Nuclear Energy1


Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Nuclear Energy1

  1. 1. NUCLEAR ENERGY A basic overview by: Mark Dalski, Tom Child, Colt Lorson, and Chris Mounsey
  2. 2. Fission: History and Overview <ul><li>Discovered 1938 Otto Hahn and Frittz Strassmann </li></ul><ul><li>Presented 1939 Lise Meitner Otto Frisch </li></ul><ul><li>Research of Nuclear Fission began U.S. Weapons Program </li></ul><ul><li>1942 First Controlled self sustaining fission reaction, Enrico Fermi </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Fission Creates electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Three types of nuclear energy, Fission reactions, Fusion reactions, and Radioactive decay </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Reaction Type Fuel Moderator Coolant Number in use PWR Enriched Uranium Water Water 252 BWR Enriched Uranium Water Water 93 CANDU Natural Uranium Heavy Water Heavy Water 33 GCR (inc Magnox) Natural Uranium Graphite CO2 21 AGR Enriched Uranium Graphite CO2 14 LWGR(inc RBMK) Enriched Uranium Graphite Water 15
  4. 4. Fission Today <ul><li>435 Nuclear Power plants worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>1/6 of the worlds power is nuclear </li></ul><ul><li>France 76%, Belgium 56%, South Korea 36%, Switzerland 40%, Sweden 47%, Finland 30%, Japan 33%, United Kingdom 25%, Bulgaria 46%, Hungry 42%, United States 20% </li></ul><ul><li>WEC energy consumption doubled by 2050 </li></ul><ul><li>World will turn to Fission Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Produces very small amount of spent fuel </li></ul><ul><li>6yrs of operation, 4-meter cube </li></ul><ul><li>Recyclable </li></ul>
  5. 5. Comparison of Energy
  6. 6. Fusion: Overview and History <ul><li>British Physicists in the 1940s and 50s housed in a hangar at Harwell a device called ZETA - Zero Energy Toroidal Assembly which was the first fusion based operating system. </li></ul><ul><li>Masked in the secrecy of the Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Fusion is the production of a thermonuclear reaction in a gas discharge </li></ul><ul><li>Called 'fusion' because it is based on fusing light nuclei such as hydrogen isotopes </li></ul><ul><li> to release energy, similar to that which powers the sun and other stars. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Process <ul><li>Nuclei of two isotopes of hydrogen, deuterium (D) and tritium (T) react to produce a helium (He) nucleus and a neutron (n). In each reaction, 17.6 MeV of energy (2.8 pJ) is liberated: </li></ul><ul><li>D   +   T     4 He (3.5 MeV)   +   n (14.1 MeV) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Fast Facts <ul><li>A vast, new source of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Fuels are plentiful. </li></ul><ul><li>Inherently safe since any malfunction results in a rapid shutdown. </li></ul><ul><li>No atmospheric pollution leading to acid rain or &quot;greenhouse&quot; effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactivity of the reactor structure, caused by the neutrons, decays rapidly and can be minimized by careful selection of low-activation materials. Provision for geological time-span disposal is not needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Sunlight is energy released from fusion reactions in the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete fusion reactions produce no long-life products </li></ul><ul><li>The fusion bomb, developed and first exploded in the early 1950's, was the first use of nuclear fusion. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Future is Fusion <ul><li>The Sun is our Greatest source of energy…the sun uses fusion </li></ul><ul><li>The source of fusion is vastly abundant in our oceans (an isotope of hydrogen in water) </li></ul><ul><li>The waste of fusion is helium, and there is no pollution of long term extent. </li></ul><ul><li>The price of fusion is estimated to be equivalent to that of fossil fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Fusion can give us energy for millions of years </li></ul>
  10. 10. Nuclear Waste <ul><li>- Two types of nuclear waste </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>o        Low level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>o        High level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Two types of high level wastes </li></ul><ul><li>+ Spent </li></ul><ul><li>+ Waste materials </li></ul><ul><li>-         Storage Methods </li></ul><ul><li>+ Pools </li></ul><ul><li>+ Above ground storage casts </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-    Transportation of Spent nuclear Fuel </li></ul><ul><li>+ Shipped throughout the US to storage facilities </li></ul>
  11. 11. Fission Versus Fusion <ul><li>European Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion Power (SEAFP) team in 1992. The main participants in SEAFP were the NET (Next Experimental Torus) team, the UKAEA , established Fusion as a “very clean and environmentally friendly source of energy for the future with very good inherent safety qualities; there are no chain reactions and no production of 'actinides‘.” </li></ul><ul><li>The only waste products are helium, and toxic waste that is contained within the chamber and is not long-term. </li></ul><ul><li>Fusion produces no climate-changing or atmosphere-polluting emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>With Fission, relatively low environmental issues when costs are paid to maintain an environmentally friendly work area, however these costs are so high that it would be a problem in second and third world countries. There is also the problem in the case of a malfunction, worst case scenario can be very severe as opposed to the shut down process of fusion. </li></ul>