Supervision: Taylor felt that a single supervisor could not be an expert at all tasks.
As a result, each first-level supervisor should be responsible only workers who perform a common function familiar to the supervisor.
This became known as “Functional Foremanship.”
Motivation: Taylor believed money was the way to motivate workers to their fullest capabilities.
Steps in Scientific Management Develop a science for each element of the job to replace old rule-of-thumb methods Scientifically select employees and then train them to do the job as described in step 1 Supervise employees to make sure they follow the prescribed methods for performing their jobs Continue to plan the work, but use workers to get the work done 2 1 4 3 Figure 1.3
Administrative Management: Fayol
Henri Fayol (1841 – 1925)
First recognized that successful managers had to understand the basic managerial functions.
Developed a set of 14 general principles of management.
Fayol’s managerial functions of planning, leading, organizing and controlling are routinely used in modern organizations.
Henri Fayol, developed a set of 14 principles :
1. Division of Labor : allows for job specialization.
Fayol noted firms can have too much specialization leading to poor quality and worker involvement.
2. Authority and Responsibility : Fayol included both formal and informal authority resulting from special expertise.
3. Unity of Command : Employees should have only one boss.
4. Line of Authority : a clear chain from top to bottom of the firm.
5. Centralization: the degree to which authority rests at the very top.
6. Unity of Direction : One plan of action to guide the organization.
7. Equity: Treat all employees fairly in justice and respect.
8. Order: Each employee is put where they have the most value.
11. Remuneration of Personnel : The payment system contributes to success.
12. Stability of Tenure: Long-term employment is important.
13. General interest over individual interest: The organization takes precedence over the individual.
14. Esprit de corps: Share enthusiasm or devotion to the organization.
Focuses on the overall organizational system.
Bureaucratic management is based upon:
Policies and procedures
A fixed hierarchy
A clear division of labor
Key points of Bureaucracy
Authority is the power to hold people accountable for their actions.
Positions in the firm should be held based on performance not social contacts.
Position duties are clearly identified . People should know what is expected of them.
Lines of authority should be clearly identified. Workers know who reports to who.
Rules, Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), & Norms used to determine how the firm operates.
Sometimes, these lead to “red-tape” and other problems.
Followed the classical perspective in the development of management thought.
Acknowledged the importance of human behavior in shaping management style
Is associated with:
Mary Parker Follett
Mary Parker Follett
Concluded that a key to effective management was coordination.
Felt that managers needed to coordinate and harmonize group effort rather than force and coerce people.
Believed that management is a continuous, dynamic process.
Felt that the best decisions would be made by people who were closest to the situation.
Conducted the famous Hawthorne Experiments. At Western Electric Co. during 1924-1932.
“ Hawthorne Effect”
Productivity increased because attention was paid to the workers in the experiment.
Phenomenon whereby individual or group performance is influenced by human behavior factors.
Actually, it appears that the workers enjoyed the attention they received as part of the study and were more productive.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological – hunger, thirst, shelter, sex
Safety – security and protection
Social – affection, interpersonal relationships
Esteem – self-respect, achievement status
Self-actualization – achieving full potential
Usually thought in the form of a pyramid
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs SA Esteem Needs Social Needs Security Needs Physiological Needs
Proposed the Theory X and Theory Y styles of management.
Theory X managers perceive that their subordinates have an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if at all possible.
Theory Y managers perceive that their subordinates enjoy work and that they will gain satisfaction from performing their jobs.
The Quantitative Perspective
Characterized by its use of mathematics, statistics, and other quantitative techniques for management decision making and problem solving.
This approach has four basic characteristics:
A decision-making focus
Development of measurable criteria
Formulation of a quantitative model
The use of computers
Contemporary Management Theory
The Systems Perspective
A system is an interrelated set of elements functioning as a whole. An organization as a system is composed of four elements:
Inputs (material and/or human resources)
Transformation processes (technical and managerial processes)
Outputs (products and services)
Feedback (reactions from the environment)
Developed by N. Zaidi The Integrated Systems Model Feedback Inputs From the environment: Human Material Financial Information Processing Transformation process: Technology Operating systems Administrative systems Control systems Outputs Into the environment Product Services Profit/loss Employee behavior Information
Open systems interact with one another and other environments
Closed systems do not interact with their environment
Subsystems recognizes the importance of subsystems because of their interdependence
Developed by N. Zaidi
Subsystems are more successful working together than working alone. The whole, working together, is greater than the sum of its parts.
A natural process leading to system decline which can be avoided through organizational change and renewal .
Developed by N. Zaidi
The Contingency Perspective
The Contingency Perspective suggests that universal theories cannot be applied to organizations because each organization is unique – what works in one situation may not work in another
This requires managers to identify the key contingencies in a given situation.
An Integrative Framework of Management Perspectives Systems Approach • Recognition of internal interdependencies • Recognition of environmental influences Contingency Perspective • Recognition of the situational nature of management • Response to particular characteristics of situation Classical Management Perspectives Methods for enhancing efficiency and facilitating planning, organizing, and controlling Behavioral Management Perspectives Insights for moti- vating performance and understanding individual behavior, groups and teams, and leadership Quantitative Management Perspectives Techniques for improving decision making, resource allocation, and operations Effective and efficient management
Management in the 21 st Century
William Ouchi’s Theory Z
Japanese-style approach to management developed by William Ouchi
Advocates trusting employees and making them feel like an integral part of the organization.
Based on the assumption that once a trusting relationship with workers is established, production will increase.
Future Leaders Must:
Be thoroughly schooled in the different management perspectives.
Understand the various influences that will have a continuing effect on management thinking
Be aware of how key business environment variables relate to their organization.
Know which elements to select from the various management perspectives that are appropriate for their situation.
Be adaptable to change such that future conditions and developments do not quickly render their chosen approaches obsolete.