Introduction to Culture OFScotland & Northern Ireland.
1 Understand food & Culture2 Understand the Festivals celebrated3 Understand Sports & Entertainment4 Understand about Transportation5 Understand about Lifestyles & Ettiquettes6 Understand about the Tourists attraction.
S c o t l a n d n e v e r d i s a p p o i n t s t h e e x p l o r e r. F r o m t h e B o r d e r s in the south, the home of Robert Burns, to Edinburgh and G l a s g o w, t h e h e a r t o f t h e S c o t t i s h E n l i g h t e n m e n t , t o t h eHighlands steeped in history (and whisky), and on to the wildislands of the Hebrides, One has always been rewarded with unexpected discoveries. As an old Scots saying has it, „guid gear comes in sma‟ bouk‟ (good things come in small packages). And despite its small size, Scotland certainly has many treasures c r a m m e d i n t o i t s c o m p a c t t e r r i t o r y.
T h e r e ‟s s o m e t h i n g f o r a l l tastes. For the history buff, few cities compare with Edinburgh and Glasgow; for t h e h u n g r y, t r y h a g g i s i f y o u m u s t b u t d o n ‟t m i s s t h eAberdeen Angus beef or smoked salmon from Dumfries & G a l l o w a y o r, f o r t h e t h i r s t y, the peerless malt whiskies of the Isle of Islay or Oban await.Fringe Parade, Edinburgh
There is wild mountain scenery of the Highlands & Northern Islands and cold, sparklingseas washing against the Outer Hebrides. Wildlife watchers will find otters, eagles, whales and dolphins, while hill walkers have almost 300 Munros to bag.Cliffs of westray, Oakney
There‟s turbulent history and fascinating genealogy, castles and country pubs, canoeing and caber-tossing, golfingand fishing and all-round good craic (lively conversation).Although an integral part of Great Britain since 1707, Scotland has maintained aseparate and distinct identity throughout the last 300 years. The return of a devolved Scottishparliament to Edinburgh in 1999 marked a growing confidence and sense of pride in the nation‟s achievements
Scotland is all about Jekyll and hyde, it‟s military tattoo, it‟s the back street pubs where you discover night at life,Pub culture is the backbone of society,making it easy to meet locals And it the sound of the one clock gun that‟s been fired at the castle every day.
* : one language is never enough.
food & culture ……
The diet features prepared foods and an expanded choice of fruits and vegetables.Meals such as mince and tatties (ground beef and boiled or mashed potatoes) and homemade curries are common, along withtake-out options. Scots are heavy consumers of sugar, chocolate, salt, and butter, butrecently they have begun eating less meat andmore fish, whole-meal bread, and vegetables.
Rules of etiquette are situational, affectedby status, class, and familiarity. An initial reserve toward strangers is likely to beheightened if one party is of higher status. However, friendliness and verbal politeness are expected in everyday life.Light, humorous banter, often about soccer, facilitates such interactions. The notion that Scots are more friendly and open than the English is common. Similarly, many believe that people are more friendly in Glasgow than in Edinburgh. Two somewhat ritualized markers of politeness are the offering oftea, coffee, and sweets to house visitors and taking turns buying rounds of drinks at a pub.
Threave Castle, Borders PENNAH MORAH FIRTH
Timsgarry, Uig Bay, Isle of Lewis The Hebrides stand like brave warriors out doing battle with the wild Atlantic on the far northwest edge of Scotland.At once romantic and rugged, they are also steeped in history and fiercely beautiful.
Callanish, Isle of LewisConstruction of the site took place between 2900 and 2600 BC, though there were possibly earlierbuildings before 3000 BC. A tomb was later built into the site. Debris from the destruction of the tomb suggests the site was out of use between 2000 BC and 1700 BC. The 13 primary stones form a circle about 13 m in diameter, with a long approach avenue of stones to the north, and shorter stone rows to the east, south, and west. The overall layout of the monument recalls a distorted Celtic cross
Scotland is the home of golf and when it comes to golf its very simple. As Jack Nicklaus once put it, Scotland is golf! And with over 550 courses to choose fromits not difficult to understand why the sport has become somewhat of a national obsession. For the golf enthusiast this offers more courses than days in the year to play them. Perhaps of most renown though are Scotlands illustrious links courses - theOld Course at St Andrews, Royal Troon, Carnoustie, Muirfield and Turnberry - which regularly play host to the British Open, and have produced some of the most memorable and awe-inspiring golfing moments.Wherever you decide to play, a round of golf in Scotland will undoubtedly become a treasured memory.
When the winter rolls around and the golf stops, a host of other sports get going as Scotland becomes a Mecca for an ever increasing number of skiers and snowboarders. Scotlands many mountain ranges – from the Cairngorms to Glenshee and Glencoe – offer some of the most exhilarating winter climbing in the world. If you need some time to get into training theres The Ice Factory near Fort William: the biggest indoor ice climbing facility in the world.Or, for something a little less challenging, remember that serious hill walkers say that you havent really walked in Scotland until youve experienced the mountains in winter...
Scotland has an extensive railway network using cross country links across thecountry, and connections to England; local commuter links to the major cities; andfreight. Only 29% of the rail network in Scotland (by routes miles) is electrified,as opposed to 40% across Great Britain as a whole. This results in many trains being run on diesel fuel rather than by overhead electricity. The railway network is owned by Network Rail, the non-profit organization responsible for all of the railway infrastructure. Rail services are provided underfranchises awarded by the government. The current holder of the Scottish franchise is First Scot Rail, a division of Aberdeen-based FirstGroup plc. Intercity services are also operated by Cross-country, First Transpennine Express, East Coast and Virgin Trains. On 1 January 2006, a new agency Transport Scotland was created that would oversee the regulation of railways in Scotland, and administer major rail projects The Scottish Government, in its time, committed itself to the expansion of therailway network in Scotland, with planned links to the main Scottish airports, and reopening of disused lines in Clackmannanshire and the Scottish Borders.
As Scotland is made up of several hundred islands, water has always been animportant transport route for passengers and freight, particularly in the remotecommunities of the Hebrides. There are several ferry companies operating inScotland including:Caledonian MacBrayne, a publicly owned ferry company with routes linking themainland to all the major islands of the West Coast Northlink Ferries is a statebacked company that serves the Orkney Islands and Shetland Islands, linkingthem with Aberdeen and Scrabster.Pentland Ferries, car and passenger ferriesfrom Gills Bay (Scottish Mainland) to St. Margarets Hope (Orkney). StenaLine and P&O provide links to Northern Ireland from Stranraer and Troon.Norfolkline will operate (from May 2009) the Rosyth - Zeebrugge ferryservice, formerly operated by Superfast Ferries Western Ferries (Clyde) Ltd, aprivate company, based in Dunoon, Argyll, operates on the River Clyde, providinga frequent vehicle link between Dunoon and Gourock Argyll Ferries, a subsidiaryof David MacBrayne Ltd, formed in 2011 to provide a passenger only servicebetween Gourock and Dunoon
|Food & Culture |
It seems that most people of the Irish descent eat a lot of meat and potatoes. In fact, a lot of the time people have described Irish food as bland. This is due to the major use of potatoes and cabbage Potatoes came to Ireland by way of South America, and by 1688, they had become a staple of the Irish diet. The Irish refer to potatoes as "praties."The potato has long been considered a staple for the poor. Throughout their often difficulthistory, impoverished Irish people have relied heavily upon it for subsistence. Potatoes contain plentiful carbohydrates and some protein, calcium, and niacin. They are easy to grow and store.
Customs & Traditions of Ireland A typical Irish tradition is probably hundreds of years old and some still seen as a common tradition for many families. Below is some of the traditions we‟ve covered. Irish Blessings, a thing of the past Ireland has dramatically changed over the years leaving behind some of the oldertraditions. One thing that is not as popular as it once was but is seen as a typical Irish traditions is our blessings.Many of the Irish blessings that are a thing of the past in Ireland are still kept alive by people from all over the world. Read more about Irish Blessings & sayings. Irish wedding traditions that you may not know A typical Irish traditional wedding is a beautiful ceremony to see or take part in. Fromthe stunning attire of both the bride and groom, traditionally the later would be dressed in a kilt made from the tartan of his clan. The bride would as is done to-day be dressed in a white dress to symbolize her purity
Irish death traditions & customs Although death is a sad occasion a traditional wake is seldom solemn.Friends and family alike gather and share memories and funny stories about the deceased. Food and drink is always present and although the church tried to ban alcohol from wakes it was unsuccessful.
St Patricks Day Traditions March 17th marks the day of St Patrick, celebrated by millions of people around the world. In Ireland, St Patrick‟s Day was always held as an important religious day to celebrate the teachings of Christianity by St Patrick. Easter Sunday in IrelandMany family house holds would prepare their homes for Easter Sunday by doing whatwould be better known as “spring cleaning” to prepare the house for blessing by the localpriest which is a religious ceremony that dates back hundreds of years. Halloween Traditions in IrelandTo-day Halloween is celebrated all around the globe but the Halloween Holiday has itshistory firmly planted in Ireland. Halloween is also known as Samhain, All HallowsEve, Hallowmas and Hallowtide.It is celebrated on 31st October but the holiday of Halloween is not just celebrated on the one day any more as the Christian holidays of All Saints Day, November 1st and All Souls Day, November 2nd are celebrated as well.
History of ireland20th Century History1900 – Oscar Wilde dies1905 – Sinn Fein is founded1914 – The First World War begins1916 – The Easter Rising Sunday1919 – The Irish War of Independence1920 – Government of Ireland Act 1920 introduced. Ireland becomes partitioned with the creationof Northern Ireland- The Black & Tans are formed. A ruthless militant police force- The Ulster Special Constabulary (USC) also known as the “B-Specials” or “B Men” areformed- Bloody Sunday in Dublin occurs. 31 people were killed1921 – The Anglo-Irish Treaty is signed1922 – The Start of the Irish Civil War- Michael Collins is killed- Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) is disbanded- The Garda Siochana is formed to police the Irish Free State- The Royal Ulster Constabulary is formed in Northern Ireland1923 – The civil war ends- Irish Free State joins the League of Nations1926 – Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party is founded1932 – Eamon De Valera becomes Prime Minister1933 – Fine Gael (The United Ireland Party) policitical party is formed1936 – The IRA is banned in the Irish Free State
1937 – The Irish Free State is abolished becomes Eire (Gaelic for Ireland)1939 – Word War II begins1949 – Eire becomes The Republic of Ireland1957 – Eamon De Valera becomes president of the Republic of Ireland1967 – The Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA) is founded1969 – The Battle of the Bogside in Derry city occurs. The beginning of the troubles that lastsover 30 years.1972 – Bloody Sunday occurs in Derry. Fourteen people are killed when the British 1stParachute Regiment fire upon civil rights demonstrators1973 – The IRA start their bombing campaign in England1974 – The Irish National Liberation Army (Arm Saoirse Náisiúnta na hÉireann – INLA) isformed- The Irish Republican Socialist Party (IRSP) is founded1981 – - The Anglo-Irish Agreement is signed1990 – Mary Robinson becomes first woman President of Ireland1997 – Mary McAleese becomes President of Ireland1998 – The Good Friday Agreement is approved by voters.- The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) is reformed into the Police Service of NorthernIreland1999 – Nuala O‟Loan becomes the first Police Ombudsman in Northern Ireland 21st Century History of Ireland2005 – The IRA begin decommissioning2007 – Ian Paisley is elected First Minister of the Northern Ireland Assembly- Martin McGuinness becomes deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland2009 – the UVF and other loyalist paramilitary groups begin decommissioning.
Like you would find in most countries sports in Ireland covers a wide range of different sports including soccer, golf, boxing and other popular games. For the purpose of this article we won‟t be covering all the sports played in Ireland but will focus on some of the more traditional sports and popular games.Although most common sports around the world can also be found in Ireland we do have some that are more unique traditional sports. once only found in Ireland today they too are being played allover the world, most of all in the UK, USA & Canada due to the large Irish communities in these countries. Here are some of the more common sports played in Ireland. The traditional game of Irish Hurling Irish Hurling is the best Irish cultured game next to Gaelic Football and is heavily promoted bythe Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA). It‟s a fast and ferrous game that will have you either on theedge of your seat or jumping in the air like a crazy. It‟s a game that has lots of history and is played nationally in every county Traditional sport of Gaelic FootballGaelic Football is also extremely popular in Ireland and is played by many people and again it‟s a sport with much history and is usually played with plenty of Irish pride. It‟s very similar and sometime compared to Aussie Rules football. Just like hurling it‟s a fast game with plenty of edge, it too is heavily promoted by the GAA.
Most of the transport system in Ireland is in public hands, either side of the Irishborder. The Irish road network has evolved separately in the two jurisdictions Irelandis divided up into, while the Irish rail network was mostly created prior to the partition of Ireland. In the Republic of Ireland, the Minister for Transport, acting through the Department of Transport, is responsible for the States road network, rail network,public transport, airports and several other areas. Although some sections of road havebeen built using private or public-private funds, and are operated as toll roads, they are owned by the Government of Ireland. The rail network is also state-owned andoperated, while the government currently still owns the main airports. Public transportis mainly in the hands of a statutory corporation, Córas Iompair Éireann (CIÉ), and its subsidiaries, Bus Átha Cliath (Dublin Bus), Bus Éireann (Irish Bus), and Iarnród Éireann (Irish Rail).On November 1, 2005, the Dublin government published the Transport 21 plan whichincludes €18bn for improved roads and €16bn for improved rail, including the Western Railway Corridor and the Dublin Metro. In Northern Ireland, the road network and railways are in state ownership. The Department for Regional Development is responsible for these and other areas (such as water services). Two of the three main airports in Northern Ireland are privately operated and owned. The exception is City of Derry Airport, which is owned and funded by Derry City Council. A statutory corporation, the Northern Ireland Transport Holding Company (which trades as Translink) operates public transport services through its three subsidiaries - NI Railways Company Limited, Ulsterbus Limited, and Citybus Limited (now branded as Metro).
The People The Irish are interested in people and place great value on the individual. They are naturallycourteous, quick-witted and will go out of their way to welcome visitors to their country. Dont rush the Irish. Although they work very hard, the Irish are dedicated to a less stressfullifestyle that allows time for friends and family, a visit to the pub, a cup of tea, or just a bit of a chat on the corner. Families are closely-knit and very important to the Irish. Meeting and Greeting Shake hands with everyone present -- men, women and children -- at a business or social gathering. Shake hands again when leaving. A firm handshake with eye contact is expected. Body LanguageThe Irish are not very physically demonstrative and are not comfortable with public displays of affection. The Irish are uncomfortable with loud, aggressive, and arrogant behavior. A "Reverse V for victory" gesture is considered obscene. Dress Dress modestly and conservatively. Flashy colors and styles, white pants, nylon running jackets, etc. do not blend into Irish style. Tweeds, wools and subdued colors are recommended. A raincoat is needed year around. For business meetings, men should wear suits or sport coats and ties; women should wear suits or dresses and blazers (women wear pants less often than in America). .
Helpful Hints The Irish respect reserved behavior. Initial meetings should be low key. Assume that children will be included in family entertaining. Send a thank-you note after receiving a gift or being a dinner guest. Always be sincere. The Irish dislike pretentious behavior.Remember the Irish want to do things their way. You will not succeed if you insist on doing it "your way."Irish (Gaelic or Irish Gaelic) is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family,originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. Irish is now spoken natively by a small minority of the Irish population – mostly in Gaeltacht areas – but also plays an important symbolic role in the life of the Irish state. It enjoys constitutional status as the national and first official language of the Republic of Ireland and it is an official language of the European Union.
Acknowledgements : • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotland / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ireland. • www.lonelyplanet.com/scotland •www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/ all images are copyright material of jamesrichardson photography • blog.goireland.com• discoverireland.ie • youirish.com• celticaatic.com • jbarret.co.uk• nationalgeographic.com/scotland •i.telegrapgh.co.uk• ramsayarmshotel.co.uk • everyculture.com/SA-TH/Scotland.html • omniglot.com (useful scot phrases)
Collaborative effort of : Priya bang Yutica Mer Rosaline Deepak Thomas Deepak Thomas Mayur TariTrained by : Corryetta Fernandes | CCT nectar-dec2012