Fungi

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Fungi

  1. 1. Fungi: a large & successful group 100 000 species
  2. 2. Fungi range in size: unicellular yeasts 20-60 cm large puffball
  3. 3. Fungi occupy a range of habitats: aquatic Marine fungi
  4. 4. terrestrial New Glowing Fungi Species Found in Brazil [October, 2010]
  5. 5. terrestrial The female pig becomes excited when she sniffs a chemical that is similar to the male swine sex attractant. $4,000 per kilogram Searching for truffles
  6. 6. Fungi include:  moulds – grow on:  damp organic material (e.g. bread, leather & decaying vegetation and dead fish)
  7. 7. Fungi include: unicellular yeast – abundant on sugary surfaces of ripe fruit
  8. 8. parasites About 30% of the 100,000 known species of fungi are parasites, mostly on or in plants. Rust fungus
  9. 9. Parasitic brackets
  10. 10.  Only about 50 fungal species are known to parasitise humans and other animals, but their damage can be disproportionate to their taxonomic diversity. The yeast Candida causes Thrush ringworm
  11. 11. FUNGUS
  12. 12. General Characteristics of Fungi 1. Heterotrophic nutrition:  lack chlorophyll and so are nonphotosynthetic  can be:  Parasites  Saprotrophs  Mutualists Mycorrhiza
  13. 13. Plant growth without mycorrhizae is often stunted.
  14. 14.  nutrition is absorptive 1. Extracellular enzymes from growing tips. 3. Nutrients are absorbed from all over the hyphae. 2. Digestion takes place outside the body.
  15. 15. 2. Rigid cell walls containing chitin Chitin: a nitrogen-containing polysaccharide, very similar in structure to cellulose
  16. 16. Chitin:  like cellulose has a high tensile strength and so:  gives shape to the hyphae  prevents osmotic bursting of cells
  17. 17. 3. Body is usually a mycelium mycelium is a network of fine tubular filaments called hyphae Mycelium A hypha grows out of a germinating spore
  18. 18. What is a ‘hypha’?
  19. 19. A hypha is:  a cylindrical, branching filament composed of a tubular cell wall filled with cytoplasm and organelles (lacks septa)
  20. 20. Mycelium may be: i) septate (have cross-walls) e.g. Penicillium, or ii) aseptate (no cross-walls present; are coenocytic) e.g. Mucor (fig. 2).
  21. 21. 4. Store glycogen not starch Spores being dispersed Spores inside sporangium Arial hyphae Branching hyphae Hyphae dividing at tip
  22. 22. 5. Method of Reproduction : Asexual reproduction Spore production Sexual reproduction Conjugation - filaments of different mating types fuse
  23. 23. What is a ‘spore’? A reproductive cell that is capable of growing into a new individual by mitosis alone
  24. 24. 6. Non-motile cells never possess flagella
  25. 25. What is a fungus? A eukaryotic, heterotrophic organism devoid of chlorophyll that obtains its nutrients by absorption, and reproduces by spores
  26. 26. Fairy ring of mushrooms
  27. 27. THE END

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