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Circulation [part 1]
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Circulation [part 1]

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  • 1. A) General characteristics of a circulatorysystemB) The development of blood systems in animalsC) Composition of bloodD) The circulatory systemE) Formation of tissue fluidF) The heartG) Functions of mammalian bloodH) Oxygen dissociation curves – The Bohr shift
  • 2. A) General characteristics of a circulatorysystemB) The development of blood systems in animalsC) Composition of bloodD) The circulatory systemE) Formation of tissue fluidF) The heartG) Functions of mammalian bloodH) Oxygen dissociation curves – The Bohr shift
  • 3. Function of a circulatory system:To provide rapid mass flow ofmaterials:BloodflowVeinfrom one partof the bodyto anotherover distances wherediffusion would be too slow
  • 4. On reaching their destination,materials must be able to:pass through the walls of the circulatorysystem into the organs or tissues
  • 5. Three distinct characteristics of everyblood system:1. a circulatory fluid, the blood2. a contractile pumpingdevise [either a modifiedblood vessel or a heart]3. tubes through which thefluid can circulate, theblood vessels
  • 6. Two distinct types of blood systems inanimals:Open circulation Closed circulationblood does not stayin the blood vesselsblood stays in theblood vessels
  • 7. most arthropodsOpen circulation in Closed circulation in echinoderms most cephalopodmolluscs (octopus) annelids vertebratessome molluscs
  • 8. Distribution of blood to the tissues is :poorly controlledOpen circulation Closed circulationwell controlled
  • 9. Blood and tissue fluid in:mixOpen circulationClosed circulationremain separate
  • 10. In an open circulation:1.The heart pumps bloodinto an aorta: branchesinto arteries.2. These arteries open intoa series of blood spacescollectively called thehaemocoel.3. Blood under low pressuremoves slowly betweenthe tissues, graduallypercolating back into theheart through open-endedveins.
  • 11. In a closed circulation blood is:pumped by theheart rapidlyaround thebody underhigh pressureand back to theheart
  • 12. Characteristics of:Open circulation Closed circulation1. Blood flow is slow and at a lowpressure due to the absence ofsmooth muscles.1. The speed of circulation is morerapid due to the presence ofmuscular and contractile bloodvessels.2. Direct exchange of materialsbetween the cells and the bloodbecause of the direct contactbetween them.2. The supply and removal ofmaterials to and from the tissues bythe blood is enhanced, therebyincreasing the efficiency ofcirculation.3. The respiratory pigment, whenpresent, is dissolved in the plasmaof the blood and there are no redcorpuscles3. The volume of blood flowingthrough a tissue or organ isregulated by the contraction andrelaxation of the muscles of theblood vessels.
  • 13. Advantages of a closed circulation:1. Blood can flow more rapidly through vesselsthan through intercellular spaces, so: rapid transport of nutrients and wastes toand from tissues more rapidly.A closed circulation:can support higher levelsof metabolic activity thanopen systems, especiallyin larger animals
  • 14. Insects do notdepend on theircirculation for O2 toreach the cells, buthave the trachealsystem.How can highly active insect species achievehigh levels of metabolic output with their opencirculatory system?
  • 15. Advantages of a closed circulation:2. By changing resistances in the blood vessels,blood can be directed to specific tissuese.g. duringexercise bloodis: diverted to:activemuscles away from:the gut
  • 16. Advantages of a closed circulation:3.can be keptwithin thevesselsCellular elementsLarge molecules thataid in the transport ofhormonesNutrients
  • 17. A) General characteristics of a circulatorysystemB) The development of blood systems inanimalsC) Composition of bloodD) The circulatory systemE) Formation of tissue fluidF) The heartG) Functions of mammalian bloodH) Oxygen dissociation curves – The Bohr shift
  • 18. Annelids (fig. 2) are coelomate animalsseparates the bodywall from theinternal organsindependence of movement of internalstructures such as the gut
  • 19. a blood system has evolved whichconnects gut and body wallHowever, a connecting system betweenthe two regions is needed
  • 20. The earthworm:has a well-developed blood systemblood circulates in blood vessels 2 main blood vessels: run the length ofthe body: one dorsal one ventral are connected byblood vessels ineach segment
  • 21. 1. Near the front of theanimal:5 pairs of connectingvessels are contractileand act as pumpsHow is blood moved forwards in anearthworm?5 hearts2. The main bloodvessels can alsopump blood.
  • 22. contains haemoglobin dissolved in theplasma rather than in red blood cellsBlood in an earthworm:
  • 23. Arthropods (fig. 3a) : have an open blood system the coelom is drastically reducedand its place taken by thehaemocoelWhat is the‘haemocoel’?CrayfishHaemocoel
  • 24. The haemocoel is a network of blood-filled spaces called sinuses in which theinternal organs are suspended.CrayfishHaemocoelSinus
  • 25. Arthropod blood is:colourlesscontains no haemoglobin
  • 26. The insect’s heart is a flexible tubeand runs:1. longitudinallythrough thethorax & abdomen Heart2. along the inside of the dorsalbody wall
  • 27. A small valve-like openingthrough which blood entersthe heartThe dorsal vessel is:Dorsal vessel is calledHEART in the abdomenclosed at theposterior endopen at theanterior endThe heart is dividedinto chambersseparated by ostiaHeart
  • 28. 13 chambers incockroachDoes not possess :- valves- musculatureIs a simple tube
  • 29. Each chamber has a pair of:alary muscles expand & contract to facilitate theflow of haemolymph through theheart
  • 30. Position of heart in vertebrates:ventral position near the front of theanimal
  • 31. Vertebrates:arteries carryblood away fromthe heartveins carry bloodback to the heartO2 is carried byhaemoglobin inred blood cells
  • 32. A) General characteristics of a circulatorysystemB) The development of blood systems in animalsC) Composition of bloodD) The circulatory systemE) Formation of tissue fluidF) The heartG) Functions of mammalian bloodH) Oxygen dissociation curves – The Bohr shift
  • 33. Blood is:a liquid tissue made up of several typesof cell which are bathed in plasmaWhole BloodSampleSample Placed inCentrifugeBlood SampleThat Has BeenCentrifugedPlasmaPlateletsWhiteblood cellsRed bloodcells
  • 34. PlateletsWhite blood cellsRed blood cellsplasmaPercentage by volume of:
  • 35. What is ‘serum’?plasma without fibrinogen
  • 36. Plasma is:a pale straw-coloured liquidmade up of: 90% water 10% substances
  • 37. Constituents of PLASMA Major FunctionsWater Solvent for carrying othersubstancesSaltsSodiumPotassiumCalciumMagnesiumChlorideHydrogen carbonateOsmotic balance,pH buffering,Regulation of membranepermeabilityPlasma ProteinsAlbuminFibrinogenAntibodiesOsmotic balance,pH buffering,Clotting,ImmunitySubstances transported by bloodNutrients (e.g. glucose, vitamins)Waste products of metabolismRespiratory gasesHormones
  • 38. CELLULAR ELEMENTS 45%CELL TYPE NUMBER(per mm3 of blood)FUNCTIONSErythrocytes(red blood cells)5–6 millionTransport ofoxygen(and carbondioxide)Leucocytes(white blood cells) 5,000–10,000Defence andimmunityBasophilEosinophilNeutrophilLymphocyteMonocytePlatelets250,000–400,000Blood clotting
  • 39. Where are blood cells formed?Pluripotent stemcells in the redmarrow of bonesPluripotent:capable of giving rise toseveral different cell typesWhite bloodcells
  • 40. B cells T cellsLymphoidstem cellsPluripotent stem cells(in bone marrow)Myeloidstem cellsErythrocytesPlatelets MonocytesNeutrophilsEosinophilsBasophilsLymphocytes
  • 41. What is ?A hormone made by:KidneysReleased when:Oxygen levels are lowCauses:RBC formation
  • 42. NegativeFeedbackControl
  • 43. RBCsmall biconcave discs  surface area  efficiency for diffusionof O2 & CO2lack a nucleus whenmaturevery thin cells: efficientdiffusion of gasesacross surface
  • 44. RBC are flexible & elastic:to squeeze through narrow capillariesCardiac muscleand capillaryErythrocytes in single file– capillary is so narrow
  • 45. RBC make up about half thevolume of bloodi.e. blood has an enormous oxygen-carrying capacityErythrocytes(45% of total blood)Plasma(55% of total blood)Leucocytes & Platelets(< 1% of total blood)
  • 46. haemoglobin: the oxygen-carrying protein pigment combines reversibly with O2RBC: packed with haemoglobinHaemHaemoglobin
  • 47. Hb + O2 :- in areas of high O2concentrationHb releases the O2 :- in regions of lowO2 concentrationOxyhaemoglobinLOADINGUNLOADING
  • 48. RBC lack mitochondria. Give twoadvantages of this.1. more room for carrying haemoglobin2. respire anaerobically : do not use upany of the O2 they carry
  • 49. RBC contain the enzyme:plays a role in CO2transportcarbonicanhydrase
  • 50. Life span of RBCabout 3 monthsthen destroyed in: liver or spleen
  • 51. What happens to haemoglobin when anold RBC is broken down?Protein portion:amino acidsIron in haem:stored in liver asferritin (an iron-containing protein)Remainder of thehaem molecule:broken down intotwo bile pigments(bilirubin andbiliverdin)
  • 52. White blood cellshave a nucleuslarger than RBCpresent in smalleramountslife span is normallya few daysA blood smear
  • 53. All WBC are capable of a:crawling movement called amoeboidmovement
  • 54. Lecuocytes can be divided:Granulocytes AgranulocytesLymphocyteNeutrophilBasophilEosinophilMonocyteLobed nucleusOval or bean-shaped nucleus72% of total WBCcount28%
  • 55. Neutrophils:70% of WBCsFunction Phagocytise & destroybacteriaLobednucleusFirst cells torespond toinfection
  • 56. Eosinophils:1.5% of WBCs but numbersincrease with allergicconditionsFunction:Secrete antihistamineEosin-staininggranules
  • 57. Basophils:0.5% of all white blood cellsgranules stain blue with basic dyessuch as methylene blueFunction:produce: heparin (anti-clotting protein) histamine (involved in inflammation)
  • 58. Monocytes:spend 30-40 hours inthe blood then enter thetissues where theybecome macrophagesmacrophages:are phagocytic
  • 59. Lymphocytes: produced in: thymus gland lymphoid tissuesfrom cells whichoriginate in the bonemarrow
  • 60. Lymphocytes:are roundedhave a small quantity of cytoplasmConsidering the shape of thelymphocyte, do you expect amoeboidmovement to be extensive or limited?Limited
  • 61. are found in:Lymphocytes:bloodlymphbody tissuestwo types occur: T cells B cellslife span varies from: a matter of days to many yearsinvolved inimmune reactions
  • 62. Fig. 22.12Stem cellB cellT cellB cellT cellRed bone marrowCirculationPre-B cellPre-T cellCirculationPre-T cellThymus LymphnodeCirculation
  • 63. Platelets:irregularly shapedmembrane-bound cellfragmentusually lacking nucleilife span: 5-9 days beforedestruction in liver &spleen
  • 64. Platelets are formed from:special cells (megakaryocytes) in thebone marrow
  • 65. Function of Platelets:start the clotting processBreak inCapillaryWallClumpingof Platelets Clot formsFibrinfibres
  • 66. Practical work to include the microscopicexamination of stainedblood films and the identification of cells.LymphocyteNeutrophilsPlatelets Erythrocytes Monocyte
  • 67. A) General characteristics of a circulatorysystemB) The development of blood systems in animalsC) Composition of bloodD) The circulatory systemE) Formation of tissue fluidF) The heartG) Functions of mammalian bloodH) Oxygen dissociation curves – The Bohr shift
  • 68. Three features of humancirculation:1. It is a double circulation. pressure is restored &boosted before theblood is circulated tothe rest of the body
  • 69. Pulmonarycirculation:through lungsSystemicCirculation:through the restof the body
  • 70. Pulmonary veinAortaHepatic arteryRenal arteryRenal veinHepatic portal veinVena cavaPulmonary artery2. The organs are arranged in parallel ratherthan in series. loss in pressure, oxygen and nutrients ateach stage – if in series
  • 71. Pulmonary veinAortaHepatic arteryRenal arteryRenal veinHepatic portal veinVena cavaPulmonary artery3. A portal vessel links the gut to the liver. the liver monitors blood passingthrough it to help keep a constantcomposition
  • 72. Double circulationof blood in humans blood passesthrough the hearttwice for eachcircuit of the body
  • 73. SinglecirculationDoublecirculationFISHBIRDS & MAMMALShave true doublecirculations
  • 74. the beginnings of a double circulationare seen in amphibiansreptiles have an almost completelydivided heart
  • 75. Why is a single circulation less efficientthan a double circulation?Drop in pressureas blood passesthrough the gills
  • 76. Three layers in an artery & a vein1. Tunica intima[endothelium] an inner lining ofsquamous epithelium2. Tunica media a middle layer ofsmooth muscle +elastic fibres3. Tunica externa an external layerconsisting mainlyof inelasticcollagen fibres)
  • 77. Compare anatomy of:
  • 78. ArteryVeinNote the muchthinner walls inveins.Artery and Vein
  • 79. Two reasons for walls of arteries being thickand the middle layer being mainlycomposed of elastic fibres.1. To dilate but not rupture when the heartforces blood into them at high pressure
  • 80. 2. Between beats the arteries undergo elasticrecoil and contract, tending to smooth out theflow of blood along their length
  • 81. Muscles in blood vessels regulatethe distribution of blood to an organ:Normal arterioleVasoconstrictionResistance = Decreased flowResistance =VasodilationCaused by:CO2ColdCO2HeatIncreased flow
  • 82. Veinsact as blood reservoirsstore: 65% - 70% of the body’s totalblood volume
  • 83. Veins containone-wayvalvesVaricose Veins:Damaged valvesin veins
  • 84. When body musclescontract, they exertpressure andsqueeze the veinsflat, helping the bloodto return to the heart.How does blood return to the heart?
  • 85. Capillaries are very small - about thediameter of a red blood cell capillary walls are: a single layer of very thinendothelial cells, attachedat their edges and surrounded by abasement membraneEndothelial cells
  • 86. Question: Section C [MAY, 2010]Use your knowledge of biology to describe theselective advantage of the followingadaptations.The diameters of red blood cells and the bloodcapillaries in which they flow are approximatelythe same. (5 marks)Basement membrane
  • 87. Blood moves slowly in capillaries as thediameter of RBC is approximately thesame as that of capillaries. This givestime for:oxygen to be released from RBC and todiffuse into the tissue fluid.another function of RBC is to carrycarbon dioxide away from tissues in theform of carbamino-haemoglobin. Ampletime is available for carbon dioxide toenter the RBC.
  • 88. Flow of blood into capillaries canbe controlled by:sphincterspresent in manyarterioles at thepoint where theyenter thecapillaries
  • 89. Sphincters are circular musclefibres:When contracted:prevent blood flow into the capillary network
  • 90. Pressure is reduced in smaller vesselsbecause:Arterioles are highly branched.Capillaries contribute an enormoussurface area.
  • 91. Fig. 16 Blood pressure throughoutthe human circulatory system.
  • 92. Blood flows slowly through capillaries. Why?Due to a very large cross-sectional area[velocity is inversely proportional to cross-sectional area
  • 93. Capillary beds are:permeable to:water, ions, smallmoleculesimpermeable to:large proteins
  • 94. Blood cells,mostproteins.Vesicles; large,lipid-insoluble(proteins)Filtration; fluid andsmall, lipid-insolublemolecules (water,amino acids,NaCl, glucose,urea)Diffusion;lipid-solublemolecules(O2, CO2,lipids)
  • 95. Label the veins, venules, arteries,arterioles, and capillariesAcross which vessels do materials diffuse(cross into and out of the blood)?Indicate where theheart isveinvenulesarteryarteriolescapillaries
  • 96. Artery Vein CapillaryTransports bloodaway from the heart.Transports bloodtowards the heart.Link arteriesto veinsTunica media thickand composed ofelastic and smoothmuscle tissue.Tunica mediarelatively thin andonly slightlymuscular. Fewelastic fibres.No tunicamedia. Onlytissue presentis squamousendothelium.No elasticfibres.
  • 97. Artery Vein CapillaryNo semilunar valves(except where leaveheart).Semilunar valves atintervals along thelength to preventbackflow of blood.No semilunarvalves.Pressure of blood ishigh and has apulse.Pressure of bloodlow and no pulsedetectable.Pressure ofblood fallingand no pulsedetectable.
  • 98. Artery Vein CapillaryBlood flow rapid. Blood flow slow. Blood flowslowing.Low blood volume. Much higher bloodvolume thancapillaries orarteries.High bloodvolume.Blood oxygenatedexcept inpulmonary artery.Blood deoxygenatedexcept in pulmonaryvein.Mixed:oxygenated &deoxygenatedblood.
  • 99. A) General characteristics of a circulatorysystemB) The development of blood systems in animalsC) Composition of bloodD) The circulatory systemE) Formation of tissue fluidF) The heartG) Functions of mammalian bloodH) Oxygen dissociation curves – The Bohr shift
  • 100. Tissue fluid: forms by filtration when blood passes throughcapillaries is a watery liquid that resembles plasma minusits proteinsTissue cellCapillaryTissue fluidforms Tissue fluidreturnsDirection ofblood flowArterial endof capillaryVenous endof capillary15 µm
  • 101. What forces are involved in tissuefluid formation? two opposing forces :Blood pressureforces waterand smallsolutes outOsmotic pressurecreated by the large molecules that cannotleave (also called colloidal osmotic pressure)Arterial end Venous end
  • 102. Formation & drainage of tissue fluid
  • 103. What can you say about the collodialosmotic pressure value?is relatively constantalong the capillary
  • 104. Blood, tissue fluid & lymph10%90%
  • 105. Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency) resultsin the swelling (oedema) of the bellyan osmotic effectthe ability of the bloodto take up water fromthe body cavity byosmosis is reducedbecause of thedeficiency of bloodproteins (solutes)
  • 106. An extensive system of blind-endingtubes which carries lymphWhat is the Lymphatic System?
  • 107. Lymph is:a clear, watery, sometimes faintlyyellowish fluid derived from tissue fluidsimilar in composition to blood plasma1. does not contain erythrocytes2. contains a much lower concentration ofprotein
  • 108. The Lymphatic System consists of: Lymphaticvessels Lymphoid tissuesand organs[Lymphoid tissue: wherelymphocytes develop e.g.lymph nodes]
  • 109. Lymph nodes occur all over the body600-700 lymph nodesLymph containswhite blood cellsLymphocytesin lymph node
  • 110. Three functions of the lymphaticsystem:1. Removes excess tissue fluid fromtissues
  • 111. 2. Absorbs andtransports fats fromthe digestive systemBloodcapillaryThinepitheliumLacteal(lymphaticvessel)
  • 112. 3. Plays a role in immunity.A lymph node filters microbes.
  • 113. How does lymph return to theblood? Via the:rightlymphatic ductleft thoracicduct
  • 114. Both the circulatory & thelymphatic system possess:
  • 115. Unidirectionalorbidirectionalflow of lymph?
  • 116. How is lymph moved throughlymph vessels?By contraction of themuscles surroundingthemBy semi-lunar valves present in themajor vesselsHow is backflowprevented?
  • 117. What happens if the lymphatic vesselsbecome blocked as by parasitic worms?A nematode worm infectsthe lymph nodes andblocks the flow of lymphthroughout the body.Elephantiasis Disease orFilariasis: transmitted by amosquito bite [over 130million people are infected]Wuchereria bancroftiFemale worms: 8 -10 cm longMales: 4 cm
  • 118. This question is concerned with thelymphatic system.a. What is lymph? (2)Lymph, a colorless to yellowish fluidwhose composition is similar to thatof blood except that it does notcontain red blood cells or platelets,and contains considerably lessprotein.Question: [SEP, 2009]
  • 119. b. What are the main functions of thelymphatic system? (2)- collects fats from the ileum vialacteals- plays a role in immunity. Fluid isfiltered in lymph nodes whichcontain lymphocytes that killmicrobes- drains tissue fluid and returns it tothe bloodstream.
  • 120. c. Briefly describe how fluid enters andleaves the lymphatic system. (3)Tissue fluid enters thelymphatic systemlocated at the venousend of a capillary.Lymph is drained intothe subclavian vein bythe right or thoraciclymph ducts.
  • 121. d. Compare the composition of lymph with that ofblood plasma in the following two situations:i) Lymph that has just left a lymph node; (1)Lymph is richer in lymphocytes than plasma as itleaves the lymph nodes.ii) Lymph formed in the vicinity of the small intestine.Is rich in fats as lacteals absorb triglycerides. (1)e. How is lymph propelled through the lymphaticsystem? (2)By contractions of skeletal muscles. Valvesinside the lymphatic vessels prevent backflow.