TED Fuller event | digital user-generated content - My tales from the field
Accessing, archiving and reconstructing user-generated data: The connected spheres ofdigitalDr Mariann Hardey, Associate Director Centre of Communication Science,Durham University@mazrred- Tales from the field
Accessing cc http://www.slideshare.net/Cybersoc/chief-marketing-officer-congress-sopot
New forms of methodology (cc) http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-erYgX7c6hq8/TZryR1uXXII/
…as the social scientist Seb Paquet*observes, social tools make forridiculously easy group-forming. * Canadian Professor at Université du Québec à Montréal via Wikipedia Hardey, M. (2011)
Data monitoring Opportunities for data and research content Social media and user-generated content related to research activities Individual presence up and down social media Data at risk? Personalised content / publicly available…
Exposed: Research using Social Network Sites SNSs Purpose - A project that does something innovative with high impact status and will be seminal for future academic knowledge. Design/methodological approach - We used Facebook, YouTube, Twitter :-) Practical implications -Data relies on utilising social network platforms that contain personal information. The research depends on being able to access, observe, track and archive shared material from users willing to self-disclose. Research limitations -Data forms part of self-reportage and can only ever be a snap-shot of time, making it difficult to repeat for comparison or validation. ‘I will use Facebook for my fieldwork and ‘I don’t see anything wrong with ask my friends to fill in a questionnaire using Facebook for my fieldwork.’ there.’ ‘Facebook makes research easier and fun…’
Data Tagging User-generated content Advocacy Group pages SNSs profiles Transactions Comments Shares EmbedsSocial researcher Outcomes Role and responsibility (Guidelines of professional bodies) Training Processing Data organisation and modeling Knowledge sharing Academic culture Polices and guidelines Frameworks Adapted from Edelman business planning, 2010
Self disclosure; or more commonlyknown as the, process of makingthe self known to others. Jourard and Lasakow, 1958: 91. Some factors in self disclosure. The journal of abnormal and social psychology. Jourard, 1971. The Transparent Self. Nostrand. New York.
Enacting engagement There is a wider shift towards multidirectional many-to-many communication. As modeled upon the “conversation”. An interchange made possible by new technologies, and the rhetoric suggests something of an inevitability in the “transformation” they engender. As museums are being increasingly conceptualised as “forums” and recognised as “contact zones”, places traditionally of imbalance, asymmetry, and often disempowerment, talk of “democracy” is now rife in the rhetoric. (cc) http://www.flickr.com/photos/polly_cotton/galleries/72157623664322738 Kidd, 2011
d out to 50 cents/questionnaire; respondents were tweets, some of your tweets, and some tweets posted by other witty ven if their data was eventually discarded. folks. Part of the list looks like this: SecretSquirrel A city is only really home when you stop being Mechanical Turk HIT consisted of 34 questions. Eight mystified by its public transport and instead are just constantly questions characterized the respondent; six questions angry at it. ntended to measure the respondent’s familiarity with RedRabbit My personality results came back. They’re negative. r; three questions tested the respondent’s reading ehension (a tactic other researchers have suggested to NewJerseyDave I’ll go to the codependency workshop if you come with me. Rights to ownership that respondents are reading the survey before they responses [14,12]); 16 questions were statements of for respondents to assess on a 7point Likert scale; SecretSquirrel I might like the iPad better if it were red & furry. rrmutt I know how you feel, hon: “I’d stagedive but I’m far too e final question probed the respondent’s willingness elderly”—Courtney Love Social Media Ownership: Using Twitter as a ticipate in future surveys and interviews. Additional e.g. the respondent’s work time) was collected by the NewJerseyDave Maybe the person in the car ahead of you isn’t driving erratically because he’s texting; maybe he’s just knitting. anical Turk infrastructure. Window onto Current Attitudes and Beliefs Dave should only be able to store his own tweets on his hard drive. Dave has the right to post his list of funny tweets to his Facebook wall. ix Scenarios Dave has the right to publish his list of funny tweets in a blog post. Catherine C. Marshall belief portion of the HIT consisted of six short Frank M. Shipman Microsoft Research, Silicon Valley ios or situations involving Twitter. In each, users Figure 1. A portion of Scenario 1 exploring views about Department of Computer Science save, retweet, or reuse their favorite tweets in other 1065 La Avenida saving, sharing, and republishing a collection. Texas A&M University s. The scenarios are followed by statements of belief Mountain View, CA 94043 disagree) with the statement (is there a College Station, TX 778433112 spondents to assess. Each scenario is specific, and tend to agree (or firstname.lastname@example.org of responses), or are they divided into es the actual tweets. By posing concrete situations, normal distribution email@example.com ped to put all respondents on a more even footing (so communities at opposition (is there a bimodal distribution)? nvision similar situations) and to draw on their real Social media by its very nature, The following definitions of the four data ownership terms ABSTRACT ences. We also hoped that specific content and details people [20,22], it presents design challenges for new digital were provided to participants before they began the is mitigate This Social media, by its very nature, introduces questions about help to social. gross inconsistencies between introduces services such as archiving or publishing. questionnaire to help ensure consistent interpretation: ownership. Ownership comes into play most crucially when es and behavior, such as those discussed at length in Save – to store the content we investigate how social media is saved or archived; how on your own storage media. they can (and cannot) do with What do people feel specific concerns about vacy literature ; nonetheless, we are careful to note For example, you might save a photo to your created by others? We divide potential it is reused; and whether it can be removed or deleted. We information local hard he data we collected reflects attitudes and beliefs activities into four basic categories: (1) saving digital research practices, ownershipmedia ownership issues using than behavior. investigate these social drive or burn it to a CD. a content; (2) sharing digital content with specified (and Share – to make the content available to a limited set of and dissemination… Turk survey of Twitter users; the survey uses limited) groups of people; (3) publishing digital content so Mechanical enario 1, a Twitter user, Dave, collects questions and statements of belief about openended humorous friends or family members by using email or social media realistic Twitterbased scenarios to give us a window onto might share a photo with and (4) removing digital content posted by different people, including himself; in websites. For example, you it is broadly accessible; rio 2, Dave collects tweets that represent a current attitudes and beliefs. your friends on Facebook. Our findings reveal that from its social media venue (and not necessarily deleting it rsation he is having with two other Twitter users. In from local storage, in line with reported behavior ). Publish – to make the content available to the public by respondents take a liberal attitude toward saving and storing rio 3, Dave encounters an the tweets that they encounter. More caution is a website like Flickr, Blogspot, or offensive tweet about uploading it to exercised CSCW applications have long demonstrated that users may f. In Scenario 4, the respondent has received Dave’s with republishing the material, YouTube. For with sharing might publish a story to and still more example, you not apply reciprocal standards to actions they feel they can funny tweets via email, and we investigate what he or the material among friends and associates. Respondents take . For example, they may want to see others without your blog or publish a video to YouTube. n do with the list subsequently. Scenario 5 covers the type of lightweight social media approach removal of this Remove – to ‘unpublish’ content; to delete content from want to have capabilities that are on in which the respondent most cautiously. or her material’s provenance and the has removed his The being seen, or they may not offered to their peers. In this case, we investigate what a public website. For example, you might remove a photo weet from the Twitter feed, but while it was still to the material (whether they are respondents’ relationship , Dave has collected it, and is now posting it. Finally, from Flickr if you don’t want everyone to see it. they should be able to do with microblog respondents feel the author or subject) has considerable bearing on what they content they encounter, as well as probe what respondents nario 6, the Library of Congress acquires the entire feel they can do with it. Because we wanted the respondents to react to each feel that others can do with the respondent’s content. r archive, and provides access to it under three scenario without perceiving a pattern and using it as a Author Keywords ent conditions. shortcut to fill in answers, we made concrete statements in scaling up our findings from Finally, we are interested Twitter, social media, information rights, survey, reuse. individuals to public institutions: what do people feel that 1 shows a portion of Scenario 1, followed by an about the situation, and varied the ownership rights we ACM Classification Keywords public institutions should be able to do with today’s tested. Again, refer to Figure 1 for examples. pt of the belief statements that followed the scenario. ephemera and everyday digital belongings? For example, CHI 2011, May 7-11 H4.3. Information Systems: Communications Applications.
[The] freedom [of others] is dependent on mine, andmine on theirs… In choosing a mode of behaviour formyself, I choose it in a way for all men; I decide thatall men ought to behave in such and such a fashion.Hence man is totally responsible not only for his ownexistence but also for that of others. Wahl, J. (1959: 62). Philosophies of existence. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Recognising Ethical Dilemmas We live, work and play ‘…in a network, where all communicators and all communication are connected’. Propose reconceptualizing the journalist’s role through a combination of existentialism and social responsibility theory. In an open medium that affords complete autonomy over personal communication, ‘the heart of a socially responsible existentialist lies in a combination of freely choosing to be responsible in order to fulfill a social role based on trust’ (Singer, 2006: 13).
Freedom and responsibility 5 key themes: 1. Ownership and control; 2. Content sharing and publication 3. Reuse and republication; 4. Deletion and removal; 5. Individual and institutional data rights.
Research Principles in Practice: Watching What HappensHammersley and Atkinson have The Digital Methods Initiativeargued that “the ethnographer Important to identify the constraints per socialparticipates, overtly or covertly, in networking platform in harvesting data. The furtherpeople’s daily lives for an extendedperiod of time, watching what step is to identify the set of relationships thathappens, listening to what is said, sh/could be studied, e.g., do friends have the sameasking questions; in fact collecting interests? When, and for which purposes, arewhatever data are available to throw interests a more significant mode of organizing,light on the issues with which he or sorting and recommending action thanshe is concerned” demographics?Hammersley, M., & Atkinson, P. (1989).Ethnography: Principles in practice. London: https://www.digitalmethods.net/Digitalmethods/PostDemographics#Object_of_STavistock. tudy:_Social_Networking_Sites
Everyone has three lives: a publiclife, a private life, and a secret life. Gabriel García Márquez, Colombian novelist, short-story writer, screenwriter and journalist.
Dr Mariann Hardeye.firstname.lastname@example.org twitter @mazrred (cc) http://www.yatzer.com/assets/Article/2135/images/Organic_Factory-gilles-belley-yatzer_6.jpg