Manner of Articulation
Mazhar Iqbal Ranjha
ENGLISH SOUNDS (PHONEMES)
Consonants
•Vowels
Glottal states
OBSTRUENTS
APPROXIMANTS
Manner of Articulation
stops
• Complete closure of articulation
• Airstream cannot escape through
the mouth
Types of stops
• Oral
• Soft palate is raised
• Airstream obstructed
in the mouth
• Pressure built up
behind obstruction
•...
fricatives
• No complete stop
• Friction is there
Affricates
Brief stopping of airstream and with
an obstructed release
English Consonants chart
voiceless voiced
Manner of
articulation
Place of articulation
bilabial
labio-
dental
inter-
denta...
Notes
• Consonant sounds are generally assumed to be:
pulmonic egressive
oral
central
Consonant Dimensions: Summary
[t] [j]
1. Airstream Mechanism pulmonic egressive p.e.
2. Phonation Type voiceless voiced
3....
vowels
Less constriction than approximant
Vowel Dimensions
• Vowel articulations can be characterized along four
dimensions:
1. Height (of tongue body)
• high, mid,...
Other Vowel Features
• Rounding:
• are pronounced with rounded lips
• the other English vowels are not
• “Tenseness”
• a “...
The Cardinal Vowels
• A set of 8 reference vowels
• Brainchild of English Phonetician Daniel Jones
(1881-1967)
• “Cardinal...
Lineage
• Henry Sweet taught phonetics to Daniel Jones.
• Daniel Jones taught David Abercrombie.
• David Abercrombie taugh...
The Cardinal Vowels
• So let’s learn about the Cardinal Vowels.
• Two “anchor” vowels:
• [i] - Cardinal Vowel 1 - highest,...
English cardinal Vowels
Cardinal Vowel Diagram
o
Secondary Cardinal Vowels
Tense vs. Lax
• There are five lax vowels in English.
Tense Lax
heed hid
hayed head
who’d hood
hod hud
had
• The lax vowel...
Thank you
(1-28-09) 2-2-09 LING3330 25
Manner of articulation (Phonetics and phonology)
Manner of articulation (Phonetics and phonology)
Manner of articulation (Phonetics and phonology)
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Manner of articulation (Phonetics and phonology)

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Manner of articulation (Phonetics and phonology)

  1. 1. Manner of Articulation Mazhar Iqbal Ranjha
  2. 2. ENGLISH SOUNDS (PHONEMES) Consonants •Vowels
  3. 3. Glottal states
  4. 4. OBSTRUENTS APPROXIMANTS Manner of Articulation
  5. 5. stops • Complete closure of articulation • Airstream cannot escape through the mouth
  6. 6. Types of stops • Oral • Soft palate is raised • Airstream obstructed in the mouth • Pressure built up behind obstruction • Small burst of sound when air released • Nasal • Soft palate is lowered • Air stopped in oral cavity • No pressure • No burst
  7. 7. fricatives • No complete stop • Friction is there
  8. 8. Affricates Brief stopping of airstream and with an obstructed release
  9. 9. English Consonants chart voiceless voiced Manner of articulation Place of articulation bilabial labio- dental inter- dental alveolar palatal velar glottal stop p b _____ _____ t d _____ k g _____ fricative _____ f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ _____ _____ affricate _____ _____ _____ _____ ʧ ʤ _____ _____ flap _____ _____ _____ ɾ _____ _____ _____ nasal m _____ _____ n _____ ŋ _____ liquid lat. _____ _____ _____ l r _____ _____ _____ retr. glide w _____ _____ _____ j _____ h
  10. 10. Notes • Consonant sounds are generally assumed to be: pulmonic egressive oral central
  11. 11. Consonant Dimensions: Summary [t] [j] 1. Airstream Mechanism pulmonic egressive p.e. 2. Phonation Type voiceless voiced 3. Place of Articulation alveolar palatal 4. Aperture stop approx. 5. Retroflexion non-retroflex non-retro 6. Nasality oral oral 7. Laterality central central
  12. 12. vowels Less constriction than approximant
  13. 13. Vowel Dimensions • Vowel articulations can be characterized along four dimensions: 1. Height (of tongue body) • high, mid, low 2. Front-back (of tongue body) • front, central, back 3. Roundedness (of lips) • rounded vs. unrounded 4. “Tenseness” • tense/lax
  14. 14. Other Vowel Features • Rounding: • are pronounced with rounded lips • the other English vowels are not • “Tenseness” • a “tense” vowel is closer to the edge of the vowel space • a “lax” vowel is closer to the center • Ex: [i] is tense, is not. • Tense/lax distinctions: • found predominately in Germanic languages • are very hard for non-native speakers of English to hear
  15. 15. The Cardinal Vowels • A set of 8 reference vowels • Brainchild of English Phonetician Daniel Jones (1881-1967) • “Cardinal Vowels can only be learnt from a teacher who knows how to make them or from a gramophone record or tape record.”
  16. 16. Lineage • Henry Sweet taught phonetics to Daniel Jones. • Daniel Jones taught David Abercrombie. • David Abercrombie taught Peter Ladefoged. • Peter Ladefoged taught Sarah Dart. • Sarah Dart taught me. • I am teaching you.
  17. 17. The Cardinal Vowels • So let’s learn about the Cardinal Vowels. • Two “anchor” vowels: • [i] - Cardinal Vowel 1 - highest, frontest vowel possible • - Cardinal Vowel 5 - lowest, backest vowel possible • Remaining vowels are spaced at equal intervals of frontness and height between the anchor vowels. • Note: [u] - Cardinal Vowel 8 - may serve as a third anchor as the highest, backest, roundest vowel possible
  18. 18. English cardinal Vowels
  19. 19. Cardinal Vowel Diagram o
  20. 20. Secondary Cardinal Vowels
  21. 21. Tense vs. Lax • There are five lax vowels in English. Tense Lax heed hid hayed head who’d hood hod hud had • The lax vowels cannot appear at the end of a syllable. • They also often have a offglide. • Lastly: they are shorter than their tense counterparts.
  22. 22. Thank you (1-28-09) 2-2-09 LING3330 25
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