Earth Exploration Tool Book <ul><li>By: Audrey Belf </li></ul>
Our Map The pink dots represent the earthquakes that have occurred in the last year, and the blue dots represent significant/big earthquakes.
Significant earthquakes <ul><li>Earthquakes in the last year </li></ul>
What have you learned about earthquakes and earthquake prediction? We have learned that earthquakes are very deadly, destructive natural disasters, and are extremely hard to predict. They occur all over the world and not every earthquake is felt, it depends on their strength. Earthquakes’ strengths are determined on a scale from 0-10 called the Richter scale. They generally have to measure around 7.0 in order to be felt. Earth’s crust is continuously forming, deforming, pushed and pulled. Enough strain builds up on the crust and it is released causing wild shakes, an earthquake occurs. Earthquakes generally occur along or around the different types of plate boundaries. If you look at the previous map, almost every country with a lot of seismic activity lies on one type of boundary. Earthquake prediction is improving today. While it seems like earthquakes strike suddenly, scientists are trying to develop new technologies that can help spot and detect them sooner. At the moment, scientists are unable to develop the exact location, time, or strength of earthquakes, but based on plate boundaries and past earthquakes, they can make rough predictions on what places are in danger. Scientists are developing methods using different types of satellites, such as the Interferometric-Synthetic Aperture Radar, which takes pictures of tectonic plates from space to detect ground movement. Also, infrared radiation which detects spikes in ground temperature is another tool. They are also using seismographs which are instruments that measure ground movements along with seismic waves. These are three of the more common methods. Picture Taken from a satellite of the ground movement
<ul><li>What factors influence earthquake prediction? </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists study the past earthquake intensities and use this data to help predict what the earthquakes will be like in the location again. However, since the movement of the Earth’ s crust is so deep inside, it is difficult for scientists to know when exactly an earthquake is going to occur. It is hard to determine what is occurring exactly under the Earth’s surface. Scientists look at the surface layer to help make predictions. Also, the different types of plate boundaries influence earthquake prediction. The different types of plates do not always give the correct answer, but they are about 90% accurate. Scientist must study the different types of boundary movements to fully understand ways to predict the earthquakes. They also use satellites. An Interferometric-Synthetic Aperture Radar is one type of satellite. This satellite takes two radar images of a tectonic area and puts them together. Changes in ground motion at the surface then can be detected. This satellite can see slow ground movement as small as 1mm/year. The Interferometric-Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite helps scientist determine where areas of high strain are building up. Also, scientists look for surges in infrared radiation. Some earthquakes occur when ground temperatures increase, and thermal detectors sense this change . Seismographs also help influence earthquake prediction. They measure ground movements along with seismic waves. These tools help scientists but they cannot assure 100% accuracy. Past earthquakes, the surface, ground movement, and temperature spikes influence earthquake predictions. </li></ul>Infrared radiation Interferometric-Synthetic Aperture Radar Seismograph
<ul><li>Where on Earth do most of the really big earthquakes strike? </li></ul><ul><li>Most large earthquakes occur along the edge of the oceanic and continental plates. “Stress and Strains” with crust that is broken down into plates causes movements of these plates. Earthquakes occur along plate boundaries and their faults. The more specific locations of these dreadful earthquakes are near or along the Pacific Ocean. Some examples are California, Japan, and Chile. If you reference the map first seen, you can look at the different types of activity around the world. The countries that lie on these boundaries generally have higher amounts of activity. </li></ul>Earthquakes along the plate boundaries
Top Ten Places Where an Earthquake is Likely to Occur <ul><li>1. Haiti </li></ul>This represents previous big earthquakes in Haiti. This represents earthquakes in Haiti. In the last year. Despite the fact that Haiti experienced a large earthquake last year, I believe that they are still at risk. The country lies right by a fault line which impacts my prediction. From the map, I can see that Haiti has experienced some large earthquakes in the past and a fair amount in the last year. Based on this, I believe they are still at risk because of their location and their constant earthquake activity which may be building up into another big one. Also, based on scientific studies, I discovered that there is a fault by Haiti that was not responsible for their last earthquake. Scientists say, that at the moment, this fault has stress on it and could create another large earthquake. This research helps justify my prediction based on Haiti’s location.
Top Ten Places Where an Earthquake is Likely to Occur <ul><li>2. California </li></ul>This represents previous big earthquakes in California This represents earthquakes in California in the last year. I believe that California is at risk of an earthquake very soon. The San Andreas Fault runs through the state which is a big indicator for earthquake activity. California has a vast history of major earthquakes and has not had a significant one in a long time. This leads me to believe that they are overdue for a quake. Based on a recent study, seismologists have noticed some tension in the San Andreas Fault causing tremors in the state. I believe this is an indicator to prepare for a severe earthquake.
Top Ten Places Where an Earthquake is Likely to Occur <ul><li>3. Australia </li></ul>This represents earthquakes in Australia in the last year. This represents previous big earthquakes in Australia. I believe that Australia is at risk for a large earthquake soon. Australia has, in the past, experienced some major earthquakes. I believe, based on their history and earthquake activity in the last year, Australia is overdue for an earthquake. The last damaging earthquake was said to have taken place around four years ago, and since then their seismic activity appears to be pretty low. I predict that these features indicate that a large earthquake is on its way.
Top Ten Places Where an Earthquake is Likely to Occur <ul><li>4. Italy and Greece </li></ul>This represents previous big earthquakes in Italy and Greece. This represents earthquake in the last year in Italy and Greece. Italy and Greece are equally at risk for a large earthquake. Both countries appear to share a history of significant earthquakes, and, in the last year or so, they have not experienced anything severe. I can conclude from the information on the map, that they are overdue for an earthquake. Since nothing major has been reported recently, but there have been many earthquakes in the last year, these countries’ nearby fault lines are probably full of stress that is ready to be released.
Top Ten Places Where an Earthquake is Likely to Occur <ul><li>5. New York </li></ul>This shows earthquakes in the last year in New York. This represents previous big earthquakes in New York. New York appears to be at risk for a major earthquake. Based on the map, New York seems to have never experienced a measurable Earthquake. Upon investigation, I observed that they have had destructive earthquakes but nothing too serious. In the last year, New York has had at least one earthquake directly in the state but there have been quite a few that have taken place around the state. I believe that this is indicating that New York may be at risk for an earthquake soon.
Top Ten Places Where an Earthquake is Likely to Occur <ul><li>6. United Kingdom </li></ul>This shows earthquakes in the last year in the United Kingdom. This shows major earthquakes in the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom may be at risk for a large earthquake. This country has experienced a few major earthquakes in the past, and the UK lies near a fault line. Since last year, as you can see from the bottom picture, multiple earthquakes have occurred. These past year earthquakes have been situated in the upper part of the country where pervious major earthquakes have occurred. This location is very close to the fault line. I believe, with the amount of earthquakes they have experienced in the past year, a larger one is building up, especially for the upper United kingdom.
Top Ten Places Where an Earthquake is Likely to Occur <ul><li>7. Japan </li></ul>This represents earthquakes in the last year in Japan. This represents previous big earthquakes in Japan. Despite the fact that Japan has recently experienced a very severe earthquake, I believe they are still at risk. They have experienced so many major earthquakes in the last year. This constant pattern causes me to believe that these frequent destructive earthquakes are not over. Japan also has a fault line that lies almost directly through it and it appears that this line frequently produces earthquakes. Japan’s immense earthquake history leads me to believe that they are in imminent danger of major earthquakes.
Top Ten Places Where an Earthquake is Likely to Occur <ul><li>8. Mexico </li></ul>This represents earthquakes in the last year in Mexico. This represents major earthquakes in Mexico. I believe that Mexico may experience a large earthquake soon. It lies directly on a moving plate boundary which contributes to earthquakes. Also, the amount of earthquakes it has experienced in the last year along with its historical earthquakes, may produce a threat. Another factor leading me to believe Mexico is at risk for an earthquake is the nearby country Haiti.. Haiti experienced a large earthquake just last year. These countries share the same plate boundary which indicates that Mexico may be at risk.
Top Ten Places Where an Earthquake is Likely to Occur <ul><li>9. Nepal </li></ul>Nepal appears to be at risk for a large earthquake. The country has a convergent boundary line going through it which leads me to believe that earthquakes are common in Nepal. Nepal has experienced quite a few major earthquakes. However, in the last year, the number of earthquakes occurring have almost doubled. I believe that this rapid increase of earthquakes may be an indicator that a big one is on its way. This represents earthquakes in the last year in Nepal. This represents major earthquakes in Nepal.
Top Ten Places Where an Earthquake is Likely to Occur <ul><li>10. Middle East (Especially Iran) </li></ul>This represents major earthquakes in Iran. This represents earthquakes in the last year in Iran. I believe that the middle east, especially Iran, is a key location for a major earthquake to occur. Iran lies on a boundary line and has a history of major earthquakes. Many earthquakes have occurred here in the last year. I predict that this immense seismic activity during the year is simply a build up for a bigger one to occur.