activities 2-3) lists four phases of team-buildingprocess:1) Sensing;2) Diagnosing;3) Resolving identified issues;4) Follow through. Figure 2TEAM BUILDING. SOURCE: http://www.laynetworks.com/Team-Building.html1.1.4. Types of Team:There are four types of teams identified in organisation namely Work team, parallel teams,project teams and management teams. In this research focus will be on management team."Management team coordinates and gives direction to the sub units, laterally integratinginterdependent sub units across key business processes" (Mohrman, et al. 1995). For the wholeperformance of a business entity .its influence stalks from the chain of command of its associatesand for the overall success of the unit the management squad is accountable. The managementteam comprises of the managers accountable for each one of the subunits. "The executivemanagement team determines the firm strategic direction and manages its performance. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 13
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011Management team achieves competitive advantage by applying and implementing collectiveexpertise, integrating disparate efforts, and sharing responsibility for the success of the firm".(Mankin et al., 1996)1.1.5. The Team Task:The main focus of the team is to accomplish the goals, roles, and task. This is the main factorthat separates the social-psychological perspective from organisational perspective. It is veryessential to have interpersonal interaction within the team. The individuals in the team should setaside the individual differences and capabilities and should work together. The team can beeffective only when the members have necessary knowledge, skills, abilities, or resources toresolve the issue."The primary focus is on teams that do things and in the process of strivingtoward and accomplishing goals decisions have to be taken to invent, create, and adapt solutionsto resolve task-driven problems."(Kozlowski & Ilgen, 2006)1.1.6. Team Effectiveness:According to Cohen and bailey (1996) "Approach to effectiveness includes the multiplicity ofoutcomes that matter in organisational settings. These outcomes occur at several levels: at theindividual, group, business unit, and organisational level". Achievement or disappointment canbe associated with one another. The Effectiveness at one level of analysis can influenceeffectiveness at another level. It is essential to know the factors that determine effectiveness andthe level at which it is been considered. The effectiveness can be assessed as quantity and qualityof output, member‘s attitude and behavioural outcomes.The well structured with right people is not always successful. The best teams are well designedup front, yet just because a team has the right people doesn‘t mean that it will be successful.Kozlowski & Ilgen, (cited in Marks, 2006) states "What we know about the way team membersinteract that leads to success" Marks (2006). ―We learn that the best teams leverage theknowledge and expertise of their members and are confident to allocate their resourcesappropriately, and coordinate their collective actions well."The losing teams do not have a collective mindset. They are not able to manage conflict and theirattention gets diverted from core tasks, they don‘t learn from mistakes, and they don‘t back eachother up when needed. The endearing team members are profoundly dedicated to one another‘s TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 14
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011individual augmentation and accomplishment. The feat of activities is the core of concern forteams; it is just the assets and not the conclusionAn effective team is characterised by:• Understanding and appreciation by all team members• Two-way communication between team members• Planning and agreed decision-making processes• Honest evaluation of activities and results• Celebration of and recognition of the accomplishments Figure 3 TEAM EFFECTIVENESS MODEL. SOURCE:KATZENBACH & SMITH, 1993.The best practice research acknowledges these above characteristics and that the teams functionwell when certain core conditions are met. The team should have a fixed rationale, precision andtransparency with collective and mutual morals and ethics and in tenor with individual functions. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 15
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011The teams in which individuals have mutual respect for each other and loyalty to the team areconsidered as successful teams. Such team members complement and compensate each otherwhen necessary for the different skill of the individual members. The members take equalacceptance and accountability for both triumph and disappointment, and team members areanswerable amongst themselves about the decision taken coherently. Team members in arecommitted to resolve to compromise on their differences and acknowledges collective andpersonal commitment to the team. The team members get benefitted from high echelon ofreliance and perform as autonomous entities.The Effective Teamwork Questionnaire is aimed at identifying five characteristics which areintegral to creating an environment where authentic team-work can thrive. The questionnaire hasbeen deliberately framed to support the team head and his/her team corresponding associates tomeasure the intensity and superiority of team-performance amongst themselves and to recognizethose aspects which need perfection and improvement. It can also be employed by various teamsto converse and be in agreement, how teamwork could be enhanced and increased betweenthemselves and between other cohesive and functional departments.1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:This research focuses on importance of team work and team working techniques, and to supportthe discussion, we have taken the example of Shoppers Stop, a retain chain in India. Becauseteam work is an essential ingredient for the successful performance of the organization, thereforeit is necessary to investigate in detail what are the necessary components of a team work andhow a team can perform efficiently under the administration of a good team leader.Communication and motivation are some additional points which have been stressed over here asit is known that if the team is self-motivated and well versed then they can exceed theexpectations of the authority. On the ground work of empirical results from Shoppers Stop retailchain in India, the research investigates the effect of team work and the strategies adopted bythem for better performance and productivity.This research attempts to accomplish following objectives: To understand the perception of employees regarding their Team Performance To understand the perception of employees regarding their Team Manager and their TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 16
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011organization.To determine the factors, that is considered important by various individuals and teammanagers in determining the effectiveness of working in a team.To explore the strengths and weaknesses of the existing Team.To study the organisation principle of team work and the techniques implemented andbuild up teams at shopper stop, Hyderabad in India.To investigate the team working effectiveness at shopper stop, Hyderabad.To provide detailed recommendations that the organization can undertake in order toimprove the effectiveness of their team leading to better employee motivation. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 17
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011 CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:2.1 INTRODUCTION:This part of the dissertation tries to use the literary evidence given by various authors to supportthe discussion and also it given ample scope for a reader to go through various opinion andsuggestions as put forward by various authors and scholars.2.1.1 The advantages and disadvantages of a Team Work:Many propositions have been made so far regarding team work. According to Morrison, (1998)the greatest declaration so far is the concept of synergy. It is possible for a good team to achievetargeted goal which may not be possible for a single individual. According to Morrison, (1998)there are multifarious attractions for the team work which are as follows: 1. The team can handle a greater number of challenges; attain greater number of tasks and responsibilities compared than the number of tasks attained by a single person or one individual. 2. Commitment towards work is increased in a manifold manner which results in lower absenteeism and lesser number of attrition rates. 3. The overall quality of solutions to the problems is more improved. 4. Commitment to carry out a task and to find its solutions will be much more if the team is given the responsibility for working on the solutions. 5. The cross functional boundaries are crossed and a new dimension of work area is created with effective team work. 6. Due to assembly of several persons in a team, the overall talent pool is increased and larger variety of skills is explored as a whole. 7. Teams are responsible for expanding and increasing the ―promotability and flexibility‖. 8. A much improved communication and accurate relations are established between the team members. 9. Peer demands are also ostensible. 10. The burden gets shared across and a fair solution is obtained. 11. Teamwork needs a particular strategy to get operated in a healthy atmosphere. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 18
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011 12. Overall growth and expansion is improved through mutual collaboration. 13. Team work increases the mutual respect between people. 14. Team Work is the only good choice when there is a constraint of time and tasks are needed to be done in a short timeline.2.1.2 Motivation Theories associated with Team Work:2.1.2.1 Mc Gregor’s Theory of X and Y:McGregor Douglas (1960) proposed that there are two basic management philosophies, which hecalled ―theory X and theory Y‖.In this study this has been observed that the factors from ―Theory X and Theory Y‖ areapplicable in team motivation of staff members at Shoppers Stop. It has been observed that thistheory of Mc Gregor is implemented at Shoppers Stop which has lead to high level of motivationof team members.Theory XThe theory X states that an average individual commonly: Refuse to accept changes Detests exertion and try to keep away from work. Is self-centred and doesnt care for organizational goals Has no ambitions, wants no responsibility, and would rather follow then to leadTheory X assumes that average person works for money and security.Theory YThe theory Y is based on the conjecture that common persons: Endeavour for a particular task is same as that of in an amusement. Apply self-control and self- direction in the pursuit of organisational objectives Commitment to objective achievement is associated with reward Capacity to use imagination, creativity in solving problems is widely distributed in population TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 19
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011 Intellectual potential is partly utilised.Theory Y holds that firm can improve the motivational level of its employees by Decentralizing and Delegation Broadening the scope of employees job Participative Management Performance AppraisalsIf implemented properly, this would lead to high level of motivation of employees. "Intellectualcreativity cannot be involuntary and directed the way we program and direct an assembly line oran accounting department but it is inherent within an individual. This theory explainssuccessfully why motivation is necessary for better team performance.2.1.2.2. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:Maslow, (1970) introduced five-stage model of ―Hierarchy of Needs, which states that we mustsatisfy each need starting with the first, which deals with the most obvious needs for survivalitself.In this study it has been found that the satisfaction of these needs listed in this theory is quitehealthy at Shoppers Stop because of various programs flourishing in team work model atShoppers Stop. The management has created a healthy atmosphere for competition and has givenspace for each individual team member to select his motivation factor.In this dissertation an endeavour has been made to identify Shoppers Stops staff motivatingfactors. Maslows theory of motivation help the managers in finding various ways of motivatingthe employees and managing the personnel.The foundation of Maslows hypothesis of motivation tries to portray that individuals areencouraged by unmet requirements. He recognised that few of the less important needs should befulfilled before superior needs can be satisfied. According to Maslow, (1970) there are basicneeds such as ―physiological, safety, love, and esteem‖ which needs to get satisfied before aperson is capable to extend help for others in the team. These needs are termed as "deficiency TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 20
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011needs." As a person gets motivated to fulfil these fundamental necessities, they continue to movetoward growth, and eventually self-actualization.2.1.2.3. Herzbergs motivation hygiene theory:Herzberg Frederick (1959) ―theory of motivation‖ is also known as a ―two factor theory‖. Thetheory takes into consideration that motivation consists of ―hygiene factors‖ and ―motivationfactors‖.“Hygiene Factors” as stated by Herzberg, (1959) influence the intensity of discontent, but areinfrequently referred as initiators of job contentment. The factors are: Remuneration Administration Interpersonal Associations Physical condition and working atmosphere.“Motivation Factors” as cited by Herzberg, (1959) as the cause of job satisfaction include: Advancement Achievement Recognition ResponsibilityThe above factors are needed to avoid unpleasantness and discomfort and meet the need forpersonal development. Motivation factors are required to motivate an employee to higherperformanceIn this study the focus was to analyse the impact of Hygiene and Motivation factor on ShopperStops staff. It has been found that the management has taken due consideration in implementingthis theory as well. The hygiene factors and motivation factors are incorporated in all themotivation schemes launched for the team members better performance. There are recognitionand achievement programs that run across Shoppers Stop to motivate them and recognize theireffort in making the company a leader in the market. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 21
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 20112.1.2.4 Theory of Group Development and Behaviour:A four staged framework of ―group development and behaviour‖ has been developed byTuckman, 1965. Tuckman‘s Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing model is simple, itcover developments in relationships, team capabilities and leadership styles which spread overthe lifetime of a team. In the 1970s, Tuckman completed his model by including ―Adjourning‖,stage in the model.The focus of this study is also to observe the stages that a team goes through during itsdevelopment life cycle at Shoppers Stop. It has been observed that the team goes through all thefour stages of Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing at Shoppers Stop.Figure 4 STAGES OF TEAM EFFECTIVENESS. SOURCE:http://techdoertimes.com/boosting-effectiveness/four-stages-of-team- effectiveness1. FormingThe first stage where team is formed by bringing the employees together and the duties areallocated to each of them. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 22
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011The main focus at this stage is research activities and collecting information. Planning is the nextstep which is followed at this stage. The teams that understand the team culture at this stage aremore likely to perform better at later stages. At this stage the team members get to know eachother and start breaking the barriers and silence in effort to building healthy relations ship.The team members work as individuals and their hesitation to approach other team members maylead to resistance. The leader‘s authority is not recognised and there remain lots of questions onhis leadership authority. The leaders show an inclination towards the dictatorial style ofleadership. The leader at this stage should communicate clearly the project objectives and shouldwelcome questions raised by team members. The questions rose by team members should beanswered properly and with a reason to build confidence in leader‘s capability and competence.The leader should aim at developing a greater bond among the team members to be successful atthis stage.2. StormingAt this stage the team brainstorm to reach consensus. The team members generate ideas based ontheir learning and experience and expertise to work towards resolving issues in project. Theysuggest solutions and discuss their ideas to outline plans and develop specifications. Superior andinferior relations are formed amongst the members and they may become set. Power struggleserupts as team members discuss alternative solutions. This power struggle and drive forconsensus is counter-productive if not addressed properly. The leader should take up afacilitative approach, allowing judgment of decisions, but should be ready to give the concludingopinions if disparaging and time-consuming incongruities persist and impede the process of finaldecision making. It is significant that the team should not divert away from the target.Responsibilities should be restructured to ascertain a smooth movement to the subsequent phase.3. NormingThe norming stage is where team is performing in a balanced fashion and has reached a stage ofharmony in shared principles and policies. Major decisions are made by the whole group, whiledelegation based on skills and roles lets team members contribute fully. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 23
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011Acknowledgment of each other‘s strengths and contributions leads to greater group unity.Relationships are fortified and teams start doing social activities which are included within thepurview of work.The leader has leverage to step back a little at this stage as team members start to share theleadership responsibility for parts of the project. The Leader should be well aware of the wholescope of the project undertaken. Satisfaction can become a threat, as all operations start to runvery smoothly without any hurdles. There should still be a focus on objectives to ensure that theproject is driven forward. Timescales and resourcing should be carefully monitored to ensure thisfocus.PerformingWhen team performs well with minimum intervention from the management, it is said to beperforming stage. The team is able to work with wider frame of mind and behaves morepurposefully while trying to achieve goal. Disputes become the positive contribution factors indecision making process. The members value each others opinion and suggestions. The teamaffiliates look for acknowledgment of their abilities and gives stress on individual andprofessional advancement. They look for getting trained for next level of their role next time.The team members have high independence and pay attention to what others have to say in theteam. The team works on criteria and can handle the project independently to exceedexpectations.The leader who has a team at this stage can take a monitoring role for his team and canconcentrate on building new ideas for new projects. The teams that reach such a stage are veryeffective for the organizations success. Many teams are not able to reach such stage because theteam members have not reached the maturity stage to work at this level.The team members at performing stage are very effective and are flexible to adjust their style ofworking according to the development stage and ability to recognise the hallmark if the leaderwho brought forward the best from the team working ..Adjourning TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 24
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011Tuckman included this ―Adjourning Stage‖ in the 1970s, to explain the ending of the venturewith the fragmentation of the team members. Team members find this stage as a departing stageand are unsettling and even threatening for them as they move at the next project. At thisjuncture the organisation rejoices the triumphant victory of ending the project. The organizationsthank members for their contribution towards completion of the project successfully.2.1.2.5. Team Role Theory by Meredith Belbin:Belbin, (1970) defined Team Role as: ―A tendency to behave, contribute and interrelate withothers in a particular way.‖ Belbin, (1970) recognized nine team functions and he classified theseroles into three categories: Figure 5BELBINS TEAM ROLES. SOURCE:http://www.bne.uwe.ac.uk/flic/construction_site/6069/section8.htmA. “Action Oriented”: This category includes people like: 1. ―Shapers‖ 2. ―Implementers‖ 3. ―Completer Finisher‖B. “People Oriented”: This group contains: 4. ―Co-ordinator‖ 5. ―Team worker‖ 6. ―Resource Investigator‖ TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 25
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011C. “Thought Oriented”: This group is comprised of: 7. ―Plant‖, 8. ―Monitor Evaluator‖ 9. ―Specialist‖A. “Action directed Responsibilities”:1. ―Shapers (SH)‖According to Belbin, (1970) the gregarious persons, who challenges team members to progressare called ―shapers‖. They enjoy stimulating other team members to find best solutions toproblems. They investigate all the potentials to make a resolution of the problems or subjectmatter of concern at hand. Such people are argumentative and may be offending at times hurtingothers feelings. Such people have the valour to move forward when others relinquishes.2. ―Implementer (IMP)‖People who are catalyst and turn the team members ideas into practical action plans areimplementers. Such people are disciplines, systematic and conservative. These people are verystructured and dependable. Such people show resistance to change and are at times inflexible.3. ―Completer Finisher (CF)‖These people are responsible to impel the project to reach a conclusion and are known as―Completer Finishers‖ Belbin (1970). They compel for precision and flawlessness in deliveranceof the task. They look for intricate inaccuracies and errors and give concentration to diminutiveparticulars. They keep the deadline in mind and push the team to strive for completion on time.They are purist. They often fret gratuitously and find tough time to hand over their job.B. Person Oriented Responsibilities:4. ―Coordinator (CO)‖People who guide the team according to what they perceive and they are excellent listeners andplanners. They realise the potential of each team member and remain calm, good natured. Theytrust in entrustment and prove to be very effective. At times they may over delegate the task andare manipulative. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 26
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 20115. ―Team Worker (TW)‖Team Workers are the major constituents who provide sustenance and make certain that the teamis operating together, hand in hand. They carry out the role of mediators in the team and they aresupple, tactical, and intuitive. They become soon very popular among team members as they notonly quite efficiently manage their own tasks and authorities but also keep in mind about teamstrength and help other members to work properly. They have a propensity towards faltering, andcontinue being in an apathetic position during negotiations and administrative decisions.6. ―Resource Investigator (RI)‖Resource Investigators are pioneering and inquisitive people and they love to explore accessiblealternatives, build up connections, and parley for assets on behalf of the team members. They arepassionate individuals and recognize how to work in unison with outside people to assist theteam complete its tasks. They are open, and often they are found quite receptive of others ideasand opinions. They may lose eagerness rapidly, and are frequently excessively confident.C. “Contemplation Directed Roles”:7. ―Plant (PL)‖According to Belbin, (1970) the ―Plant‖ is the imaginative trendsetter and are always jugglingwith new information and imaginations. They prosper on praise but criticism is especially hardfor them to deal with. Plants are seldom reclusive and prefer to work alone; they can beunrealistic at times. They are also sometimes poor in communicating and can be inclined to payno attention to specified limitations and constrictions.8. ―Monitor – Evaluator (ME)‖Monitor-Evaluators are apt at scrutinizing and assessing information that other people maycontribute. These people are perceptive and purposeful and they cautiously ponder over all thedos and don‘ts of an available choice before making any firm decision. ―Monitor-Evaluators‖ areindispensable philosophers and very planned and calculative in their movements. They are oftenprofessed as disconnected or dispassionate individuals. Sometimes they are meagre motivatorswho act in response to proceedings rather than encouragements. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 27
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 20119. ―Specialist (SP)‖According to Belbin, (1970) ―Specialists have specialized knowledge that is needed to get thejob done‖. They are quite proud of their skills and capabilities, and they continuously strive tomaintain their proficient status. They are basically experts in particular areas and they are fullydedicated to their work. This can restrict their involvement, and may portray an obsession withprocedures at the expenditure of the greater representation.In the present study at Shoppers Stop it has been found that team members are functional in allthe nine roles as identified in this theory. It has been explored that there exist a productiveworking relationships, high performing teams, personal effectiveness and mutual trust andunderstanding at Shoppers Stop.2.1.2.6. Theory of Interpersonal Communication:SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY (SET):Social exchange theory explains and predicts the relationship maintenance in team workenvironment.Thibaut and Kelley, (1959), developed this theory to clarify when and why individuals developsome personal relationships while breaking others. This theory also highlights how satisfied youwill be with the relationships that you choose to maintain.Exchange concept advancement to social associations is based on the judgment of compensationand outlay.Thibaut and Kelley‘s (1959) theory considers personal relationships in terms of costs versusbenefits. The rewards you receive from a given relationship, and the cost you pay to obtain thoserewards.A. Assumptions of Social Exchange Theory: Three assumptions that guide SET are1. Individual associations2. ―The minimax principle‖. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 28
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 20113. In nature human individuals are self-centred.These assumptions are explained more clearly within the frame of SET‘s. The three importantcomponents are: outcome, comparison level, and comparison level of alternatives.B. Main Components of ―Social Exchange Theory‖: Three main ingredients of social exchangetheory are:1. ―Social relationships bring both rewards and costs‖. {Rewards − Costs = Outcome} (Thibaut& Kelley, 1959).Relational recommendation assist in attain precise objectives. The rewards or cost are perceiveddifferently by different people. It is advocated that the rewards outweigh the costs, resulting in apositive outcome value. If perceived value of the relationship yields more drawbacks thanbenefits, a negative outcome value will result. The outcome can be considered as a benchmark tomeasure the relationship rewards. Individuals begin to determine satisfaction and stability of thatrelationship, as well as the likelihood of its continuing.2. ―Comparison level‖.―The rewards which are expected by a person in a particular relationship is known as comparisonlevel‖ (Thibaut & Kelley, 1959).Expectations are based on associations. What is expected in a relationship is what individualscompare their current outcome value with their CL. In other words, if the perceived value ismore of rewards than costs in your relationship this is perceived as exceeds your expectations forthe relationship. This indicates that:Outcome > CL: Conversely, if the perceived cost is more that the reward a sense ofdissatisfaction is predicted (CL > Outcome). Predicting the satisfaction with a relationship isdependent on a positive outcome value that also meets or exceeds one‘s expectations (CL).3. Evaluation stage of substitutes. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 29
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011Thibaut and Kelley, (1959) recognized that simply determining one‘s satisfaction, ordissatisfaction, with a relationship is still not enough to predict whether the relationship willcontinue or end.There will always be handful of individuals who are dissatisfied with one of their personalrelationships—be it a friendship, team, or work partnership—but, despite their unhappiness,these individuals remain in that relationship. Why?According to Thibaut & Kelly, (1959) SET considers ―For any relationship to continue or end,individuals must also examine their comparison level of alternatives or CLalt" (Thibaut &Kelley, 1959).When the alternatives are perceived greater than your outcome and greater than our CL, therelationship ends. Even after being satisfied with a current relationship , you may perceive thatyour alternatives are even better, in that case SET predicts that you will terminate therelationship (represented mathematically by CLalt >Outcome > CL). With the help of abovetheory the predictions about the state and status of a relationship can be determined.SET has explained and predicted how an individual‘s decision is maintained or de-escalate in aparticular relationship. People appraise the remunerations and expenses linked with outstandingthings in their associations and also deem other available opportunities and alternatives.Predictions Made by Social Exchange TheoryOutcomes > CL (comparison level) = SatisfiedOutcomes < CL (comparison level) = DissatisfiedOutcomes > Clalt (comparison level of alternatives) = StayOutcomes < Clalt (comparison level of alternatives) = TerminateThis theory has provided a valuable insight to the relationship that exists in a team workenvironment. This has given a good understanding of team dynamics that takes place at ShoppersStop. This has also given insight to the reasons for decisions taken by team managers atShoppers Stop. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 30
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011Attributes such as initiative, trust, openness, helpfulness, flexibility, and supportiveness areroutinely mentioned as desirable team member characteristics (e.g., Kinlaw, 1991; Varney,1989), (Dyer, 1984:285-323). The use of teams has become an extremely popular work design inall types of organizations today. The eagerness for this task arrangement is so sturdy that it mightbe painstaking and leveled as a whimsical measure in contemporary management beliefs.2.1.2.7. Knowledge, Skill, and Ability (KSA) Requirements for Teamwork:According to Dyer (1984), there is very modest methodical information pertaining to whichinterpersonal skills are most advantageous. There is simple comprehensive predictability aboutthe requirement for "team players."A goal of this study is to understand interpersonal team member capabilities in such a way thatwill allow meaningful operation.In the sections interpersonal knowledge, skills and ability are acknowledged which individualteam members should possess to become effective team contributors: (1) conflict resolution; (2)combined problem solving; and (3) communication.INTERPERSONAL KSAs:“Conflict Resolution KSAs”: Dyer, (1984)1. The information, dexterities and aptitude to differentiate and support attractive, and disheartenobjectionable, player‘s divergence.2. The acquaintance, capabilities and talent to differentiate the kind and basis of disagreement inthe team and to put into practice a suitable disagreement resolve approach.3. The awareness, cleverness and capacity to make use of a win-win conciliation approachrelatively than to use the conventional win-lose stratagem.“Collaborative Problem Solving KSAs”:4. ―The knowledge, skills and ability to recognize situations that require participative groupproblem solving and to deploy proper degree and type of participation.‖ TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 31
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 20115. ―The knowledge, skills and ability to recognize the obstacles that obstruct collaborative groupproblem solving and implement appropriate corrective actions‖ Dyer, (1984).“Communication KSAs”:6. ―The knowledge, skills and ability to utilize decentralized networks to enhancecommunication where possible and to understand communication networks‖.7. ―The knowledge, skills and ability to communicate openly and supportively. This includessending messages which are: (1) behaviour- or event-oriented; (2) congruent; (3) validating; (4)conjunctive; and (5) owned‖.8. ―The knowledge, skills and ability to appropriately use active listening techniques‖.9. ―The knowledge, skills and ability to optimise balance between nonverbal and verbalmessages‖.10. ―The knowledge, skills and ability to engage in small talk, and recognition of theirimportance‖11. ―The knowledge, skills and ability to help establish challenging, and accepted team goals‖.12. ―The knowledge, skills and ability to evaluate, and provide feedback and monitor the overallteam performance and individual team member performance‖ Dyer (1984).“Planning and Task Coordination KSAs”:13. The acquaintance, expertise and aptitude to harmonize actions, data, and organize missioninterdependencies between group members.14. The knowledge, skills and ability to help determine the role expectations of individual teammembers, and balance workload in the team.Many problems facing work team solved in less time and with fewer disruptions. It may be ofdue importance to involve the entire team for several reasons. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 32
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011Participation of team members in every decision might not always be required. "The degree ofparticipation vary from situations to situation such as the importance of team acceptance,simplicity of the decision, significance of a wrong decision , accessibility of information, andcapability of the members "(Vroom & Jago, 1978). "The drawbacks of participation may resultin increased time requirements, lower quality decisions if members lack the ability to contribute,diminished individual responsibility, and the creation of an attitude of entitlement to involvementin all decisions" (Yukl, 1981).2.1.2.8. Obstruction in Team Work:"The problems with that deviates the team work in problem solving are suboptimalcompromises, egocentrism, inability to recognize suitable solutions, and domination by assertiveor egocentric members"(Falk & Johnson, 1977; Guzzo & Waters, 1982; Libby et al., 1987;Miner, 1984; Tjosvold & Field, 1983).(Janis, 1982)"groupthink phenomenon occurs whenever the desire for team harmony and unityinterfere with the ability to evaluate alternative solutions, leading to poor quality decisions".(Asch, 1956) "In conformity groups exert strong forces on members to conform to majorityopinions. Members can be influenced to accept team judgments even when they contradictreason or objective reality"Team members should recognize and avoid problems of groupthink and conformity.Techniques developed for avoiding obstacles to group problem solving 1. Restricting interactions so as to limit negative team influencesAn example is brainstorming which promotes imagination by separating idea generation fromevaluation. "It encourages new ideas by not allowing dampening criticism" (Bouchard,Barsaloux & Drauden, 1974; Diehl & Stroebe, 1991; Philipsen, Mulac & Dietrich, 1979). 2. Ostensible grouping procedure.In this technique the ideas are generated by team members privately and team meetingsencourage the tem members presenting and clarifying their ideas. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 33
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011"Decisions are made by private voting rather than trying to publicly resolve differences"(Delbecq, Van de Ven & Gustafson, 1975; Rogelberg, Barnes-Farrell & Lowe, 1992).This technique is effective where there exist poor relations in the team, or the topic is personal oremotional.There are other ways of solving group disagreements like ―Delphi technique, alternative groupvoting strategies, Stepladder technique‖, etc.The team members must use the principles of proper team structure formation during meetingsand gatherings and separate idea formation during assessments.The other factors that could also act as barricade in team work are:1. NarcissismNarcissism vests the wellbeing of everyone in a group – mostly seen in selfish persons. A teamshould function as a group working toward a common commitment, but selfishness causes theteam to disorient from target, as each individual strives toward what he sees as his interest. Insuch a divided state, the ―team‖ ceases to function as a one collective unit, and little, if anythingis accomplished.2. Half-heartednessWhen believe that the team is not accomplishing anything useful the people tend to work half -heartedly. This leads to lack of attention and will weaken the team‘s efficacy and it willeventually spread amongst others.3. UncooperativeExcessive antagonism within a team at times obliterates the capability of the team to work as onefunctional entity.For example, team members challenging for a raise may be lured to try to perform better thanteam members and snatch the existing opportunities. This act will increase disbelief, and theteam fails to achieve its objectives. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 34
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 20114. StubbornnessWhen team members become adamant and consider refusing new ideas and methods it becomesmajor problem. Team members who refuse to consider new processes and procedures willdestroy the team bonding and deviate the team from achieving its goals.2.1.2.9 Conflict Resolution in Team Work:The capability to successfully resolve disagreements is a significant characteristic for teammembers. Team conflict arises when "the actions of one or more members of the group areincompatible with, and resisted by, one or more of the other group members" (Forsyth, 1990, p.79). "Conflicts occur when members believe their different goals cannot be achievedsimultaneously" (Levine & Moreland, 1990).Conflicting situation in team work environment can be dealt in the following ways.1. SelflessnessTeam member own interests and work should be kept aside to work toward the goals of the team.If there are the selfish team members, the leader should show the member that he care for themand their goals, leader should convince the team member that they do not have to defend theirown interests. If team member maintains the selfish attitude and only think of oneself then theteam leader has to take necessary actions in order to resolve the issue or he may also land up inrequesting them to leave the team. Selfishness must be corrected in the very beginning becauseits malaises spread rapidly all over.2. DedicationTeam members who are passionate about the goal and who want to be on the team should beselected when building a team. If there is an uncommitted team member in the team, leadershould talk the problem over with the team member and take appropriate action. The membershould not feel disregarded and insignificant. In such team where leader cares about his teammember will gladly become dedicate participant. If a team member does not want to be on theteam, the best choice might be to let him go and choose a another dedicated replacementmember. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 35
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 20113. CollaborationCollaboration is very helpful in increasing team‘s efficiency. The team where there are nointernal contentions, the team is sure to successfully compete with other teams. If there is nocooperation in team, leader should call meeting to discuss the problems and should strive toresolve the conflicts as soon as possible. A team to be successful must have collaboration assuccess depends on contribution of all team members.4. FlexibilityA good team member should have a keen attitude to learn and maintain his long-held thoughtsand judgments at the first indication of a new-fangled contemplation. If team member introducesnew idea he should make it clear to his team members that he is putting a practical idea. Forsyth(1990), "group conflict is as common as group harmony". Conflicts are important to developunique solutions but should be moderate. Conflicts lead to sense the need for change and drawattention to problem areas.Coser, (1956) "The positive effects from conflict includes reducing stress, venting opinions,communicating dissatisfaction, fostering innovation, and stabilizing relationships by removingdissociating elements". "Conflicts should be addressed otherwise it will lead to serious negativeconsequences may occur, including hostility, reduced performance, and dissolution of the team"(Levine & Moreland, 1990; Nemeth & Staw, 1989).2.1.2.10. Communication style:Team members are open and interested to information, ideas, and feelings of others, and askquestions and consider issues from others perspective. The communication style usuallypracticed in effective teams is informal, relaxed, comfortable, and with no obvious tensions(Argyris, 1966; Likert, 1961; McGregor, 1960). In a well balanced team, members communicatewith one another and make sure that all important issues are discussed and resolved in a properway. This open and supportive style fosters a healthy relationship among team members.―The ability to develop an open communication style is a direct function of personalrelationships‖ (Jackson, 1988; Kinlaw, 1991; Larson & LaFasto, 1989). ―Members have an opencommunication style to the degree they can structure messages to be consonant with their TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 36
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011relationships, and good communication is instrumental in strengthen relationships‖ (Gudykunst,1991; Whetten & Cameron, 1991; Wiemann & Backlund, 1980).The ideologies that help the open and compassionate contact method are:1. ―Behavior oriented, not person-oriented‖.―Messages are less likely to elicit defensive reactions when they focus on characteristics of theproblem rather than the individual, are specific rather than general, are descriptive rather thanevaluative, and make comparisons to objective rather than subjective standards" (Gibb, 1961).2. ―Link between what the communicator feels and says‖."Such link leads to a matching of verbal and nonverbal messages, thus enhancingcommunication effectiveness" (Dyer, 1972; Rogers, 1961).3. ―Validates individuals‖."Messages that arouse negative feelings about self-worth, identity, and relatedness to others tendto invalidate. Messages are especially invalidating when they convey superiority, rigidity ofposition, or indifference towards the recipient" (Driskell, Olmstead & Salas, 1993).4.‖Conjunctive rather than disjunctive‖."Individuals communicate conjunctively and ensurs that everyone has equal opportunity tospeak, using appropriate timing in conversations, and ensuring that topics are not disconnected ormonopolized"(Wiemann & Backlund, 1980)."Empirical evidence exists that conjunctive as opposed to disjunctive communicators are judgedas more competent"(Wiemann, 1977).5.‖Owned, not disowned‖.Owning message is taking liability for ones statement and recognizing that the basis of aproposal is individual. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 37
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011Wilson Learning Social Style Profile is a tool that assist people understand their ownpreferences. It helps them to see how other people perceive them in the workplace, and learnskills to adapt to others‘ Social Styles.Wilson Learning accumulated research data from over seven million people; this datademonstrates that measurements of the three principal dimensions of Social Style—assertiveness, responsiveness, and Versatility—hold up across cultures and sales audiencesworldwide.The four Social Styles—Analytical, Driver, Amicable, and Expressive—are clearly andconsistently identified within and across multiple cultures.Characteristics of Analytical communication style are: Industrious, Need organization, HighStandards. His opposing style may be Expressive.Characteristics of Driver Communication Style are: Generates Ideas, Wants action and change,Needs to be in Charge, expects efficiency, and dislikes being controlled. His opposing style maybe Amiable.Characteristics of Expressive Communication Style are: Promotes ideas, wants to be liked,playful, need recognition, expects freedom, and likes to help. His opposing style may beAnalytical.Characteristics of Amiable Communication Style are: idea fulfiller, wants security, needappreciation, expects harmony, team player, needs organization. His opposing style may beDriver.1. Nonverbal communication:―Nonverbal communication is essential‖ (Driskell et al., 1993; McCaskey, 1979; Mullen, Salas& Driskell, 1989; Ridgeway, 1987; Ridgeway & Diekema, 1989; Sielski, 1979; Williams, 1989),and ―nonverbal communication can take precedents over verbal communication in certaincontexts‖ (DePaulo, Rosenthal, Eisenstat, Rogers & Finkelstein, 1978; Harrison, Hwalek, Raney& Fritz, 1978). TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 38
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011―Nonverbal communication is necessary and can take upper hand over verbal communication incertain aspects:Types of nonverbal communication,1. Paralinguistic‘s like pitch, rate, hesitations and loudness,2. Kinesics like facial expressions, body postures, gestures,3. Touch like handshake, pat on back, and arm around shoulder,4. Chronemics like making people wait,5. Iconics like size of desk or display of trophies,6. Proxemics like personal space, and7. Dress like clothing and physical appearance‖ Buck, (1984).Team members must recognize that nonverbal messages either reinforce or undermine verbalmessages"."To ensure that nonverbal messages enhance communication, members shouldunderstand underlying sentiments and their open disclosures" (Buck, 1984).Impressions of deception can be perceived if nonverbal communication is controlled. TeamMembers should appreciate nonverbal communication of others. The members should realizingthat others may not say precisely what they think and may not express their thoughts verballyand or have no choice but to use non-verbal modes."Nonverbal cues may allow team members toassess the emotional state of others" (Buck, 1984).2.1.2.11. Listening:―Listening‖ is a fundamental tool for communication. Feedback loop is necessary to ensure whatis listened and is comprehended and understood. ―It reduces the distortion between what is saidand what is understood‖ Thus listening is important to teams. ―The first component of goodlistening is to listen non-evaluative and hold judgment‖. "This is difficult because people tend toevaluate what they hear very rapidly" (Fiske & Neuberg, 1990).The listener tend to adjoin TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 39
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011psychological annotations to the significance of the message e.g., whether the conversationalistis straightforward or untruthful, perfect or erroneous."Listeners play a vital role to improve their understanding of messages by probing, reflecting,and deflecting. The probing, the listener encourages the speaker to elaborate, provide additionalinformation, or clarify the meaning" (Whetten & Cameron, 1991). When the listener reacts, thelistener replicates back to the communicator the message as it was heard and demonstrating thatthe listener is attentive, and understands the message in the same contest it is said. The listenerhelps the communicator better understand a problem by deflecting. Deflecting is used tocompare, reassure, and show that compassion is needed to avoid an uncomfortable situation.The following ways demonstrate to the speaker that listener is paying attention.1. Sustain eye contact;2. Dont stop the orator;3. Sit calmly;4. Jiggle your head in understanding;5. Sit straight and bend over toward the speaker;6. Reiterate directions and ask apposite queries when the orator has ended up.A good listener is conscientious and listens carefully to what the speaker wants to make clearthrough the speeches and remaining attentive at this point is very essential. The listener construesthe non-verbal reminders such as stance, facial appearances to comprehend the speaker.Hurdles to Listening: The following act as potential obstacles to listening.1. Predisposition or bigotry;2. Language differences or accents;3. Clamor;4. Worry, fright, or annoyance; and TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 40
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 20115. Deficient in of concentration distance.Team members should listen non-evaluative and should use active listening techniques.2.1.2.12. Training:In teamwork Knowledge Skills Ability s are important to perform a specific job, companies mustconsider whether such skills should be trained and how they can be trained.Many team building focus on necessary functioning of team that is related to the teamwork. Thefour approaches to training programs are goal setting, interpersonal, role, and problem solving.These training programs are to enhance Knowledge Skills and Ability and promote team work.Managers over teams should be trained in teamwork Knowledge Skills and Ability, irrespectivewhether the teams are self-managed or manager-led. The Knowledge Skills and Ability areessential tool for interacting with employee teams and for participating on management teams."It has been noted that managers of teams, especially autonomous work teams, need to developthe employees" (Cummings, 1978; Hackman & Oldham, 1980; Manz & Sims, 1987).Trainingmust not only ensure that managers possess teamwork Knowledge Skills and Ability, but that themanagers know how to train these Knowledge Skills and Ability to employees. There isconsequence of work understanding and the hands-on use of work know-how through jobrotation and it is allied to the acquirement of communiqué and interpersonal expertise.2.1.2.13. Goal Setting and Performance Management:"Goal setting is a well-documented individual-level performance management technique"(Mento, Steel & Karren, 1987). "A clearly defined mission or purpose is integral to teameffectiveness according to both the conceptual" (Gladstein, 1984; Hackman, 1987; Larson &Schaumann, 1993; Shea & Guzzo, 1987; Sundstrom et al., 1990)The team should know all levels of difficulty that may arise in reaching the goal inorder toperform well. The team should select the best way to accomplish the victory in attainment of thegoals. The team may lose is the best course of action is not selected properly and may not reachits goal. "Team goals must be challenging, but attainable" (Larson & LaFasto, 1989; Likert,1961). TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 41
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011The team members must acknowledge the goals to be attained and comprehend the goalsunmistakably. They should not bring froth their individual conflict or disagreement and shouldstrive to achieve team goals."Lack of goal clarity reduces effectiveness" (Larson & LaFasto,1989).Balance between individual and team goals can be reaches if they are the same, highly linked,and can be pursued simultaneously. To increase the goal acceptance, the members shouldparticipation in setting goals. ―This enhances acceptance, and increase congruence betweenindividual and team goal. This also leads to better quality goals and greater satisfaction with theprocess" (Levine & Moreland, 1990).Performance management is the catchphrase and is the requirement in recent times of neck toneck opposition and the executive encounter for headship. Performance management is a wideand detains responsibility of HR, as it covers actions such as joint goal setting, incessantdevelopment appraisal and recurrent announcement, opinion and instruction for enhancedperformance, implementation of employee training and development with compensation andbenefits.The process of performance management starts from the stage when a new employee joins theorganization and ends the day when the employee leaves the organization. Performancemanagement is a methodical procedure which increases the overall performance and productivityof the organization while increasing the efficacy of each member belonging to the team. It is aresource for superior activities by delivering and directing proper orders and commands whichwill fulfill the expectations, define objectives, and will be successful in achieving the benchmarkfor the organization.According to Armstrong and Baron (1998), ―Performance Management is both a strategic and anintegrated approach to delivering successful results in organizations by improving theperformance and developing the capabilities of teams and individuals.‖The term performance management became popular in early 1980‘s when total qualitymanagement programs received utmost importance for achievement of superior standards andquality performance. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 42
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011Ingredients like job blueprint, headship enlargement, and instruction and remuneration systemare of equivalent impetus besides the customary act appraisal process in the innovative wide-ranging arena.Performance management is continuing process which goes on between the mentors and theworkers all through the year. The procedure is very much recurring and incessant. Aperformance management system includes the necessary actions:1. Setting transparent job responsibilities and employee action plan which covers the key resultareas (KRA) and performance parameters along with selection of the right kind of people, byfollowing a proper stratagem.2. Negotiating is the performance values for assessing the result and on the whole efficiencyagainst the preformed yardsticks. Providing incessant education and criticism is indispensablethroughout the stage of deliverance.3. Identifying the learning and methodological needs by assessing the end results obtainedagainst the predefined principles and executing effectual growth and expansion modules forupgradation.Regular quarterly performance development discussions and evaluating employee performanceon the basis of performance plans has become an integral part of performance analysis.An effective compensation and reward systems is designed to recognize those employees whoexcel in their jobs by achieving the set standards and exceed the performance benchmarks.Providing promotional/career development opportunities and guidance to the employees is veryimportant retain a satisfied employee.Egress interviews are important to comprehend the reason of worker unhappiness and departurefrom an organization.The podium for remunerating brilliance is supplied by performance investigation. Performanceanalysis plays a vital role in aligning individual employee accomplishments with theorganization‘s mission. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 43
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011Performance potential which includes consequences, events and activities, helps the employeesin reorganization of their responsibilities and roles and also help to set approachable measuresthus removing those jobs which are petty and of no use.Customary response and training identify the evils at an early period and remedial measures canbe adopted to avoid them.Thus performance management is an upbeat method of organizing worker performance formotivating the members and directing them towards the attainment of organizational goals andobjectives.2.2 Conclusive Remarks:Thus in this section of the literature review, critical evaluation and in-depth study has beencarried out regarding various advantages, disadvantages of team work, the various motivatingfactors which play an important role in increasing the team performance, various theories ofcommunication and listening and inter-personal key responsibilities. In this section it has beenalso discussed regarding the proper resolution of conflicts which arise within team members, therole of a team leader and also the need of performance management. All the aspects have beensupported with literary evidences from various authors who have already worked in theseprinciples. Thus it is evident that ―team work‖ is an umbrella term which embraces variousmanagement and hr philosophies and to make construct a proper team it is essential tounderstand this basic phenomenon. This will further help us to analyze, compare and concludethe results which have been obtained through survey method in case of Shoppers Stop in India. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 44
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGYThis section will mainly include the methodologies which have been followed in carrying out thedissertation, the data collection procedure, the design and structure of the dissertation and anintroduction to the various types of questionnaires.3.1 Research Design:Deciding the approach of a research implies to settle on the course of action that the researchwould follow. The process chosen include self-directed opinion poll and semi-structuredinterrogation and interview. The use of secondary data for information about the organizationand also the employees‘ view of team working have been used.3.2 Research Method:An apposite examination methodology is indispensable for carrying out a successful study.Collection of knowledge can be done by using various methods of quantitative study."TheQuantitative research starts with an idea for measuring, the aspects of generation of data and, bypresumption, to come to a conclusion"(Pinsonneault & Kraemer, 1993).The researchers study thesituation of the subject and get the desired objectives uncovered. A qualitative researcher canapply interviewing method for conducting the research, whereas a quantitative researcher impliessurvey method for conducting the research. Adopting a more reasonable approach, qualitativeand quantitative research methods have been applied in this research.3.3 Quantitative Research:The Quantitative research is a scientific and classic method and is less controversial. In theQuantitative study collection of information is absolute as it is based on statistical data. Thenumerical figures and statistics can be appraised in an unbiased mode.3.4 Qualitative Research:The Qualitative study is based on the concept of social reality and involves the experience ofpeople. Qualitative researchers decode the hidden aspect and are concerned for explaining theeffectiveness of the method. The Qualitative research is generally done when research topic isfocus on the activities happening in day to day life. In this research both qualitative andquantitative methods were applied. The qualitative research was conducted with the help of TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 45
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011documents and quantitative research was conducted through questionnaire survey. Thequantitative data will be used to analyze the team working effectiveness in the all department atshopper stop, Hyderabad. In person self-directed questionnaires will be used for this purpose. Aself completed questionnaire would be the best way to collect data about team effectivenessbecause responses to postal surveys have a lower degree of response rates. Qualitative methodwas used for this piece of work because it gave a chance to communicate and interact with thepeople (Staff and managers) associated with this study.It also helped to understand people‘s feelings, views and experience about the work. Informationwas obtained from departmental managers as well as the subordinates through interviewing. Theuse of qualitative methods helped to investigate the underlying principle for team working andalso an understanding from the management the methods they adapt to set up and develop teams.3.5 Data Collection:Research data was collected either in the form of secondary or primary or both (Saunders et al,2003. Both primary and secondary data were used in conducting the research.The data that is collected by the researcher for the initial information which is collected for thefirst time not directly relating to the company and topic but furnish relevant facts are primarydata. This data supplies comprehensible manifestations for the rationale of study. Congregationof the actual data takes a lot of time and it is also very costly. The information gathered by thismethod is more reliable and consistent. There are various ways to collect primary date likesurveys, focus groups, interviews over telephone, surveys, collection of physical artifacts,documentation review and observations.3.6 Questionnaires:Questionnaires are defined by de Vaus, (2002) as cited by Saunders et al. (2003) as ―A generalterm to include all techniques of data collection in which each person is asked to respond to thesame set of questions in a predetermined order―. One of the objectives of this research was toanalyze the team working effectiveness in Shopper Stop. Self-directed questionnaires have beenused. These questionnaires were dispensed to the employees of Shopper Stop. The personnel orthe respondents were asked to fill in the questionnaires which were collected afterwards. Openended questions were also used for this purpose so that the respondents could express themselvesfreely. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 46
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011In the questionnaire, a grouping of the questions in the following categories have been done tohave a clear understanding of the effectiveness of the team work as understood by team membersat Shoppers Stop:3.7 Appendix II3.7.1 Questionnaire A:From Q1 to Q5 –CollaboratingThe ability and willingness to work jointly with others is a characteristic that is sometimesdifficult to cultivate in a get-it-done-quick environment. Team members that work together in abalanced manner have a powerful universal and joint vision and have a sturdy accomplishmentof the point of reference.From Q6 to Q10 – Co-ExistingTo Co-Exist is to live at peace with one another and others despite differences. In a team thismeans embracing diversity as well as valuing commonly held cultures and values.This is a key requirement for effective team working.From Q11 to Q 15 –Co-CreatingTo Co-Create is to giving and receiving of ideas and to collaborate without requiring to haveauthority. It is about sharing best practice and encouraging the free exchange of ideas.3.8 Appendix II3.8.1 Questionnaire B:From Q1to Q 5 – CompensatingTo compensate for one another is one of the essential factor to cultivate a team environment, it isimportant for team members to not only learn but to desire to counterbalance one another.From Q6 to Q10– Co-OperatingThe ability to work together toward a common purpose and putting the good of the team first andtheir personal goals second is one of the most satisfying elements in a relationship TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 47
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011From Q10 to Q15– Continuous improvementImproving the existing process is a key to success of any team .Continuously getting inputs fromthe team members and validating and implementing the inputs from team members brings abigger commitment from team members towards achieving the team goals.The above six qualities are fundamental to foster a healthy and balanced atmosphere wheregenuine team-work can nurture. The questionnaire has been deliberately predesigned as aninstrument to aid the team leader and his/her team members to gauge the intensity, values andprinciples of team-working techniques.3.9 Structured Interview:An interview is a purposeful discussion between two or more people (Kahn and Cannell cited inSaunders et al, 2007, p. 310). Open-ended questions were used for interrogation purpose and theanswers were jotted down. This was used to ask questions to the managers and take their viewsto investigate the principle for team working. The questions were developed for 10 managers ofdifferent departments. These managers included the Men‘s apparel department manager, Mens accessories department manager, Womens apparel department manager, Womens accessories department manager, Womens footwear department manager, Cosmetics and skin care department manager, Kids apparel and toys department manager, Home and travel department manager, Personnel manager, Customer service managerCompany‘s managers were targeted with a semi–structured interview. This indicates that theinterview was of an informal nature and contained semi-structured questions, such that therespondents are free to give their opinions and talk freely about their feelings. Also, open-endedquestions do not limit the respondents in any way and greater amount of autonomy is there toanswer a particular question. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 48
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011Other questions can be described as closed, ―where the respondent‘s answer is selected from anumber of predetermined alternatives‖ (Hussey & Hussey 1997). Closed questions were verysuitable for gathering factual data and were usually easy to analyze, since the range of potentialanswers is limited.Secondary data, in general, is factual information which can be obtained on the basis of datawhich is already collected from other sources, and is easily accessible from these sources(Kumar, 1999) before, as well as the fact that the secondary data collected in this study, the costwould be to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of these data. Secondary data wascollected from newspapers, diaries, journals, magazines official records, articles and internet.3.10 Sampling Strategy:Sampling is ―the process of using a small number of items or parts of a larger population to makeconclusion about the whole population‖ Zikamund (2003:369) .Because of time limitation andstaff access in all the departments total of 100 questionnaires were distributed to staff in ShopperStop, Hyderabad and 10 questionnaires were distributed to 10 managers bringing the sample sizeto 110. The total of sample size of research was 110 including managers. Telephonicconversation served as the data collection mode responses were noted down.3.11Data analysis:Saunders (2003), ―analyzing data is about the process of abstracting from it, highlighting what isdeemed important, unusual etc. analysis, therefore, is about the search for explanation andunderstanding, in the course of which concepts and theories are likely to be advanced, consideredand applied‖. Qualitative approach was used to analyze the data. The researcher collects the databy conducting semi-structured interviews, and then analyzes this information. Qualitative dataanalysis follows three processes in the forms of noticing, coding and interpreting, where codingtakes the most important notice (Patton, 2002). The main intention of coding purposes is tosummarize and synthesize which helps the researcher in categorically interpreting and analyzingthe data.3.12 Limitation:This piece of work has certain limitations. Limitation of the study is the small sample size thestudy was done from here (U.K), with the subject organization being in India, there were some TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 49
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011limitations which made the collected data inaccurate. Lesser number of individuals participatedwas another problem.3.13 Resources:The following resources facilitated this researchHuman resources: o A good portion of support from the experts in industry o Guidance from Teesside University dissertation supervisorPhysical resources: o The use of a computer and internet for e-journals, magazines and articles. o Access to the Teesside University learning resource centre and internet access to lots of information like articles, journals and books.Financial resources: o Postage, printing of questionnaires agreed o Cost for research is estimated to be approximately £400.3.14. Ethical ConsiderationEthical issue in a research is mainly concerned about maintain privacy of data provided. Correctprocedures and appropriate means of data accumulation were used to interpret the findingsclearly in the research. This research has been conducted with a balanced and professionalapproaches keeping in mind the ethical issues, space and time constraints. All the researchparticipants were made aware of the intention with which the research has been carried out. Allthe information which has been gathered will solely be kept confidential and will not be used forany other purpose, reprints or publishing. With that guidance provided by the TeessideUniversity was carefully considered while carrying out the research. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 50
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 20113.13 Dissertation Schedule: Months of Year (2011) Tasks Jan Feb March April Weeks Weeks Weeks Weeks 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3Submission ofProposalProblemIdentificationLiterature ReviewResearch DesignMethodologyData SourcesData CollectionData AnalysisWriting up DraftEditingFinal DocumentBindingSubmit3.14 Reliability and Validity:The reliability and validity of the data is dependent upon responses which have been obtainedfrom the employees of the chosen organisation. Here in this case it has been obtained from theemployees of Shoppers Stop (Hyderabad, India). Hence the inputs which they have provided andthe answers of the questionnaires can raise a factor of validity and authenticity. Since it has been TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 51
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011obtained through survey and questionnaire method the reliability, to some extent is dependentupon the correctness of the information provided by the employees. The data has been collectedby interview method (Robson, 2002) and no particular scientific or statistical method has beenused in the tabulation of the data, and it is totally based on the secondary sources of information.There is also a lack of intricate details in the data since it has been collected from limited numberof employees working at various strata. Hence due to this lack of generalisation which is mainlydue to the boundaries and limitation of space the research factor may get affected. As suggestedby the Saunders, (2007), the explanation of circumstances is acquired by achievement inobtaining responses from the employees working in Shoppers Stop, India.Other research constraints arrive due the inadequate approach towards collection of the data. Theother constraints are limitation of space and time which has also affected the reliability andvalidity issue.3.15: Conclusion:In this chapter of the dissertation, there are few significant theories and hypothesis which havebeen discussed keeping in focus the main purpose for carrying out this research work. Forconducting an appropriate way of research one should take into consideration the variousmethods of data collection techniques, the research philosophies. One should also design anappropriate design of research and should construct a framework on which the research factorshould be based.Qualitative and quantitative research methods have been discussed and has also been explainedproperly how these methods can be utilized for collecting data from various sources. Exploratoryresearch plays an important role in the collection of data and this factor has been well elucidatedin this chapter. Ethical consideration has been explained keeping in mind about the reliabilityand validity aspect and various restraints has been put forward which the researcher should keepin mind while conducting the research work. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 52
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011 CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS OF DATA4.1 Perception of employee’s at Shoppers Stop:Employee satisfaction is key driver for retention and growth at Shoppers Stop. While striving toserve the customers and thus flourishing in business in the retail market, Shoppers Stop also tryto win for the youthful, multicultural, college alumni who are employed as front-line CustomerCare Officers or Associates. These employees mainly function in the retail front and maintaininitial contacts with the customers. Revenues earned with the help of these trained employees toserve customers are a prime challenge at Shoppers stop.―Through ongoing employee and customer satisfaction research with Customer SatisfactionManagement & Measurement (CSMM), a division of Indian Market Research Bureau (IMRB)International, and one of more than 20 partners comprising the Walker Information GlobalNetwork, Shoppers Stop had previously identified "employee satisfaction" as a key driver forretention of quality employees‖ (adapted from Shoppers Stop).Shoppers Stop research studies indicate that a more satisfied and committed employee basecould contribute to tangible improvements in business measures, like improved customer loyalty,more return visits, and increased spending among customers.4.2 “Jo Jita Wohi Sikander” – "winners are champions!" (Hindu Business Line,2003)CSMM initiated this research program with a series of employee surveys to establish abenchmark measure of employee satisfaction at shoppers stop retail outlets. Results of thesesatisfaction surveys brought to light the three top factors driving employee loyalty are: "leadership/supervisor quality," "fairness (mainly compensation)," and "Appreciation/recognition."Shoppers Stop has inducted training, reward, and recognition programs designed to improveemployee loyalty amid front-line CCAs. Shoppers Stop arranged for special training modules for TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 53
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011top managers to attend 200 hours of sophisticated training programs with a wide array ofmanagement practices to personal analysis proficiencies to detail merchandise information.Shoppers Stop has put in place "compensation" and "reward/recognition" to gain employeeloyalty. Shoppers Stop put into practice a series of training programs intended to tackle theseproblems.Shoppers Stop salary structure gives employees the opportunity to increase their variable paythrough a reward system tied to performance which makes take-home pay directly linked tomonthly performance.Individual monetary performance awards are augmented by group reward programs, like one ―JoJita Wohi Skander” (adapted from Hindu Business Line, 2003), which is Hindi for "winners arechampions!" Under this group reward program, CCAs at each store are rated on productknowledge, operational skills, and customer feedback, with individual CCAs and supervisorsdesignated as “sikanders” (champions) and with the leading store receiving a substantial cashaward divided among the team.Shoppers Stop also has conducts numerous non-cash compensation/appreciation programs forrecuperating team performance. Employee/management forums are encouraged, and employeeopinion page in in-house magazine, is regularly published.Employee training is very essential to achieve greater customer satisfaction.CSMM conducts customer satisfaction surveys for Shoppers Stop, and conducts statisticalanalyses to gauge whether stores with more satisfied employees had more satisfied customers –by tracking positive customer feedback, increased number of visits to the stores, and morespending by targeted customers.Research showed supervisor training is very instrumental in higher employee opinion ofsupervisor quality, which in turn resulted in greater employee motivation. At Shoppers Stopoutlets where the employees are highly content, the customers there are also highly satisfiedbecause of the activities and services received from the employees. At these stores, enhancedcustomer commitment translated into more customer visits. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 54
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011Employee and customer satisfaction research Results from my research prove Employeeperceptions of quality leadership, fair compensation, and appreciation/recognition have playedvital role in making Shoppers Stop a leader .Shoppers Stop has a strong value base work environment.Shoppers Stop lists their values as follows: We will not take what is not ours. The Obligation to dissent. We will have an environment conducive to openness. We will believe in Innovation. We will have an environment for development. We will have a willingness to apologize and forgive. We will respect our customers rights. We will create an environment of trust. We shall be fair. We will be socially responsible.Their transparency in practices and freedom of expression exudes an overall feeling of boundary-less organization. Their leadership is committed to create an organization where exceptionalcareers are built. Their Values guide them in everyday actions.At Shopper stop there is an environment that makes daily challenges enjoyable and rewarding forits employees, which makes it a great place to work. At Shoppers Stop they work hard and playharder.Their Annual Sports day is one of the favorite events of the year. They believe that the supportsystem provided by employees families contribute significantly to the productivity of theiremployees.Assessment is done periodically and is a fair and transparent process through which theiremployees can grow both laterally and vertically within the organization.At Shoppers Stop there is an informal atmosphere and an easy approach, ―no doors‖ workplace. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 55
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011Shoppers Stop is at leadership position in the Retail Space because it brings together highlytalented people in a creative, collaborative environment.At Shoppers stop they give importance to employees and believe that their ability to accomplishwhat they want to achieve depends on their employees ―associates‖ and the people they hire.At Shoppers Stop they give importance to growth and development of ―associates‖ in theirconstant reinvention of Shoppers Stop.They hunt for people who are passionate, adaptable, self-motivated, team players and whoreflect their mission statement – ―Nothing but the best‖.At Shoppers Stop Limited there is an atmosphere which makes employees feel that he/ she is in―a college, a University – a place to have fun and learn‖.4.3 Factors determining the effectiveness of working as a team:There are six critical success factors that are in place at Shoppers Stop for the effectiveness ofworking as a team1. Supportive ManagementManagement at Shoppers Stop recognizes that reaching an organizational goal will require ateam working together. To provide the leadership necessary to move a company, division or unittowards the organizations goals they have appointed Department Team Managers.Department Team Manager creates a ‗guidelines‘ that establishes the leadership team and itsprimary focus. Management also establishes specific goals the leadership team is to accomplishand also select the department team manager and gain his or her commitment to lead theleadership team in defining and carrying out the needed actions.2. Focus on Stakeholder OutcomesAt Shoppers Stop they understands of the leadership team‘s stakeholders, their expectations ofthe team, and the values the team embraces integral to create the focus needed as the leadershipteam members plan and execute the actions necessary to achieve the team‘s goals.3. SMART Goals TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 56
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011At shoppers stop the goals are Specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-bound goals.They are established by the Management and then broken into sub-goals by the leadership team.Without SMART goals, the team at Shoppers Stop shall lack the milestones necessary to driveaction.4. Committed LeadershipLeadership team focuses the members of the team on the mission, purpose, and goals of theteam. This member of the team is committed to the team‘s results and willing to be heldaccountable by the team‘s sponsor and other stakeholders, for leading the team through processesthat insure the team‘s goals are reached. The leader involves each team member in the processesof the team build and mutual trust that leads to open debate, collaboration, individualcommitment, and personal accountability.5. Mutual TrustThe most important element of successful team work at Shoppers Stop is the institution of aplatform of mutual trust; this trust enables management to engage in open debate and decisionmaking. This leads to commitments to action by individual members of the team. Building thistrust requires an openness that allows team members to know and understand the beliefs andbehaviors of all members of the team. This leads to team actions that can be structured andadvantage of each members uniqueness and talents is utilized.6. Engaged Leadership Team MembersEffective leadership team at Shoppers Stop has team members who are actively engaged in thework and have their focus of the team. Each team member emotionally is committed to activelyparticipate in the team‘s processes in the pursuit of the team‘s goals. The team members areloyal to carry out action plans to complete individual actions necessary for the team to reach theirteam goals. The team members at Shoppers Stop are dependable and they carry the full weightof personal responsibility to complete their individual commitments. Engaged team memberspassionately support each other and add value to other team members. They engage others in apositive manner to find solutions to issues and challenges they individually or as a team face. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 57
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011They constantly seek to improve themselves and others for the benefit of the team and neverquit.4.3.1 The Four Factors of Execution:The following four critical success factors at Shoppers Stop that insure the leadership teamcarries out the actions necessary to reach their designated goals.7. Collaborates to Solve ProblemsTeamwork dynamics at Shoppers Stop is practiced, the leadership team members come togetherto focus collectively on goals, issues, challenges, and problems. Team managers manage theprocesses of team meetings so that the maximum power of the collective knowledge and skills ofthe team members is extracted and utilized. In this research it has been found that the mosteffective leadership teams include individuals who follow a meeting methodology that is focusedon dealing with issues requiring the leadership teams attention and maximizes the power of thecollective knowledge and skills of the team members.8. Individual CommitmentsAt Shoppers Stop work of leadership team is conceded by individual members of the team. It isimportant to have plan of actions that are necessary to achieve their goals and overcome barriers.Individual team member at Shoppers Stop commits to carrying out specific actions.The leadership teams collaborative processes include steps to: Define individual actions, Gainthe commitments by individual team members to complete the actions, Document due dates, andEstablish status reporting processes.9. Personal AccountabilityTeam goals are aligned with individual goals at Shoppers Stop. Leadership team members holda discipline to complete their commitments as scheduled. They agree to clasp each otherpersonally accountable for completing, as scheduled, the commitments each person has made tothe team. The leadership team member reports the status of their open commitments to the teamso that barriers to achievement can be identified early in order to permit the leadership teamleader and other team members the opportunity to deal with the issues before overall deadlinesare impacted. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 58
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 201110. Identify and Remove BarriersBarriers to team progress occur in every team effort and are dealt with quickly at Shoppers Stopto continue progress towards the teams goals. The team Manager monitors the status of eachindividuals commitments and initiate barrier removal processes where appropriate. Team-basedprocesses for developing action plans to overcome barriers impacting individual commitmentsare instilled as a part of the teams culture.4.4 Training:Shoppers stop has realized the potential of working with young employee force it has increasedits annual training sessions from 45 hours to 52 hours a year. At Shoppers Stop greater emphasison improving the communication skills of the employees since they are trainable and can handlebigger responsibilities in future. This is part of the employee focus at Shoppers Stop. It hasfacilitated training in its assessment centers across the country. These assessment centers cater totraining requirements of its employees known as ‗Customer Care Associates.‘ Shoppers‘ Stoprealizes the scarcity of trained manpower in the retail space and has an arrangement withMumbai-based Welingkar School of Retailing to conducts a professional programme in retailingforts employees. Shoppers‘ Stop provides inputs to the retailing school to upgrade its curriculumand participates in its placement process. Shortage of manpower is going to be even more acutein the future as currently only 2% of retailing is in the organized sector.4.4.1 Induction programmes:There is a rigorous induction programme in place. Since most of the employees are into theirfirst jobs, the training programme assumes more significance. Classroom training dwelling onthe basics of retail store design, store space planning, visual merchandising, selling andcashiering is followed by a two-week ‗buddy‘ programme where the new recruits have to followa senior in the workplace.The second phase of the induction training involves the parents of the new recruits. The parentsare invited over for an informal breakfast and are given a feel of the Shoppers‘ Stop store. Thecompany claims that this creates an emotional bondage and the new recruits develop a sense ofbelonging within the organization. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 59
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011However, for Shoppers‘ Stop, the learning experience has been curious. ―Indian sentiments arevery different. In the west, customers in a department store like to shop on their own and won‘tstand any intrusion. Here in Hyderabad customers like to be pampered.4.5 Data AnalysisTo understand the effectiveness of the team work at Shoppers Stop data has been gatheredthrough the questionnaire for the team Manager and Team member. The responses have beendivided in six categories:Questionnaire: 11. From Q1 to Q5 –Collaborating Table 2.COLLABORATING DATA Factors Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Agree Disagree Common 94 5 9 vision Common goal 86 15 7 Shared values 63 37 8 and beliefs Mutually 91 11 4 2 supportive Willingness to 97 6 5 be led TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 60
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011 100 90 80 70 60 50 Common vision 40 Common goal 30 20 Shared values and beliefs 10 Mutually supportive 0 Willingness to be led Figure 6. Collaborating Chart RepresentationInterpretation: The Shoppers Stop team has immense ability and willingness to work togetherwith others. Though at times it is difficult to cultivate in a get-it-done-quick environment but theDepartment managers have done a tremendous job in collaborating the efforts of individuals inteam. Team members have collaborated well and have a strong common and shared vision andhave a strong achievement orientation.2. From Q6 to Q10 – Co-Existing Table 3 Co-existing Data Factors Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Agree Disagree Need to work with 76 32 others Build positive 85 16 7 relationships Confront and 68 20 17 3 resolve conflicts Affirm and 78 17 13 encourage Share their 88 16 2 2 knowledge TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 61
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011 90 80 70 Need to work with others 60 50 Build positive 40 relationships 30 Confront and resolve 20 conflicts 10 0 Affirm and encourage Share their knowledge Figure 7. Co-Existing Chart representationInterpretation: At Shoppers Stop to Co-Exist is to live at peace with one another and othersdespite differences. In a team at Shoppers Stop this means embracing diversity as well as valuingcommonly held cultures and values. This is the key for effective team working at Shoppers Stopthat makes it a most favourite place to work.3. From Q11 to Q 15 –Co-Creating Table 4. Co-Creating Data Factors Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Agree Disagree Innovative and 65 37 5 1 creative thinking Consult openly 79 23 3 3 Use problem 54 43 6 5 solving techniques Actively listen 76 18 12 2 Solution oriented 97 5 4 2 versus problem oriented. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 62
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011 100 90 80 Innovative and creative 70 thinking 60 Consult openly 50 40 30 Use problem solving 20 techniques 10 0 Actively listen Solution oriented versus problem oriented. Figure 8 Co-Creating Chart RepresentationInterpretation: Co-Creating at Shoppers Stop is to giving and receiving of ideas and tocollaborate without requiring to have authority. The team members shares best practice andencouraging the free exchange of ideas, brainstorm and consult openly to reach their goals.Appendix III- Questioner 21. From Q1 to Q5– Compensating Table 5 Compensating Data Factors Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Agree Disagree Acceptance of individual 98 2 7 1 strengths Actively encouraged 80 11 5 Flexibilit and 94 4 8 2 adaptabilit Support people’s 92 5 9 2 weaknesses combined effort on 86 12 8 2 achievements TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 63
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011 100 90 80 Acceptance of individual 70 strengths 60 Actively encouraged 50 40 30 Flexibilit and adaptabilit 20 10 0 Support people’s weaknesses combined effort on achievements Figure 9 Compensating Chart RepresentationInterpretation: At Shoppers Stop they encourage the environment to compensate for oneanother. This plays a vital role and is one of the essential factors to cultivate a team environmentat Shoppers Stop. The team members not only learn but desire to counterbalance one another.2. From Q6 to Q10– Co-Operating Table 6. Co-Operating Data Factors Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Agree Disagree Openly share 78 21 5 4 information Share their individual 83 15 9 1 resources Spot and respond to 92 11 4 1 team members. Help other team 91 10 4 3 members Complies with the values 89 12 7 TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 64
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011 100 90 80 Openly share information 70 60 50 Share their individual 40 resources 30 Spot and respond to 20 team members. 10 0 Help other team members Complies with the values Figure 10. Co-Operating Representation ChartInterpretation: The team members at Shoppers Stop have the ability to work together toward acommon purpose. They put the good of the team first and their personal goals second which is asatisfying element in a relationship in team work environment.3. From Q10 to Q15– Continuous improvement Table 7 Data for Continuous Improvements Factors Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Agree Disagree Jointly defines success 97 5 4 2 criteria Keen to measure its 86 12 6 4 success. Coach and train one 92 11 4 1 another Paying attention to 76 15 14 3 competitor Committed to 84 13 7 4 continuous improvement TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 65
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011 100 90 80 Jointly defines success 70 criteria 60 50 Keen to measure its 40 success. 30 Coach and train one 20 another 10 0 Paying attention to competitor Committed to continuous improvement Figure 11 Continuous Improvements Representation ChartInterpretation: At Shoppers Stop they believe in improving the existing process. This is a key tosuccess of team at shoppers Stop. Team Managers Continuously gets inputs from the teammembers and validates and implements the inputs from team members brings a biggercommitment from team members towards achieving the team goals. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 66
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS5.1 Findings:5.1.1. The main positive trends observed are summarized below:Teamwork dynamics at Shoppers Stop is effective and the leadership team members cometogether to focus collectively on goals, issues, challenges, and problems. Team managers managethe processes of team meetings and bind the team members together to optimize the power of thecollective knowledge and skills of the team members to achieve the goals. In this research it hasbeen found that well controlled and managed teams always perform a systematic approach inhandling a task and effective team leaders are responsible for managing the teams and makethem more vibrant, keeping in mind the original focus and goals of the organization. Successfulteam leaders who follow a conventional grouping and discussion technique which mainly dealswith problems, conflicts and other issues achieve maximum beneficial results and the collectiveknowledge of the team is increased in this whole process. Well managed teams with a successfulleader can identify individual responsibilities, achieve the goals and commitments. Theycomplete the task within the given deadline and also document each and every status reports in amethodical manner. There exist trust in team members which enables management to engageteam members in open debate and decision making.5.1.2 The main improvement area observed is summarized below:Though there is high level of Teamwork dynamics at Shoppers Stop, its been observed that teammembers tend to do three things when face with a problem: either they get afraid oruncomfortable and wish it would go away; they believe that they have to come up with ananswer in a meeting and it has to be the right answer; and they always look for someone else toblame. Sometimes it becomes a matter of concern to face the related problems and to tacklethem strategically. So they need more improvement in this aspect of taking strategic decisionsfor problems and for resolution of critical issues. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 67
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 20115.2 Suggestions and Recommendations to overcome the above problem:At times something needs to change: Something has to be done to fix the problem. But doesalways people are very sure that whatever steps they are taking, those are appropriate for theexisting problem. And are they absolutely certain that the solution will work perfectly, in everyway? So how one makes sure that he is on the right track and with the right solution, not just thistime but every time? The solution for this is to have a process to follow when one needs to makea change or solve a problem; a process that will ensure one‘s plan, test and incorporate feedbackbefore he commit and step towards implementation.5.2.1 Recommendation 1:After due analysis of the data, a popular tool for Shoppers Stop Managers can be suggestedwhich they can use when team members face the problem of resolving a critical issue. This toolis ―Deming‘s PDCA Cycle‖ (Deming, 1982), or the Deming Wheel which is a powerful tool forcontinuous improvement. This methodology was previously called as ―Shewart Chart‖developed by Walter A. Shewart which was later called as Deming‘s Cycle by the Japanese.Edwards Deming is a initiator of the quality management advancement and he recommendedfour segments in the helm. They are ―Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle‖ (PDCA):Plan: Recognize and scrutinizing the problem and hence making a constructive plan to deal withthe problems.Do: Formulating a potential solution for the problem concerned and developing it systematically.Check: Evaluate the efficacy of the resolution and gauging further steps of improvements.Act: Putting into practice the enhanced resolution in a regular basis.The ―Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Cycle‖ put forward by Deming, (1982) endow with a veryvaluable solution for problem resolution and supervision of alteration, making sure thatinformation are properly authenticated and gathered before performing the final operation.5.2.2 Recommendation 2:The most common mistake made in problem solving is trying to find a solution right awaywithout delving into the problem. That is a common mistake which is committed by most of the TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 68
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011unplanned personnel of the organization. Team members often try to implement the solution atthe initial stages without understanding the problem but the solution should be applied in the endafter due consideration of every possible actions and consequences. It is advisable to inculcatethe following seven-steps for an effective problem-solving process.1. Recognize and point out the root cause of the problem2. Consider all the aspects and check for the interests of other persons.3. Enlist all the probable alternatives4. Calculate the preferences5. Choose the best alternative6. Preserve and list the agreements7. Concur on emergencies, scrutinizing, and appraisal.An effective method of solving the problems is time consuming and needs meticulous attentionsince it is critical and necessitates a consideration of many important aspects. Making thisprocess functional is not always an easy task and it does not always follow the same linearpattern. During the operation, one may have to step backwards to an early stage and scrutinizethings in a more detailed fashion. Problem is existent everywhere but if these methods arefollowed in a stepwise manner problems can be dealt more efficiently. They actually provide thetools and information necessary to fix the problems and do a better job. If problems areapproached with these considerations then it will be a very easy task to fix them up.Thus, with the help of this dissertation, it has been successfully established that effective teamwork is a prime factor for the success of the organization and that necessary management of teamworks by a successful team leader can curb a bright future for the organization. TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 69
    • [TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL] May 5, 2011 TEESSIDE BUSINESS SCHOOL Page 70
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