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  • 1. Manner of Articulation Mazhar Iqbal Ranjha
  • 2. ENGLISH SOUNDS (PHONEMES) Consonants •Vowels
  • 3. Glottal states
  • 4. OBSTRUENTS APPROXIMANTS Manner of Articulation
  • 5. stops • Complete closure of articulation • Airstream cannot escape through the mouth
  • 6. Types of stops • Oral • Soft palate is raised • Airstream obstructed in the mouth • Pressure built up behind obstruction • Small burst of sound when air released • Nasal • Soft palate is lowered • Air stopped in oral cavity • No pressure • No burst
  • 7. fricatives • No complete stop • Friction is there
  • 8. Affricates Brief stopping of airstream and with an obstructed release
  • 9. English Consonants chart voiceless voiced Manner of articulation Place of articulation bilabial labio- dental inter- dental alveolar palatal velar glottal stop p b _____ _____ t d _____ k g _____ fricative _____ f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ _____ _____ affricate _____ _____ _____ _____ ʧ ʤ _____ _____ flap _____ _____ _____ ɾ _____ _____ _____ nasal m _____ _____ n _____ ŋ _____ liquid lat. _____ _____ _____ l r _____ _____ _____ retr. glide w _____ _____ _____ j _____ h
  • 10. Notes • Consonant sounds are generally assumed to be: pulmonic egressive oral central
  • 11. Consonant Dimensions: Summary [t] [j] 1. Airstream Mechanism pulmonic egressive p.e. 2. Phonation Type voiceless voiced 3. Place of Articulation alveolar palatal 4. Aperture stop approx. 5. Retroflexion non-retroflex non-retro 6. Nasality oral oral 7. Laterality central central
  • 12. vowels Less constriction than approximant
  • 13. Vowel Dimensions • Vowel articulations can be characterized along four dimensions: 1. Height (of tongue body) • high, mid, low 2. Front-back (of tongue body) • front, central, back 3. Roundedness (of lips) • rounded vs. unrounded 4. “Tenseness” • tense/lax
  • 14. Other Vowel Features • Rounding: • are pronounced with rounded lips • the other English vowels are not • “Tenseness” • a “tense” vowel is closer to the edge of the vowel space • a “lax” vowel is closer to the center • Ex: [i] is tense, is not. • Tense/lax distinctions: • found predominately in Germanic languages • are very hard for non-native speakers of English to hear
  • 15. The Cardinal Vowels • A set of 8 reference vowels • Brainchild of English Phonetician Daniel Jones (1881-1967) • “Cardinal Vowels can only be learnt from a teacher who knows how to make them or from a gramophone record or tape record.”
  • 16. Lineage • Henry Sweet taught phonetics to Daniel Jones. • Daniel Jones taught David Abercrombie. • David Abercrombie taught Peter Ladefoged. • Peter Ladefoged taught Sarah Dart. • Sarah Dart taught me. • I am teaching you.
  • 17. The Cardinal Vowels • So let’s learn about the Cardinal Vowels. • Two “anchor” vowels: • [i] - Cardinal Vowel 1 - highest, frontest vowel possible • - Cardinal Vowel 5 - lowest, backest vowel possible • Remaining vowels are spaced at equal intervals of frontness and height between the anchor vowels. • Note: [u] - Cardinal Vowel 8 - may serve as a third anchor as the highest, backest, roundest vowel possible
  • 18. English cardinal Vowels
  • 19. Cardinal Vowel Diagram o
  • 20. Secondary Cardinal Vowels
  • 21. Tense vs. Lax • There are five lax vowels in English. Tense Lax heed hid hayed head who’d hood hod hud had • The lax vowels cannot appear at the end of a syllable. • They also often have a offglide. • Lastly: they are shorter than their tense counterparts.
  • 22. Thank you (1-28-09) 2-2-09 LING3330 25