Overview of industrial SafetyHealth and safety of the employees is an important aspect of a companys smooth andsuccessful functioning. It is a decisive factor in organizational effectiveness. It ensuresan accident-free industrial environment. Companies must attach the same importancetowards achieving high OH&S performance as they do to the other key objectives oftheir business activities. This is because, proper attention to the safety and welfare ofthe employees can yield valuable returns to a company by improving employeemorale, reducing absenteeism and enhancing productivity, minimizing potential ofwork-related injuries and illnesses and increasing the quality of manufactured productsand/ or rendered services.The Constitution of India has also specified provisions for ensuring occupationalhealth and safety for workers in the form of three Articles i.e. 24, 39(e and f) and 42.The regulation of labour and safety in mines and oil fields is under the Union list.While the welfare of labour including conditions of work, provident funds, employersinvalidity and old age pension and maternity benefit are in the Concurrent list.The Ministry of Labour , Government of India and Labour Departments of the Statesand Union Territories are responsible for safety and health of workers. DirectorateGeneral of Mines Safety (DGMS) and Directorate General Factory AdviceServices & Labour Institutes (DGFASLI) assist the Ministry in technical aspects ofoccupational safety and health in mines and factories & ports sectors, respectively.DGMS exercises preventive as well as educational influence over the mining industry.Its mission is the reduction in risks of occupational diseases and casualty to personsemployed in mines, by drafting appropriate legislation and setting standards andthrough a variety of promotional initiatives and awareness programmes. It undertakesinspection of mines, investigation of all fatal accidents, grant of statutory permission,exemptions and relaxations in respect of various mining operation, approval of mines (2)
safety equipment, appliances and material, conduct examinations for grant of statutorycompetency certificate, safety promotional incentives including organization ofnational awards and national safety conference, etc.DGFASLI is an attached office to the Ministry of Labour and relates to factories andports/docks. It renders technical advice to the States/Union Territories in regard toadministration and enforcement of the Factories Act. It also undertakes supportresearch facilities and carries out promotional activities through education and trainingin matters concerning occupational safety and health.Major Initiatives undertaken by DGFASLI during the 10th Five Year Plan are:- Improvement and strengthening of enforcement system for safety and health of dock workers in major ports. Development of safety and health information system and data bank. Establishment of Regional Labour Institute at Faridabad. Setting up of a National Board on occupational safety and health.LegislationsThe statutes relating to OH&S are broadly divided into three:- Statutes for safety at workplaces Statutes for safety of substances Statutes for safety of activitiesAt present, safety and health statutes for regulating OH&S of persons at work existonly in four sectors:- Mining Factories (3)
Ports ConstructionThe major legislations are:-The Factories Act, 1948 It regulates health, safety, welfare and other working conditions of workers in factories. It is enforced by the State Governments through their factory inspectorates. The Directorate General Factory Advice Service & Labour Institutes (DGFASLI) co-ordinates matters concerning safety, health and welfare of workers in the factories with the State Governments. DGFASLI conducts training, studies and surveys on various aspects relating to safety and health of workers through the Central Labour Institute in Mumbai and three other Regional Labour Institutes located at Kolkata, Chennai and Kanpur.Mines Act, 1952 It contains provisions for measures relating to the health, safety and welfare of workers in the coal, metalliferous and oil mines. The Mines Act, 1952, prescribed duties of the owner (defined as the proprietor, lessee or an agent) to manage mines and mining operation and the health and safety in mines. It also prescribes the number of working hours in mines, the minimum wage rates, and other related matters. Directorate General of Mines Safety conducts inspections and inquiries, issues competency tests for the purpose of appointment to various posts in the mines, organises seminars/conferences on various aspects of safety of workers. Courts of Inquiry are set up by the Central Government to investigate into the accidents, which result in the death of 10 or above miners. Both penal and pecuniary punishments are prescribed for contravention of obligation and (4)
duties under the Act.Dock Workers (Safety, Health & Welfare) Act, 1986 It contains provisions for the health, safety and welfare of workers working in ports/docks. It is administered by Director General Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes, Directorate General FASLI as the Chief Inspector there are inspectorates of dock safety at 10 major ports in India viz. Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Paradip, Kandla, Mormugao, Tuticorin, Cochin and New Mangalore overall emphasis in the activities of the inspectorates is to contain the accident rates and the number of accidents at the ports.Other legislations and the rules framed there under:- Plantation Labour Act, 1951 Explosives Act, 1884 Petroleum Act, 1934 Insecticide Act, 1968 Indian Electricity Act, 1910 Indian Boilers Act, 1923 Indian Atomic Energy Act, 1962 Building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1996 Beedi and Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act, 1966 .National Safety Council of India (NSCI) (5)
The National Safety Council of India (NSCI) was set up to promote safetyconsciousness among workers to prevent accidents, minimize dangers and mitigatehuman suffering, arrange programmes, lectures and conferences on safety, conducteducational campaigns to arouse consciousness among employers and workers andcollect educational and information data, etc. It has launched new initiatives in threesectors:- Road Transportation Safety Safety of Health in Construction Sector Safety, Health and Environment in Small and Medium Scale Enterprises(SMEs)At the international level, NSCI has developed close collaboration with InternationalLabour Organisation (ILO); United Nations Environment Programmes (UNEP); WorldBank ; Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC),Bangkok; World EnvironmentCentre (WEC), New York; and the member organizations of Asia Pacific OccupationalSafety and Health Organisation (APOSHO) of which NSCI is a founder-member.The National APELL (Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at LocalLevel) Centre (NAC) has been established since April 2002 in the NSCI Headquartersunder the MoU with the Division of Technology, Industry & Economics (DTIE) ofUNEP, Paris. It is the first APELL Centre in the world. It has the technical support andinformation from UNEP and other international sources and the Ministry ofEnvironment & Forests, Government of India and the stakeholders. It is dedicatedprimarily to strengthen chemical emergency preparedness and response in Indiathrough the use of the internationally accepted APELL process.PolicyAnnouncement of the National Policy On Safety, Health And Environment AtWork Place was also a step towards improvement in safety, health and environment at (6)
workplace performance.Objectives of the policy were:- Continuous reduction in incidence of work related injuries, fatalities, diseases, disaster and loss of national assets. Continuous reduction in the cost of work place injuries and diseases. Extend coverage of work related injuries, fatalities, and diseases for a more comprehensive data base as a means of better performance and monitoring. Continuous enhancement of community awareness regarding safety, health and environment at workplace related areas.AwardsIn order to encourage occupational health and safety, certain awards have also beeninstituted by the Government:- The National Safety Awards for factories and docks, were instituted in 1965, to give recognition to good safety performance on the part of the industrial undertakings and to stimulate and maintain the interest of both management and workers in accident prevention programmes. The National Safety Awards for mines were instituted in 1983, to give recognition to outstanding safety performances of mines of national-level which comes within the purview of the Mines Act, 1952. The Shram Vir Awards, now known as Vishwakarma Rashtriya Puraskar were instituted in 1965. These are meant for workers of factories, mines, plantations and docks and are given to them in recognition of their meritorious performance, which leads to high productivity or economy or higher efficiency.Indian Standard on OH&S management systems (7)
Occupational Health and Safety demands adoption of a structured approach for theidentification of hazards, their evaluation and control of risks in the organisation.Hence, Bureau of Indian Standards has formulated an Indian Standard on OH&Smanagement systems. It is called as the IS 18001:2000 Occupational Health andSafety Management Systems. This standard prescribes the requirements for anOH&S Management Systems, to enable an organization to formulate a policy, takinginto account the legislative requirements. It also provides information about significanthazards and risks, which the organization can control in order to protect its employeesand others, whose health and safety may be affected by the activities of theorganization.Organizations interested in obtaining licence for OH&S Management System as per IS18001 should ensure that they are operating the system according to this standard. Theorganization should apply on the prescribed preformed ( Form IV ) at the nearestRegional Office of BIS along with Questionnaire ( Form X ) and the prescribedapplication fee. The application shall be signed by the proprietor or the ChiefExecutive Officer (CEO) of the organization or any other person authorised to sign onbehalf of the organization. The name and designation of the person signing theapplication must be recorded legibly in a space set apart for the purpose in theapplication form. Each application must be accompanied by a documentedOccupational Health and Safety Management System Documentation. (8)
Some Safety tools: (9)
Chapter 2:SAFETY MANAGEMENT IN TEXTILE INDISTRY (10)
SAFETY MANAGEMENT IN TEXTILE INDISTRY Cotton textile industry is the oldest & largest organised industry in India.Providing direct employment over 20 Lakh people in the country. However theaccident frequently rate in the textile industry is highest & growing at rate in the lastfew year . The resent survey has indicated that the accident frequently rate is high as47-5 in the textile industry , therefore , there is an urgent need to take the action toreduce the accident in textile industry .HEALTH HAZARDS-(ACCIDENT) Among the various health hazard there can be one are more the followinghazard which are likely to course accident or health problems –1-Engineering hazards2-Chemical hazards3-Dust hazards4-Fire & Explosion hazards5-Enviramental hazards like heat humidity noise etc.1-Engineering hazardsThe textile machinery used in the most of the spinning mills. They are ordinary headsthrough line shots located close to the roof, this type of power transmission expose the (11)
workers to many patent hazards. Due to contact with moving belts pulleyers shotbreakage of belts other hazards. Since the workers are exposed the m/c of very oldmodels on which the guards are not adequately provided however the machine of thelatest design have been provided with in wide guards taking in to consideration the m/cin the space available quite then ignoring the statutory requirements of space betweenthe machines and the passage for the main material. The other factors like housekeeping and illumination also are after neglected,thus resulting in many accident. The need for a defiled survey of all the machineworking in mills identify the potential hazards is very necessary.2-CHEMICAL HAZARDS- In textile mill the problem of chemical hazards is mostly faced where thewet processing activity , bleaching , dyeing , printing etc .Carried out ware the workerare likely to come in contact with various type of dyes and chemicals(Some times theatmosphere air jets contaminated with gasses like so2 , sulphite etc which may courseheart disease or mental implances.)As it like H2SO4, HCl,CH3COOH & alkalies like soda-ash, caustic soda, tri sodium-phosphate are extensively used .the concussing injuries & injuries of skin if they arenot handled properly varies kinds of dyestuffs are used for dyeing of cloth. There cancause skin disease called dermatitis while some dye stuffs are carcenajen .It istherefore necessary for the management to study in details& to provide suitablehandling disease were much lesser in the operatives. Who are working in mills withmodern machinery and fully air-conditioning facilities but of the cotton dust in thework Environment was much higher then the international standards. The followingare the figures in different department equipment & also the personal protectiveequipment to safe guard the health of the workers. (12)
DUST HAZARDS. When cotton is pressed in various sequences for being converted in to yarn &subsequence operation lot of fine dust is generated and in to the working atmosphere.This cotton dust contains cellulose lignin &if this dust is continuously is hated by thechange of these spooking suffering from dangerous diseases called Byssinoisis . If theoperatives are already having a lung trouble or who are habituated to smoking thenthey folly pay to this disease very easily reputedly a survey was conducted on 1241workers working in this type of textile mills in Bombay continuously for 5 years millswith reasonably new machineries and with air-conditioning facilities mills withmodern machinery & air-conditioning facilities. According to these studies even through the faces of Byssinoisis disease weremuch lesser on operative who are working in the mills with modern machinery andfully air-conditioning facilities but quantity of the cotton dust in the work.Environment was much higher then the international standard.After the detailed study the researches a worst a remark saying Indian cotton millworker is in working in working order total conditions. How alarming the remark thequality of cotton dust bellow 2 mg/m3 leave makes the textile exerless work under thehealth or fitting.4-FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS- In textile industry fire and explosion hazards are also noticed. One of the mainreason for the fire hazards is to the electrical short circuits then the fine accidents takesplace due to the friction in the machine during non-lubrication. In the textileprocessing there is always a possibility of the Bloating fibres accumulating on the (13)
electrical wiring and other equipments which are highly suspect able to the risks. In this direction the importance of house keeping has to be understood by themile management & the cleaning of such layers of accumulated fabrics of to beremove on regular basis. The electrical fitting should be also be dust proof so that the fibre interring intothe fitting avoided. Most of the machines presently is the work on the principles of the pneumaticsystems which necessitate the provision of compressors of the opposite mills where thesizing activity carried out require steam kept winders pressures cookers etc. Theyequipment if not properly maintained & likely to cause explosions. Once there is aused for symmetric testing of these equipments to minimize such a risks . The management should endeavour provide the fire fighting equipment leastas per the statutory equipment such that fabrics should be distinguished that the initialpage it self most managements resort economising in the measurement of the firefighting equipment and also is the paper maintenance of fire above and suffer hugelasts to fire accidents.5-ENVIREMENT HAZARDS LIKE HEAT, HUMIDITY& NOISE Humidity fixation activity of the textile manufacturing correct ambientcondition are most essentials for efficient working of textile material upon which aseries of operations of opening & cleaning of fibres in blow room to interlacement ofwarp & weft in weaving the fabric should have requisite properties. So that thematerial retains its basics shape & size & strength when the atmospheric relativehumidity too low fibres becomes brittle to store lot of static electricity generated due tofriction too high relative humidity also result in poor performance of the material,hence both low and high relative humidity are therefore essential from several such (14)
technical requirement the workers are the part of manufacturing process and hencecondition maintenance is the set should not only be comfortable to the process and theproduct they should also be comfortable. The temperature is also required to maintained in the textile manufacturingactivity, It excessive heat is in the work area, it affects the health of a worker leading todrop in work out put, therefore there is a need to maintain a suitable temperature toprotect the health of the workers and maximize their efficiency and productivity. Noise hazard also is faced by the workers enjoyed in the weaving shade whicha quit often able the T.L.V. of 85 is therefore necessary far the mill management tostudy this problem in corporate changes in term of avoiding so that the likely damagecaused to the weavers by the way of irreversible loss of bearing is avoided, it is alsofound that the textile workers are likely to suffer from humidifier fever due to the usedof polluted air a7 water in the humidification plants which are used for maintained thecontrolled condition of temperature and humidity. Hence it is necessary to see thatclean water are provide to humidification plants.PRINCIPLE OF MACHINE GAURDING-The principle of m/c guarding are as under-1.Desing the machine so the it is impossible for an operator to get at the point ofoperation or any other hazard point while the machine is working.2.Desing the machine so that corners and edges are round.3. Locate m/c control so that the operator will not be in the vicinity of the point of (15)
operation while actuating the controls.4.Make the control so that the operator will not have to reach too form move his bodyof balance in order to operate the machine.5. Build power transmission & drive mechanism as integral parts of the machine.6. Build over load device in to the machine.7. Design the machine for single point lubrication.8. Design mechanical instead to manual holding device.9. Design a mechanical device for feeding to effecting parts so as to eliminate the use of hands for such operations.10.Provide fail safe interlocks so that the m/c cannot be started when it is beingfounded as unloaded or being locked once provide a grounding system for all electricalequipment provide standard access plat form and do for inspections and maintenanceof equipment ,Design component pat of equipments for easy and safe removal and replacement tofacilitate maintenance ,Reduce sources of excess noise vibration heaf etc.SUGGESTED STEPS FOR SAFETY MANAGEMET1.Engineering research.2.Safety education.3.Safety audit.4.Safety promoter. (16)
5.Safety budget.REQUIREMENTS FOR GOOD GUARDS-1-With its primary purpose of protection, it should also facilitate the work.2-It should fully satisfied the loyal provision and I.S. prescribed. 3- It should besuitable and effective to the top and the m/c.4- It should allow for failing and repair.5- It should with stand wear shocks, vibrations and long use with minimummaintenance.6- It should be of free from self hazards.7- It should be of proper material and contact. 8- It shouldbe transparent and get durable. 9- It visual watch ofoperation necessary10- It should be fail safe at least it should give warning to stop the machine.11- It should be interlocking type. It should fulfil special requirementdepending up on its purpose.MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS OF GUARDS- Section of the factories acts states that the guards should be constantly (17)
maintained and kept to position such maintenance is obviously necessary b/c a m/crunning without guards or with open or broken guards condition the guard removeddamaged or requiring repairs. A guard remove for repair should be replaced at theearliest possible & mean while temporary guard should be installed guard maintenanceincreased the life of a guard and vice-versa the supervisor pay constant attention forthis.SAFETY PRECAUTIONS OF M/C-1-Every port of the transmission machinery and other dangerous parts should be madeinaccessible by proper guards. In the case of new machines set screws belts & keys onmoving parts should be covered or otherwise well guards. All gears and too the wheelswhich do not require adjustment should be fully enclosed.2-Suitable and safe belt shifting device should be provide on al machinery.3-Any examination adjustment lubrication or other operation of moving parts ofmachinery which exposes a worker to potential hazards should be carried out only byadult mole workers who are well trained and while wearing tight fitting clothing.4-Women and young person must be specially trained b/f being employed on certaindangerous m/c.5-On all these machines the beater covers and other openings which proved access todangerous parts should be effectively interlocked. Further openings ginning across todust chambers should be so forced that while light is admitted to the chambers accessto heater guard is prevented.6- The lap forming rollers should be equipped with a guard which is addition topreventing access to the vibrate of the lap rollers should also be interlockedeffectively. (18)
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION-The organic section was established in 1919 . it has more than 130 members becomespecialised agency of united nations in 1946 .permanent secretariat international labouroffice (Geneva) Director general is I.L.O. International member from countries .Director general is appointed by the governing body constitution of governing body – Government representative - 24 Labour representatives - 12 Management - 12Governing body has its meeting over four months .OBJECTIVES- 1. International celebration for securing permanent place 2. Eliminating adjustice through improvement of labour conditions 3. To provide technical assistance on labour and social policy .General conference of I.L.O is convinced annually delegates and annualconference.ROLE OF I.L.O IN OCCUPATIONS SAFETY AND HEALTH 1. Standard setting and research 2. Exchange of technical information and research 3. Technical cooperation activities (19)
1. STANDARD SETTING • I.L.O. conventions and recommendations model codes of regulation for code of practices • Safety and health in dark work • Safety and health in agriculture prevention of accident due to electricity • Guide and manual supplement to code dust prevention enemies • Guides for labour inspectors accident prevention etc .2. EXCHANGE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION-Issue of application of inquiries report about – 1. Report on safety and health issued during last 10 years. 2. Report on maximum weight carried by workers . 3. Medical inspection of labour. 4. Electrical accident. 5. Directories on safety and health. 6. Catalogue on safety & health film.CLS-international occupations safety and health information centre (1905).It has regional office in various countries & permit informationRegarding safety and health one can contribute in the publications by C.L.S. (20)
3-TECHNICAL CO-OPEATIVE ACTVITIES- 1. Assignment of expert in a centre for measure on safety and health 2. Advising govt. in revising their legislations 3. Provide technical equipment for labour 4. Granting fellowship for training and studies on safety and health organising and conducting training program and seminars. 5. In addition to above I.L.O. discus matters concerning particular regions, areas, fields, and industries by organising special conferences. 6. Setting up of committees conducting technical meeting provided opportunities for advance of study on labour polities at international institute of labour studies at Zeneva; (21)
Chapter 3: PLANT LAYOUT FORINDUSTRIAL SAFETY (22)
PLANT LAYOUT FOR INDUSTRIAL SAFETYBefore the industrial revolution, the artisan who worked frequently in his home, nearlyutilized fixed position layout, when he worked at his bench all materials were brought tothe bench, along with all the tools, he required. His product was completely fabricateswhile the major component in one location, at his work bench. With the advent of industrial revolution, the machinery has grown in size andcomplexity, so that today in factories, it is easier to move materials than to move theequipments. Although the plant layout is older than the industrial revolution, the toolsdevised to solve the problem were hardly improved at all before the turn of the century.The time 4 motion study thinking brought about some systematic approaches such asflowchart and operation process chart but only after world war-II, significant slides aredeveloped and analytical tool useful in salving plan layout problems are adopted.Whether it is a product layout or process layout there are some advantages ofgood plant layout. They are ; • Reduce worker’ afford and minimizes his manual material handling. • Reduces the number of accidents and provides for better working conditions by eliminating congestion. • Reduces labour costs by increasing productivity output per man hour. • Reduce indirect manufacturing acts by decreasing scrap and silage due to difficult handling situations. • Helps not to allow plant equipment becoming absolute. • Provides space for future expansion. • It eliminates wasted aisle spaces. • Helps easier and reduces frequent quality checks. (23)
There are many advantages and it is not possible to list them out. However, realization ofadvantages much depends upon how active the organization for plant layout and how alertthe layout engineer is, in seeking out certinent information, from various sources.With the declared policy of Government during 7th five year plan period for productivity, theplant layout concept, is bound to get a boost. Adequate consideration to safety and healthfactors taken at blue print stage will help the realization of advantages. Any neglect of thefactors in the layout can result in permanent condition of work having potential to causeaccidents, ill health, fires and explosions. A latter attempt to apply corrective action mayprove to costly and the cost become prohibitive and improvements may be impracticablealso.The factories Act 1941 (section 6) and rules provides for submission of plans of newfactories and futures expansions and alternation the existing factories. The section 6 costfurther “requiring the previous permission in writing of the (state) government or the chiefinspector to be obtained for the site on which the factory is to be situated and for theconstruction or extension of any factory or class or description of factories” was unsorted byact 94 of 1976. Further rules have been framed by state Government regarding otherparticulars to be shown in plans. As a safety measures lastly Government of Maharashtra in1984 introduced a ruler enquiring certificate of stability issued by a component person onrespect of every work of engineering construction in prescribed form I-A. The periodicexamination of the work of engineering construction. “Once in a period of five years is alsoenvisaged. The work of Engineering construction ‘means’ any building, tank, site, scaffold,platform, chimney, supporting steel work retaining well or any similar structure”. It describeto note that proper planning of most of the health and amenities and safety provisionsrequired under the act can be done at layout stage.With a view to modernize tools for production, the replacement of the existing machinerieswith heavy and fast moving on the existing old factory buildings will require rethink whileto consider “floor leading protection” i.e. requiring the display of loads approved bycompetent civil engineer for manufacturing and storage areas and also prohibition of greaterload to which such old floorings are certified. (24)
The safety distances to be maintained at the installations where dangerous petroleum in bulkis stored above ground in envisaged under the petroleum Act & Rules. Screen walls are alsopermitted by the chief inspector of Explosives where the distance specified is not possibleunder certain situations.An Indian standard institution has developed a code of safe practices for layout of cu-side facilities for industrial plants. Some salient points are enumerated below:- 1. Reads and Fact Paths – Reads in plant yards and grounds are sources of frequents accidents unless they are carefully laid out, substantially constructed, well surfaced drained and kept in good conditions. 2. In a factory heavy truck movement is a normal feature. For heavy duty motor truck movement roads up to 16 meters wide for two way traffic are required Rectangular bonds should be avoided by providing amplest radial at curves. Gradients are to be limited to a maximum of a percent. Provision of ditches to carry drainage water is also recommended. 3. While laying internal roads at least they should be all meter away from the building especially at entrances. At loading docks adequate length say twice the length is desirable to facility to backing of vehicles. 4. Traffic signs and signals regulating speed and movements of vehicles hazardous locations are very essential stop signs are specified for railway crossing and entrance to main through fares ‘sound your Horn’ signs are necessary at blind corners of buildings. This can prevent road accidents especially then roads have to be built close to the buildings. 5. Speed breakers with zebra lines should be provided before entrance/exit of plants, (25)
short curves, blind corners and also before such places where speeding vehicles would pass a particular hazard to pedestrian traffic or other vehicles moving in the area (if roads are to be used at night traffic signs should be made out with luminous materials).6. Protected footpaths between outside facilities and roads, leading to canteen buildings and ambulance rooms are also desirable to discover age workers taking short cuts.7. Parking areas - Good drainage to parking areas are essential and the entries parking areas should be fenced with barbed wire.Internal Plant Layout – There is a separate code of safe practice for industrial plantlayout published by Indian Institution Sum 1976, the following are some of therecommendations. BUILDING1. The size of the factory should be determined by taking into consideration of all possible future expansion although there is not definite area specified for the site of a factory still as a thumb rule five times of the actual manufacturing area is considered as a recommended practice.2. The three common building types are single story multistory and monitor. A No. of variations in roof construction can be found which provides advantages in ventilation or lighting. If a given industry is rapid ally changing products designs or process the rectangular shape is recommended because it is easier to change over. The ‘NFDA recommendations and ISI codes should be carefully studies before deciding the type of building. (26)
SPACES FOR MOVEMENT OF MEN, MACHINES & MATERIALS:-1. Ample space should be provided between gradated units, such as flames source, (boilers, building equipment, etc.2. Aisles should be dearly defined with approved marking, plastic buttons fastened with metal fasteners to the flour should be used with advantage because of their durability.3. At least 2 meters radius should be provided for small industrial trucks.4. A vertical clearance of 2.2 metres is recommended between passage stairways and overhead structures.5. Aisles for one day traffic should at least be of one meter wider than the widest vehicles and for two way traffic should be at least of one meter wide than twice the width of the widest vehicles. Aisles between 4 to 6 meters. Wide are recinnebded for new buildings especially when heavy traffic is anticipated.6. Ramas should have abrasive coatings where slippery floor conditions may exist, sharpturns into aisles at the top and bottom ramps should avoided. One meter wide squareshould be reserved as a walk way where Ramos are meant for use both by truck andpedestrians. (27)
STORAGE1. Ample space for outdoor storage of materials and for disposal areas, separately for solid waste, should be provided for.2. The segregation of raw materials storage, processing buildings and storage for semi- finished and finished products should be provided for to minimize fire and explosion hazards. Separate storage for highly flammable liquids will reduce fire hazards and helps easy control of fire if it starts.3. The plants where handling and storage of substantial quantities of flammable liquids having flash points below 950C should confirm strictly to specifications for handling and storing of flammable liquids developed by local authorities. All the storage tanks installed should confirm to good engineering practice and provision for relieving excess eternal pressure, grounding insulation, piping and other appetencies should be provided for .4. Regarding compressed gas cylinders, the following precautions should be taken:- a. Do not stock cylinders near sources of heat or indirect sun. b. Do no keep cylinders in battery charring room or in all room. c. Do not allow cylinders to come in contact with electrical apparatus or live wires. (28)
LIGHTINGWide variations in the intensity of lighting in the adjacent areas for e.g. A corridor and amachine shop in which fine work is carried out, can lead to many accident through theinability of the workers eyes to adjust quickly enough, from one lighting condition toanother. This danger is intensified when operators of trucks, overhead travelling craneand another vehicle moving at speed are exposed to this hazard shadow son importantobjects and spotty illumination conditions tends to reduce safety and working efficiency,They can be easily corrected. When placing the lamp for general lighting care should betaken so the lamp and lamp shades be easily approached in normal working conditions sothat they could be cleaned and maintained in good state. VENTILATION Modern industry with the complexity of operating & processes are required to useincreasing number of chemicals compounds and substances, many of which may behighly toxic the use of such materials results in dissemination of fames, gases and mistsin the work-room and contaminates that the air. The protection of worker is needed undersuch environments mental exposure. 1. Provision of exhaust ventilation without adequate through results in workers discomfort, exposure to combustible gases from back drafting and impaired ventilation. In such situations the system should be well designed for efficient exhaust ventilation. 2. Ventilation to supply fresh air for respiration, for dilution contaminated air, to maintain that, heat balance of the body, to prevent discomfort and injury to health should be also planned at the initial stages of plant layout. 3. Under the statutory provisions of factories Act, 1984 (sections-13) it is required that effective and suitable provisions in every factory for securing and maintaining and every workroom- (29)
A. Adequate ventilation by the circulating of fresh air, andB. Such a temp. as will secure the workers there in reasonable conditions of comfort and prevent injury to health. (30)
AND IN PARTICULARWalls and roofs shall be of such material and so designed that such temp. shall not beexceeded but kept as low as practical. 1. Where the nature of work carried on the factories involves, or is likely to involve, the production of excessively high temp. such adequate measures are as practicable shall be taken. 2. It can be include separating the process which produces such temp. by insulating the hot part sof by other effective neaps. 3. In the Maharashtra Factory Rules 1963 applicable from 1st Aug, 1984, a French rule 22 (a), is introduced to ensure comfortable temp. conditions inside the workroom, three is also mention of a number of air changes & also provision for even distribution, to prevent dead air packets and droughts caused by high inlet velocities, it is also required to have ventilation openings equivalent to at least 10% of the floor area, located at not more than 1 mt from floor level. There is also mention that the aggregate area if ventilation should not be less than 15% of the floor area however, the national building code recommends a minimum of there air changes per hours if there are no contaminate to be removed from the workroom. 4. Under section 16 of the factories Act 1948, over cowding shall a. have to be prevented. This section demands 14 M3 to 16M3 of space for every worker and for temp. of calculation no account will be taken of any space between 4.25 mts. Above the floor level. In relation to dry bulb temp. exceed to that given in the table below as required under Maharashtra Factor, Rules, 22 (31)
MEDICAL FACILITIESLocation of First-aid rooms near manager’s office for major departments or also to theperson responsible for it. Each first aid station should be equipped with a stretcher forservicing injured person. The safety colour of code of American standard associationsuggests their first aid equipment in the plant be painted in bright green for quick, easyidentification.Some typical layout drawings taken from plant layout design from james M. Moorebooks in incorporated for ready reference.Lavatory facilities in some plants are Kept operate from locker rooms, but the fewfacilities are combined, as is seen lavatory and toilet facilities in larger plants should bedecentralized in order to be conveniently accessible to the workers where the lockerrooms are separate from the lavatory facilities, the former may be placed close to theemployer’s entrance to plant, and time clock should be also known for. (32)
GOOD HOUSEKEEPING TOWARDS PRODUCTIVITYGood housekeeping and orderliness plays an important role inproductivity and accident prevention drive because it is one of the practicalmethods of getting efficient operations, improving morale & reducing the accidents.Following are the types of accidents caused by bad plant housekeeping. 1. Tripping over the objects haphazardly placed on flour, stairways platforms, airless, 2. Hitting by objects falling over head. 3. Slipping and falling over grassy and dirty floors. 4. Striking against projecting and pearly placed or piled materials. 5. Falling of improperly supported or piled materials over the bodies. 6. Injuries due to nails or sharp objects lying as floors. Here everybody must keep in mind that good house-keeping can not be achieved in one day. The same must be pre-planned in detail and continuously followed u.p Generally we see that departments are kept clean, if there is a visit of any VIP such as managing director, the importance of good house-keeping can be stressed by showing following advantages: Once the department is kept clean and good house-keeping standards are established,much loss time and efforts are required to maintain it clean.i. Bad house-keeping is hindrance for pre planned for increase productivity.j. There are no chances of materials and parts getting lost or mixed up. Therefore time which is wasted in search of tools, parts or materials is saved.k. Sorting of unused materials, spillage and scrap caster.l. Operator can more freely around machines.m. Faster traffic with no chances of collision is possible if aisles kept open.n. Reduced fire hazard, Fire starts or is spread by poor house-keeping conditions. In textile mill accumulation of fluff is major fire hazard.o. Low accident rate. (34)
SUPERVISORS RESPONSIBILITYIt is the responsibility of supervisors to see that departments under his control are keptclean and orderly in case where certain goods house-keeping standards are established bythe top management, task of supervisor become comparatively simpler. If it is not thecase, supervisor can set up a separate programmes he should keep in mind that to achieveit, participation of all his employees is essential. He must set up procedure so thatoperations can be checked frequently and prompt action taken on deviation or loweringof standards. In order to prepare check list to maintain good house keeping we should knowwhat are the indicators of bad house-keeping.INDICATORS OF BAD HOUSE KEEPING 1. OBJECTS OR MATERIALS CLUTTERED UPON FLOORS-These are results of materials falling from machines, tool boxes etc. or dropped during transmit. Usually maintenance people bring extra materials to attend any breakdown but they never clear up their work area fully after job is finished. 2. EQUIPMENT OUT OF PLACE – These should be trucks, tools, ladders, potable welding sets and equipments etc. it must be checked that these are kept at out of place or not. 3. POOR STORAE PRACTICES: A. Disorderly piling. B. Storing the things in aisles. C. Pilling top high or improperly. D. Keeping things in aisles, doors, sire exists etc E. Containers not provided for waste and scrap. F. System not established to remove waste at periodic interval. G. Failure to provide mechanical cleaning equipment such as vacuum cleaning machine. (35)
4. POOR DISPOSAI SYSTEM:5. DIRTY WIDOWS LIGHTS ETC. If windows, skylight, ligh fixtures are not kept clean illuminseium reduces, which increases eyestrain and accident hazard, tube lights should not be fixed above the machine as it becomes difficult to clean so there should be fixed between two machine or passages.6. FIRE HAZARD :- Oil snaked rags and cotton waste must at once. Now we will see the points which should be included in programme of achieving & maintaining good house-keeping. m Cleaning of floors, walls, ceilings, windows, stairs, passage ways, aisles, lamps and reflectors etc. l Cleaning of machinery, equipment, tools, trucks elevators, conveyors, hand and power tools. a Disposal of scrap, waste etc. D Provision of separate containers for combustible materials, non-combustible materials and oil snaked rags. m Collection of all roughish and waste at regular intervals. C Arrangement of goods in process, flushed products and waste material. A Provision of adequate space for materials, portable tools & equipments. P Stacking and piling on properly marked storage area. (36)
USE OF COLOUR CODE AS AN AID FOR HOUSE-KEEPING –Safety Colours :- a. Red – Red is used to identify the location of equipment used to sight fires. b. Yellow – Yellow is used to identify hazards the worker should “Watch out for “ when yellow is used with black, in the form of parallel, vertical or parallel diagonal lines, it points out areas where tripping, follinger striking is likely to occur. c. Orange – It is used to mark portions of machines or equipment that might injure workers. d. Green- Green is used to identify the location of equipment used in administering assistance after and accident has occurred. e. Blue – Blue is used to advise caution. f. White- White is used in marking ailes, and stock areas are marked with bands of white. Its may be used to paint waste containers. Dark corner in stairwells & manufacturing areas may be painted with white to assist good housekeeping. (37)
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY FOR PRODUCTIVITY IN TEXTILELet me first emphasize that sometimes we go with a wrong attitude to work placeand particularly the supervisory staff as well as the line staff always is moreconcerned and is made responsible for getting out production. But one mustclearly understand that while one is concerned with his production though hisemployees he is earnestly concerned with anything that interfere with theexpected production which is his foremost concern. I mean productivity andproduction.By production one must understand that it does not mean actual making of somearticles but does include handling of materials and delivery of finished productright up to the consumer. If we enlarge ourselves the operation that it definitelymeans not only the maintenance of building or equipment but also operation ofboiler, running of machines etc. further one must also understand that loss of timeon any account is also one of the source of interference with normal production.The same there is not only an interference in production but also injury to theperson and sometimes damage to the machinery or equipments further, the impactthat we find after a serious accident on the behaviour of those who are working inthat are3a we get so much upset that not only there we find loss in productionbecause of the accident but also the workers morals is so much effected adverselythat to bring those affected employers back to normal production level it takessometimes I am not mentioning here how much time is lost by others also whocome to watch the accident place and are indirectly adversely affecting theproduction schedule at some other department.i also have realized that normally the supervisor is more interested in productionactivities rather than accident prevention activities.How many of us known in fact the causes of production, troubles are practicallythe same as those of accidents. Just take an instance , time is lost b/c material is (38)
not piled properly. Time is lost b/c many aisles are blacked with boxes or materialwhich should not have been there. Time is lost b/c of wrong type of tool used onemust therefore admit that therefore a supervisors role & concern is not only theelimination of accidents that result in personal injury but accidents that result islost of time, damage to equipment, damage to product and also interference withplanned production procedures. I have never seen a sign anywhere in any factory or radium any book anyschedule where it was mentioned “Stop, Tomoe for an accident”. This accordingto man that there should be no time for accident if it is so, all the time is forproduction and anything which goes towards maintaining of the same. In shortpeople go to their jobs to work and continue to work till the job is properlyperformed and their scheduled time assignment is over. If it so, let us think ofsafely and production going together.Here investigation therefore becomes necessary when any accidents occurs & onemust admit that while investigation the cases of accidents, not only the causes thatrequire me3dical attendance that have to be investigated but also where damage iscaused to man as well as machine the same has to be found out.M any a time, the supervisor gives the causes so as to enable anyone to determineat what step the individual concerned was careless. Once we know the step whichwas strong it can be ensured that we can prevent similar accidents and avoidcareless steps.Once we know what step was wrong we should try to know why of the action.When you know what and why at the happening of the accident then, whobecomes unimportant because all become one to decide further action as to knowhow they should avoid such accident. It therefore means corrective action.1. We can correct a hazard by mechanical means, can eliminate the conditions or (39)
or change the operation what creates the hazards. We can repair the broken or defective part or we can put a guard on the dangerous machine part.2. We can eliminate the cause by assigning people to work. This applies more in relation to accident – proms workers. It has been found that probability of an accident can be reduced by a change in the environment.3. The corrective action can be applied through disciplinary measures. This method of approach may be tried only when other methods have failed.4. We can prevent accidents through the method of instruction and appeal which is the most effective way to get results. Last but not in the least supervisor must ask himself whether the instructions are being followed and for that he should ask himself the following questions? s Have I exhibited an active interest in accident prevention. H Have I given safe3ty instructions with the same degrees of enthusiasm and determination as production instructions? a Have I pointed out to the men the importance of their job to the finished product and how improper methods can seriously interfere with the completion of a project? w Have I previously ignored via lotion of the same instructions that I am trying to enforce? t Have I been guilty to do the same thing that I am now trying to correct others from doing? Have I given others an opportunity to express themselves? H Have I been impartial? (40)
Lacking back to the Textile industry again which is tradition bound and old, therole of supervisors therefore have to be changed now with the bringing on ofmodern machinery & equipments. The worker will have to adjust himself to thechanging screen and changing machine, though the place might remain the same.The skill that will be required for performing the work will require added vig our& with that a definite will, to not only tive high production but work safely andalso to achieve maximum, for this let us all work where we take production andsafety together for both are inseparables. Accident prevention is a continuous process and at times non-rewardingand even non-attractive. The attitude therefore of each and every individual isrequired to be changed because each and every one is not directly but indirectlyaffected and if we do not involve individuals noting can enable us to preventreduction in accidents. that will to work therefore with a desired objective to worksafely has to be developed amongst all concerned, as production and safety isequally important, skilled persons though have skills, their skills can be of useonly when they are on work and work safely their safe working helps each one toget desired objective of increased production. Another prang that i would like to stress is that sometimes we feel in thetextile industry that accidents are caused because they are God willing; it is theGod who prevents accidents or causes accident. I do appreciate that certain thingsare destined but that one must also appreciate that it is our own bad judgementthat creates such a situation where accident occurs. The Textile worker iscooperatively less educated and his reflex action at times fail, with the result, thelost minute prevention of accident cannot be avoided.As stated earlier human error causes accidents and if we glance through pastrecord in total industry is India a reheating fact come out as can be seen on theanalysis of accident. 1. Human causes – 88% (Unsafe practice, lack of fore sight, wrong attitude etc.) 2. Mechanical failure – 10% (Plant condition, tool or equipment failure). (41)
3. Acts of God – 02% (Weather, floods, cyclones etc.). (Source- Training Manual, National Productivity Council, June 1978 Edition).As stated earlier if we really look at the productivity problem the Textilemachinery that is provided by the Manufactures have many safety aspects andinfect all the world over, one can honestly say that safety is much higher inTextile industry as compared to hazardous chemical industry or petrochemicalindustry leave apart the fine chemical industry the machinery what has beenprovided is world-wide acknowledged to be safe for working and the accidentsoccurs only when many a times mechanical fault takes place, safe devices are notkept in proper working conditions or that someone works in hazardous and unsafemanner I can only opine as a silent observer that there is still scope forimprovement & that one can work with safety for production only when thedesire, the will & the decision to work safely is there. (42)
Chapter 5: STATUTORY SAFETYREQUIREMENTS IN TEXTILES INDUSTRY (43)
STATUTORY SAFETY REQUIREMENTS1. All openers sketchers, combined openers and sketchers, Lap machine, hard waste breakers, cleaners, blenders, hoppers feeders and similar machine. a. All machines given above shall be driven by separate motors or from separate counter shafts provided with the fast and loose pulleys and efficient belt shifting devices. b. In above machines the beater covers and doors which give access to any dangerous part of the machine shall be filled with effective interlocking arrangements, which shall prevent the covers and doors being opened till the dangerous parts of the machine come to rest and also prevent the machine being restored till the covers and doors are closed. c. In all machines named above the opening giving access to the dust chamber shall be provided with permanently fixed fencing, which shall, while admitting light, yet prevent contact between any part of a persons body and beater grid bars. d. Provided that in case of similar machines run at higher speed and provided with an automatic lap starter mechanism, the m/c shall be immediately put out of use, no sooner this machine goes out of order for any reason and the same shall not be decommissioned till the automatic mechanism is repaired and placed back in efficient working order.2. CARDING MACHINE :- • All cylinder doors shall be secured by an automatic locking device which shall prevent the doors being opened until the cylinder/cylinders ceased to revolve and shall render it impossible to restart the machine, until the door is closed. (44)
• Access to the licker-on cylinder from the back and the sides shall be positively prevented so long as the licker in cylinder is rotating, by suitably designed and placed guards.3. DRAWING FRAME – 1. The gearing for driving the draft rollers on drawing frames shall be effectively guarded by a cover which shall be so interlocked that it cannot be raised until the m/c is stopped and the machine can not be restarted until the cover is closed.4. SPEED FRAMES- Hand stocks shall be filled with automatic locking arrangements which shall prevent the doors giving access to the jack box wheels being opened while the machinery is in motion and shall render is impossible to restart the machine until the doors are closed.5. COMBERS AND SIMILAR MACHINES – a. The gearing shall be effectively guarded by cover which shall be so inter locked that it cannot be raised until the m/c is Stopped and the machine cannot be restarted until the covers closed. b. A fixed guard of a suitable design shall be provide which would prevent access to the draw-box rollers in motion.6. SELF ACTING MOLES- The drive shall be from countershaft which shall be provided with fast and loose pulleys and efficient belt shifting devices. (45)
7. PROCESS HOUSE MACHINERY- a. In respect of calendaring mangles roller, printing machine, mercerizing. Soaping, stentering, singeing, shrinking, washing and similar m/cs all such machines shall be provided with an efficient nip guard along the whole length on the intake side of each pair of bowls and similar parts, as would prevent access to the point of contact of the rollers or bowls. Provide, that, in the cause of those machines in respect of which it is not possible to provide efficient “nip” guards on account of the corrosive action of chemical used in the process or on account of the size of the material passing through the bowls, efficient fixed guard shall be provided on either side of the machines as would positively prevent any access to the point of contact of the rollers or bowls. Provided further that in respect of rollers or bowls of such m/s with ends of lesser diameter, the nip” guards shall have flattened ends on either side to prevent access between the guard and the roller or bowl ends moving in. b. In respect of felt calendaring machines of any type, dangerous intake points between moving felt of belt and the central or other guide drums shall be securely fenced from the front & also from the sides, of such intake points as are accessible from working floors or platforms.8. SHEARING AND CROPPING MACHINES – The dangerous moving author blades shall be provided with on efficient interlock arrangement as would prevent the complete cover or guard to be opened until the cutter blade has come to rest and would also make it impossible to restart the machine until the cover or guard is closed.9. SINGEING MACHINES –Effective arrangement such as solenoid valve or other effective device shall beprovided to cut of instantaneously supply of any type of gas or electricity to themachine, in case of failure of power to the machine. . (46)
Chapter 6: SAFETY IN THE COTTON ANDALLIED FIBRES INDUSTRY (47)
SAFETY IN THE COTTON AND ALLIED FIBRES INDUSTRYMUTES:- This machinery has become absolute and safety aspects are not covered.RING FRAMES :- Whilst more modern machines are driven by individual electric motors integralwith the machine it self, older types of grams may still be driven by flat belts and pulleysfrom overhead line shafting or they may have been converted to individual motor drivesshould be adequately guarded, upto a height of seven feet from level.GEARING :-The main gearing on all machines should be in cases. On old machines this is achievedby the addition of inner panels to the existing guards but on more modern machineencasement is generally provided by the maker where there are access doors they shouldpreferably be interlocked.SIZING MACHINES:- These machines take the yarn threads from a series of Warper’s beam andcombine them to produce a weaver’s beam. During through the machine a cost of size isapplied to the warp threads to impart added strength for the weaving process. Sizing m/scis also known as taps or slashed sizing machines. Early modes of sizing m/cs have dryingunit consisting of two steam heated cylinders whereas later machines have a multicylinders arrangement. The two cylinders on earlier machines are of different sizes and can be positionedvery close together so that a dangerous trap is created between them unless the clearancebetween the cylinders is grater than 150 mm. guarding should be provided. On some (48)
modern multi-cylinder sizes the cylinders are also closely spaced. Efficient guardingshould be provided on these machine if the clearance between the cylinders is less than(150 mm) or 6”. All gearings & and belts and pulleys should be effectively quarded.Gearings includes side shafts bevel gears, measuring motion gears wheels driving theheadstock rollers. All projections on accessible rotating parts should be effectively guarded. Inparticular, attention should be given to the set screws on the muff couplings on the sideshafts. It is also advisable that this and other revolting shafting be sleeved or otherwiseprotected. Serious accidents have occurred at the trap between the drag and measuringrollers of the head stock when persons have attempted to correct faults while the machinein motion. A guard should be provided and should be maintained in position at all timesexcept when the machine is on crawl speed. (20 feet per minute). On modern machines with multicylider drying unit site gearing belts and pulleysand shafting are usually enclosed. The rollers at the head stock revolves rapidly, andpermanently fixed guarding or interlocked guarding should be provided to prevent accessto the trap between these rollers. Any interlocked guarding should insure that for allspeeds other than crawl, the power supply to the machine cannot set in motion until theguard is close. The crawl speed should be as low as practicable and should not excess1000 millimetres per second (20/min.). in addition the only control for the crawl speedshould be at the head stock should be designed so that it has to be continuously held inthe on position. An additional sale-guard on these machines is the provision of the stripboar or wine set at the front of the machine which when operated ensures that the powersupply to the machine is in erupted.DRIVE TO SPINDLES:-On the earliest machines the spindles where driven by endless narrow bands which inturn were driven by two tin rollers. Later, machine employed a single tin roller andjockey pulley system and the bands were replaced by wider tapes. Some modern (49)
machines have pulleys instead of a tin roller and some designs employ an endless drivingbelt to the spindles. Where there are two tin rollers on intake between them is created onthe underside for which suitable guarding should be provided Numerous accidents haveoccurred when operatives have attempted to replace bands and tapes which have comeoff the jockey pulleys whilst the machines were in motion.Accidents have also happened, when persons have attempted to repair and replace brokenbands and tapes again with the machines running this work should of course only be donewhen the machinery is stationery.FANS:- Most ring frames are provided with a broken and extraction system the fan isusually mounted at one end of the frame and is either provided with ducting on the outletis covered with grid bars. The shape and size of the ducting or the spacing of the grid barsshould prevent all access to the fan blades.Travelling cleaners are also provided on many frames. These are carried around theframe on elevated track and the fan unit is situated above the trackers. There have been anumber of accidents when persons have climbed up to the clean or perform othermaintenance on the unit. Guarding should be provided for the fan bladder.OPEN END SPINNING MACHINES :- This is an entirely new for of yarn production and special machines have beenmanufactured for the purpose. They are all relatively modern and the transmission beltsand pulleys and gearing are generally encased. The doors forming part of the encasementshould be interlocked or secured so that they can not be rapidly opened by unauthorizedpersons the spinning units are driven by a continuous flat belt usually protected by thefront sections of the units. When a section is hinged open for process work the belt is still protected but if asection is completely removed for repair the belt is exposed. In such circumstancestemporary guarding should be provided. (50)
WINDING MACHINES :-Belts and Pulleys: - Modern machines are usually driven by individual electric motorsintegral with the machines themselves so that and pulleys are encased. Earlier m/cs werecommonly driven by flat belts and pulleys from overhead line shafting or they may havebeen concerted to individual motor drive; guarding should be provided in all cases toprevent access to these belts and pulleys. Secondary belt and pulleys drives and those toancillary motions such as conditioning through and conveyers should also be adequatelyguarded.Gearing – All gearing should be satisfactorily guarded where it is at all accessible. Onmodern machines the gearing is usually completely encases.Shafting – All shafting should be satisfactorily guarded where it is accessible, This canbe achieved by fixed guarding, tunnel guards or loose sleeking is the recommendedpractice.TRAP B/W DRUM & PACKAGES:-A large number of accidents occur at the trap between the rotating drum and the yarnpackages, especially at cone and these winding machines. The majority of these accidentstake place during the removal of a full package and its replacement by an empty tube.The package holder is moved away from the drum for this purpose and injury results ifthe operative lowers the package holder on to the rotating drum whilst his band isbetween the parts. Alternatively the package holder may drop unintentionally due tomechanical failure. Training in the safe operation of these machines in thereforeessentially. This has to be compiled with excellent preventive maintenance. Accident alsooccur during the removal of waste yarn from the rotating drum. Friction injuries arecaused by contact with the drum or the operatives fingers may be cut by the moving yarn.Waste removal should only be permitted when the drum is stationary. Too muchaccumulation of yarn waste should be discouraged. (51)
DOUBLING MACHINES Ring doubling machines are very similar to ring or moving m/cs except that thereis no drafting zone. The hazards and precautions to be observed are similar to thesedescribed for ring frames.BACK BEAMING MACHINES – These machines transfer yarn from a number of packages held in a creel and laythe threads of yarn side by side on a warp on back beam for spun yarns the beam isusually driven by frictional contact with a revolving drum up to the immediate post-waryears these machines ran at approximately 1.5 mtr./sec. (100 yds/min). A relatively slowspeed, The threads are brought per the beam barrel to the wound on so that the in takebetween the beam barrel and the drum is at the underside and away from the operativesnormal working position at the front of the machines. On more recent machines speedshave been considerable increased and 14 metres/sec. (900 yds/min) is not unknown thedrum on the high speed machine rotates the beam in the opposite directions and forwinding on the threads are brought under the beam barrel. The intake between the beambarrel and the drum is therefore, on the upper side and towards the operative. A numberof serious accidents have occurred at the in running trap and a barrier should be providedwhich prevents access to the trap when the machine is in motion or a device should befilled which ensures that the machine is stopped promptly should a person approached thetrap. The photo electric guard is the most usual form of protection for the intakebetween the beam barrel and drum. The photo electric system should be self monitoringand should be designed to fail to safety another form of protection is a hinged barrierwhich prevents access to the trap when is lowered. Both these types of guards really onefficient breaking systems and has to be maintained in good state of repairs. Attentionmust be given to the guarding of belts and pulleys and gearing. (52)
SECTIONS WORPING MACHINES :-If threads of yarn were assembled directly from a bobbin creel on to a weavers beam thento achieve sufficient threads the creel would have to be an impracticable length sctionwarping is a technique by which the total number of threads required are assembled instages on intermediate drum before final transference on to the weaver’s beam. Accidents have occurred at the traps between the ends of the drum lags and themachine frame work and at the revolving projections of the beaming off motion guardingshould be provided for these parts as well as for all gearing and shafting. On somemodern machines a trip bar remitized bar is provided; the displacement of which causesthe machine to stop promptly the additional safeguard efforts some protection against thepossibility of being trapped by the yarn as it is wound on to the drum or beam.DRY TAPING MACHINES:-These machines also take the yarn threads from a series of warper’s beams and combinethem to produce a weaver’s beam, but in this case no size is applied the head stockarrangement is, however, very similar to that on sizing machines and effective guardingshould be provided. (53)
SAFETY IN THE COTTION AND ALLIEDFIBERSINDUSTRY OPENING PROCESSSAFGUARDING DESIGN AND MAINTENANCE: - Whatever type of material is chosen, the guard should be rigid andsubstantial construction. Guards should be secured in position and regular and frequentchecks should be made, to ensure that they are properly maintained and kept in position.The various sections of guards are better kept in position by bolts or rivets so that thesesections can not be easily removed by unauthorized persons, wing nuts or similarfastening are unsuitable for this purpose. On many machines guarding is by enclosurewith hinged access doors. Secure locking devices should be fitted to these doors andmeasures should be taken to ensure that they are kept in the closed and locked positionwhenever the machinery is in motion. In cases where a section of guard has to be removed frequently from a machine toafford access, it is good practice to fit interlocking devices to ensure that the machinecannot be set in motion when the section in grid, the section cannot be removed when them/c is in motion. This aspect should always be considered at the design stage sincemodification after the machine has been installed may be technically difficult and evenimpracticable. Interlocking devices should be so constructed that they can not be readilytempered with or defeated and if a component of the interlocking mechanism should fall,the m/c should not be capable of being set in motion. Unfortunately many interlockingdevices, both mechanical and electrical do not meet this standard. Certain electrical limitswitches can be easily defeated by depressing the contact button and some modernmachine suffer from this short coming. Inter locking arrangements which are not reliable (54)
are known as ‘fail to danger type’, & those which are reliable are known as ‘fall safetype’. Accidents which continue to occur, have confirmed the need for regular inspectionand testing of all interlocking devices, and the immediate repair of any defects brought tolight by such inspection. If a component part of an interlock is removed, or if it isdetective or damaged, access to the dangerous part will sooner or later be gained it isstrongly recommended that such inspections should be carried out at regular intervals bya responsible person, and that at regular intervals by a responsible person, and that arecord of the result and any section taken should be kept. The factories 1948 Act requiresset screws bolts, or keys on revolving part to the sunk, in case or otherwise effectivelyguarded to prevent danger. It also requires all gearing which does not need frequentadjustment whilst in motion to be completely in-cased unless it is as safe as if it werecompletely in cased. This is a legal requirement placed not only on the makers of m/c butalso on agents or importers of machines. Any other dangerous parts of m/cs are required to be guarded in accordance withsections of the factories Act 1948 (amended) whilst this obligation is placed on thefactory occupier, it is desirable that provision for the necessary guarding be made at thedesign stage and guarding supplied with machine at the time of sale. If the executive areaware requirements, they can intend machineries with necessary gadgets/guards.TRANSMISSION MACHINERY:- Transmission machinery includes the shafting, pulleys and belts by whichmachines are driven. Where machines are driven from line shafting it should be realizedthat is quite contrary to low to approach the shafting (if unguarded) for any such purposesas oiling, greasing or the mounting of bolts while the shafting is in motion. The law isquite clear on the matter either the shafting is on motion should be securely fenced orthey should be so placed as to be equally safe. If as is contumely, safety by position isrelied upon, then positional safety must be maintained. Overhead shafting in motion mustnot be approached for any purpose, save for such very rare emergencies as may becovered by section of the factories (section 22). It should be clearly understood that (55)
lubrication of transmission machinery and the mounting of belts in certain specifiedcontinuous process has no application to the Textile Industry. A requirement of the factories Act is that a driving belt, when not in used, shouldnot be allowed to rest or ride on any revolving shaft forming part of the transmissionmachinery Either the belt should be removed or, particularly if it is one which isfrequently out of use, a suitable belt perch should be provided. If such precautions are nottaken there is risk of the belt wrapping around the shaft. Driving belts should not bemanipulated when the machinery is in motion except by means of a pole and then onlywhen the line shaft is sleeved on a belt perch provided. Where overhead main driving belts or ropes are used these should be providedwith a tough guard below to prevent the accidental contact by operatives and to offeredprotection in the case of belt breakages. Groups of machines are often driven from line shafting in turn driven from onemotor which may be mounted on the floor at the higher level. The drive from this motorto the line shafting should be adequately guarded there, this is at all accessible. Take large extent the flat belt and pulley drives from line shafting have beensuperseded by individual drive whereEach machine has its own motor. It is a legal requirement that the belts and pulleys ordrives of any m/c should be fully guarded. Vee-belt drives running on grooved pulleysand toothed belt drives are particularly dangerous.BELT CONVEYERS:-They are commonly used in textile mills. There are traps between the intakes of the beltand head and tail pulleys, there are also trape between the idler roller or tension pulleysand the belt. Where closed guards are not possible or smaller conveyers, close fitting nipguards are recommended. (56)
BELTS AND PULLEYS:-Where use is made of external belts and pulleys, fender guards or individual guards arenecessary Fender guards or individual guards are necessary fender guards should be highenough to prevent person reaching the dangerous in running nips of the belts, pulleys andthe guards should securely fixed in position. Individual guards should completely in casesthe drives.GEARING:-All gear wheels should be guarded so as to prevent access to the dangerous parts. This isusually achieved by complete e3ncasement. The standard is on visage under 140conventions. On modern machinery gearings is often totally enclosed behind lockeddoors, the key being held by a responsible person in charge of the opening ranges.FEED ROLLERS:-After the preliminary opening of the fibre, pairs of fluted of spiked rollers feed thematerial to a variety of beaters. Access to the in running nip of these feeder should beprevented by a fixed guards secured to the framework of the machine for textilemachinery the extension do batter covers could be considered.BEATERS AND CYLINDERS:-Contact with these moving parts produces the most serious type of injury access is gainedeither by lifting the beater or cylinder voter or the desk door, often to clear a blockage b/fthe beater or cylinder has come completely to rest. In most cases frequent access isrequired and an interlocking arrangement should be fitted which makes it impossible toopen the cover door until the beater or cylinder has stopped and prevents the beater or (57)
cylinder being started until both the cover and door are closed. All the parts of thisinterlocking mechanism should be secures by rivets and not by set screw which can beeasily removed. Many accidents results from faculty interlocking mechanism a number of theserely on a sliding belt of such a length that either one end must be in a whole in the beatercover or the other and on a whole in the beater pulley alternatively a special discmounded on the beater shaft can be used instead of a pulley. If the relative distance of thecover and pulley or disk is not maintained or the belt is not long enough, the mechanismwill not function correctly. It is absolutely imperative that these mechanism are correctlydesigned and properly maintained where only infrequent access is required, covers shouldbe secured in position so that they cannot be readily removed by unauthorized person. Master bolting for older machines should be considered. Fibre may be transferredfrom one m/c to another by pneumatic means and it is necessary to have inspectionpanels in the turning for clearing any brakeage if such a panel is placed with in armslength of the beater a most serious accident could occurs. Pad locks or other lockingarrangements for these panels with the key hold by a responsible person is not a reliablemethod of ensuring that the panel is always closed when the machine is in motion.Similarly securing the panel is place by bots or wing nuts ha proved unreliable as theincidence of accident has shown. The only safe guard is to position the opening beyondforms length from the beaters. Vision panels should also be placed in a similar position. Opening which permit access to the beater should be blanked off. Eq. withsoldered or riveted panels. On some machines access to the beater is also possible though openings in theside frame work. Covers over such openings should be secured in position unless accessto the beater is prevented by grid bars.LAP ROLLERS:- Accidents have occurred at the lap end when a new lap is being started. Onmanually doffed machines the operative must truck the fibre lap around the slip roller. Atrap is crated between the slip roller and the revolting lap rollers. No injury is linked to (58)
result until the racks are lowered and pressured is exerted on the slip roller. Aninterlocking lap guard should be filleted which will prevent access to this traps onespressure has been applied.BASIC PRINCIPLESINTRODUCTION Around 30% of the total number of accidents in our country are due to movingmachinery, and they are avoidable by hashing properly designed, well placed and rigidlyanchored machine guarding. The textile industry accounts for a longer percentage ofaccidents due to moving machinery. Accidents due to moving machinery are movebeavers and also results at time in death and permanent, total and petal disablement.Where guards are need? 1. Where it is likely or remotely possible for any person present in the factory to come in contact with any moving part of the machinery. 2. In order to prevent particles or broken parts of any machinery flying and injuring any person present in the factory. The guards are needed for the following machinery parts. a. Transmission machinery. b. Moving parts of the machinery 4. c. Point s of operation hazards. The statutory requirements of guarding provision incorporated under section 21 of factories Act and schedule I of Rule 57 of Maharashtra Factory Rules for textile industry. (59)
Specifications of guards:- a. Guards should form as part of machine. b. Guards must protect not only the operator but also others who work in the environment or engage in inspection, supervision and also who attend to machines occasionally for repair oiling and those who come for supplying raw materials for removing finished parts from the and around the machine. c. To remove the efficiency of operations. d. Guards should be fool proof. e. Design of guards should provide case of carrying out repairs oiling etc. f. Secured anchorage should be ensured. g. Guards should not themselves be cause for accidents. should cover up the statutory requirements envisaged under the factories Act and provision. (60)
Opening in machine guards: a. Reasons for providing opening in machine guards : · For entrance to the materials to be processed and/or taking out the processed materials (ex. power press). · For allowing the operators to the job during process at the point of operation (ex. Power Press). · For allowing the operators to the job during process at the point of operation (ex. Sheering Cropper). · For greasing and oiling (ex. gears of looms). · For carrying out repairs and alterations of minor nature (ex. General).b. Maximum longer size opening in fixed guard relationship permissible guard opening to distance of guards from the (sheer) points should be in accordance with the accepted standards.c. General code of practice for machine guards.d. General code of practice for machine guarding is at present provided in our country. This code specified the basic requirements with regard to machinery, guards and also safe design of machines. It is expeclient to note that machinery which can not be guarded, sealed in accordance with legal requirement while remaining commercially practicable or mechanically useful (61)
should be no longer be used. Should also be burns in mind that absence frominjury from operating a machine is no proof that the machine is safe foroperation?. (62)
Chapter 7:Major Accidents in Textile Industry (63)
ACCIDENTS IN SPINNING PREPARATORY AND SPINNING PROCESS An examination of the major causes of accidents by central labour instituterevealed that in terms of unsafe physical conditions are an unsafe act in 60.5% of theaccidents are caused. Again unsafe physical conditions including systems of work werefound to be the cause in as large as 60.5% of these accidents. This indicates theconsiderable scope for improvement of the mechanical or physical conditions as a suremethod of prevention of accidents in which unsafe conditions were the major cause. Themajor cause by the following two types of unsafe conditions: i) Defective condition in agency --> 55.6% Hazardous arrangement, procedures. ii) Method, inherent hazard in the job, etc. --> 29.2% This highlight that it is necessary to give weightage in accidents prevention programmes to introduce and sustains adequate systems to have- (i) Proper maintenance of machinery equipment and tools. (ii) The method of work properly studies, to detect the hazards involved and to introduce appropriate measure to control the risk of accidents in various operation. (64)
MAJOR CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS AN CONTROL MEASURES 1. Opening and Blow-Room Machinery – The transmission machinery accidents due to not guarding and due to lack of sufficient care on the part of the employees were found responsible. Mounting of the belts by responsible trained persons instead of leaving it to mazdoor will go a long way in mitigating such accidents. The tendency of the part of a jobber or a fitter to entrust the work of mounting of belts to the mazdoor if controlled by regulatory means can help immensely. The requirement of interlocked guard for beater cover and cylinder doors and diagonal grids bard for dust chamber opening giving access to the grid bars are covered under the statutory requirements in schedule I of Rule 57. It is found that the feed rollers could be also covered by extending the beater covers by which many accidents on scotches and openers can be mitigated. so the inspection of the existing guards and modifying and ensuring adequate maintenance is one area which requires management’s attention.. It is also observed that in some cases the workers meet with accidents because the beater’s had not come to rest and in some other cases the operations were carried on without taking the primary step of switching off the machines. The management have a statutory responsibility and it is essential that the supervisors remain alert to this problem. It is also seen that due to lack of suitable means of access to locations and height wears certain jobs are to be performed, workers falling.2. CARDING MACHINES- The transmission machinery of the cards require adequate guarding to world off accidents. Here also amounting or dismounting belts or ropes is one area sheer accidents do take place. The employees are to be clearly told that cleaning operations of transmission machinery without switching of the power should not be resorted. The absence of adequate guards an (65)
transmission machinery parts constitutes and illegal act and adequate attention has to be taken. cylinder’s licker in and doffer together are responsible of good number of accidents. The accidents can prove very serious when the hands come in contact with wire clotting of the cylinder. Provision of guards for licker-in rolls of the cards from the front and from the sides similarly for doffer cylinders and also for the under casing part cylinder is an important requirement to mitigate accidents.3. ROVING GRAMES – Bobbins fall while placing them on or removing them from the creel too. They are responsible for a good number of accidents. A miss- match between the m/c and the employees on work is a matter which requires tidies and corrections. Many cases were reported where creel top was too high for the employees to reach it easily it was also reported that there is no suitable means of access to reach creel top. So resorting of unsafe means of placing and taking out bobbins on and from creel top results in accidents. It is recommended to provide suitable foot boards and hand holds on the frames. At least the managements can ensure that not more than one row of bobbins be stacked on the creel top. The accidents due to workers is coming in contact with moving flyers while employees were attending to different operations is not ruled out, as operations such as cleaning fluff in close proximity is invariably attempted without stopping the machines.4. RING FRAMES – it was observed during the study that about 50% of the accidents were due to damaged metallic shield of bobbins judicious selections and adoption of the control measures by way of frequents inspection and rejection of bobbins with plastic ones and used of knee brakes are some of the safe approaches which can prevent accidents. While going out piecing work it is necessary to stop the metallic bobbin and to lift them up since the age old practice of the workers is to achieve both the elements of these operations in one action. By stopping the bobbin at the shield and lifting them simultaneously many accidents are caused. If a new worker could be trained and allowed to form a habit of carrying out these (66)
two elements of operations rather safely by stopping the bobbin from the top and lifting it from the bottom many of the accidents would be controlled. It is also observed that there is no care taken to identify the bobbin which has caused the accident. It is a good proactive and an essential one top to remove those bobbing causing the accidents and examining them and thereby can be ensured that the same bobbin is not responsible for more than one accident. A good number of accidents on ring frames are found caused due to fall of rollers or being hit against or caught between various parts of the frames while attending to different types of operations. The mechanism holding the rollers should be studied and the mechanical defects should be rectified to prevent such accidents. A proper layout the machine will also go a long way in mitigating such accidents. In ring frames also the fall of bobbins from creel top has caused a good no. of accidents and the same control measures suggested above for roving frames could b adopted. The ring traveller hitting the eye and hitting the other parts of the body is another cause of accidents. It also occurs while removing the traveller. Use of good quality traveller, feeding them properly and introducing an effective system of periodical replacement after determining the periodicity would minimize the chances of travellers flying it is never found that the persons replacing travellers wear goggles. How for it is practical is a matter for study? 5. MATERIAL HANDLING – 50% of these accidents are invariably occurredwhile handling the cans and skips. The accidents due to protruding portions ofdamaged cans and skips, bring out clearly the need for introduction of an effectivesystem of inspection and maintenance of these containers. I would like to emphasizehere that care be taken in handing of materials, particularly heavy things like bales,machinery parts and loaded cans and skips.6. WORKING CONDITIONS – objects such as nails, hoop iron, metal pieces, ring travellers, glass, pieces, bobbins, cans, and skips, machinery and machinery parts, (67)
lying about on the floor and damaged on slippery7 conditions of the floor areafound to be the caused of accidents, the working space around machinery andfixtures in and around textile machineries generally being already limited, it isvery important that safe movement of men and materials are not hampered by badhouse keeping, since workers normally work bore footed or with unsuitable typeof floor wear, the need for maintaining a high level of house keeping is all themore relevant. The emphasis on controlling physical conditions and method ofwork are essential means for achieving freedom from accidents. The hazards inthe job are required to be removed and behaviour of persons although difficult toachieve requires some control. By and for the best method is to control thephysical conditions. It is an obvious truth that in the absence of safe procedures ofwork for the various tasks to ensure that the employees confirm to them throughtraining and education and motivation accidents continue to occur to employees.Although existing textile mills are not planned adequately, still substantialaccident reductions is possible if there is a will on the part of the management andsupervisors and workers. (68)
SOME OF THE RECOMMENDED SAFE PRACTICES1. Belt and pulley primary drives to all machine shall be efficiently guarded except. a. Those that are in such position to be equally safe as if so guarded. b. Flat belts less than 50 mm (2”) wide are.2. Gearing shall be completely encased except – a. That which is in such a position as to be equally safe as if so encased. b. Gearing on machinery constructed before 1st july 1984 that is efficiently guarded. c. Projection on accessible revolving parts shall sunk or efficiently guarded for the two cylinder sizing machines. Efficient guarding shall be provided to prevent access to the trap between the cylinders unless the distance between the periphery of the smaller and larger cylinders i.e. greater than 150 mm. the traps between the rollers of the hand stock shall be efficiently guarded. Such guarding shall be either permanently fixed in position or be so interlocked that the power supply to the machine is interrupted whenever the guard is opened and the machine can not be set in motion until the guard is closed. c. Across the beaming and of the machine readily accessible position there shall be a device which when operated ensures that the power supply to the machine is interrupted.4. Each new or second hand cylinders, and any cylinder to which repairs which may (69)
effect its safety have been carried out, shall be hydraulically tested before use toat least one and half times its working pressure.a. Each cylinder shall be clearly marked with its safe working pressure.b. A machine shall be fitted with –• Suitable reducing valve or other sensible means to prevent that safe working pressure being exceeded.• A suitable safety valve of type which cannot be tempered with, and which is large enough to limit the pressure in cylinders to not more than 10% above the safe working pressure, even in the case of reducing valve failure.• The safety valve and pressure gauge shall be fitted between the cylinders and the reducing valve and all the fitting shall be maintained in efficient working order.• The cylinder shall be thoroughly examined by a approved come person at least once in every period of two years and the vessels and fittings externally once in during a period of six month.• No person shall clean or lubricate any machinery if in the process of cleaning or lubricating the worker would be exposed to risk injury from any moving part of any machinery .The access to work places shall be –a. Kept in good repair and free from loose article and accumulation of dirt or size, sand or other suitable material shall be provided, used to prevent floors becoming skippering.b. Every effort shall be made to promote good house keeping. (70)
c. Ladders shall not be used unless it has a level and firm footing and is secured near its upper resting place or another persons is poisoned at the base to prevent its displacement. d. Ladders and step ladders shall be examined by responsible person and in three months. Any defects observed shall be immediately ratified. Suitable provision shall be mode for the storage of ladders and step ladders.f. Person working shall wear close fitting appeared and be made free of rings and bracelets. The employees involved in transportation of material and plat be advised to wear safely foot wearer. (71)
TYPES OF GUARDS1. FIXED GUARDS – This is the best and primary method of attaining secure fencing and should be proffered unless it is impractical under the obtaining circumstances. They should be so provided that the danger point would become inaccessible except when the guard is totally removed. Not only should it be in accessible in the normal operation of the machine, but it should be impossible for the operator or any other person how so ever be may try to reach the danger point it is usual to provide fixed guards for fencing transmission machinery but even on working machinery at the point of operation, it is possible to provide fixed guards, with suitable openings to allow the work to pass through, on power presses, a variety of fixed guards such as the ordinary, direct feed, sliding feed etc can be fitted and yet the work could not be hered. In conjunction with automatic or semi-automatic feeding devices, fixed guards become all the more useful.2. INTERLOCK FIXED GUARDS – This guard should be used on machines as the first alternative. If a fixed guard can not be used. At the point of operation on such machines as power presses, it is possible to provide a gate opening which can be placed in front of the danger zone, the remaining portions at the front and the 2 sides completely being protected by fixed guards. The gate should be so interlocked with the press control mechanism (Latch and key) that when it is open, it would not be possible for the worker to dress the operating lever of the power press. This would ensure that before the punch or machine is set in motion, the worker has to removes his hand from the danger zone. Such interlocked fixed guards are mainly used on power presses, textile machinery, dough mixers, centrifugal machinery etc. the interlocking system may be either mechanical or electrical or a combination of both. Hydraulic or pneumatic systems used to operate certain types of machinery including power presses may be employed for interlocking guards as well. In such cases,
however, the guards have to be carefully designed to ensure safety.3. AUTOMATIC GUARDS – This type of guard should only be used where neither fixed nor are interlocking guards possible and practicable to safeguard a particular danger area. Automatic guards should operate to remove any party of person exposed to danger to a position of safety. These guards should function independently of the operator. These guards are those where operators hands are automatically swift away before the danger zone classes in such as between the die and punch of a power press or to feed paper in a plate printing machine however, such sweep away guards have a limited use particularly an account of the time lag involved.4. TRIP GUARDS – Trip guars should be so arranged that an approach by a person beyond a safe limit causes the guards to more and the machinery to stop and / or reverse its motion before any part of the person can reach the dangerous part. It is possible to protect some danger zones as in rubber mixing mills, by providing such a tripping device. Trips between rolls on rubber ear lender machine can also be so guarded. Another example is to stop a conveyer system by this trip guard. The effective performance of a trip guard is greatly dependent upon the stopping characteristic of the machine, which must be controlled within defined limits. An efficient braking system electromagnetic system is normally a necessity. Trip guards which normally are of a mechanic nature also include electro sensitive devices such as those complying with photoelectric principles. Along as the ray is obstructed by the workers hand, dangerous machine parts can not start moving the design of trip guards of mechanical type should be such that the machinery can not again be set in motion, unless and until the guard has been reset. 5. POSITION GUARDS – in respect of the some of the less dangerous machines, it may be sufficient to merely provide railing
round the machines. However, such railings are going out of use forvarious reasons. When such railing guards are provided, it should beensured that the railing in placed not more than 15” away nor less than9” away from the moving parts to be fenced. If the distance is morethan 15”, it is possible for a worker to cross over the railing and beclose to the moving part to carry out any work this must be avoided.The above figures are for general guidance only where as the correctdistances are determined by the tables discussed here after under thisparagraph.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF STANDARD GUARDGuards should be designed, constructed and used that – 1. Provide positive protection. 2. Prevent access to the danger zone during operations. 3. Cause the operator no discomfort or inconvenience. 4. Not interfere with efficient operation of the machine. 5. Be suitable for the job and the machine. 6. Not weaken the structure of the machine. 7. Preferably constitutes a built in features. 8. Provide for machine oiling, inspection, adjustment & repairs. 9. Be constructed strongly enough to resist normal wear & shock. 10. Operate automatically or with minimum effort. 11. With stand long use with minimum maintenance. 12. Not constitute a hazard by themselves such as splinter, pinch points, shearing points, sharp corners, rough edges, or other sources, of injuries and. 13. Protect against unforeseen operational contingencies, not merely against normally expected hazards.
ACCIDENT IN FINISHING AND CERTAIN OTHERDEPARTMENT1. GENERAL – In nearly 54% of the accidents in the above mentioned departments, the predominant cause for these Incidents was unsafe physical or mechanical conditions. The principle unsafe conditions responsible for accidents were hazardous work methods and arrangements, defective conditions of “agencies” arising out of poor maintenance, unguarded dangerous parts of machinery and failure to provide personal protective equipments. The predominant unsafe actions responsible for accidents were in the nature of unsafely performing the given tasks either b/c of lack of knowledge on the safe methods of doing a job or because of failure to follow the well known safe practices. Next in importance was the practice of using equipment unsafely or using unsafe equipment. In terms of major “agencies” contributing the accidents, “machinery”. “materials handled” and “transport equipments” an account of 63% of the total. The specific remedial measures for control of different types of accidents are enumerated against each agency as follows. The methods for control of the different accidents involving unsafe actions of persons being common namely, safety education, training, motivation & supervision, these are not necessary to be repeated under each agency.
2. TEXTILE PROCESSING MACHINERY – a. The in running nips between rollers in all machinery, unless the nips are inaccessible, should be securely guarded with nip guards. b. In driers and similar machines where there is risk of access from the sides to nips referred to in titan (a) and also driving gears, side guards should be provided to prevent such access. c. Other dangerous machinery parts such as betls, pulleys. Shafts, gears and flappers should be guarded. d. Removing crease from the cloth on rollers should never be done when machines are in motion. e. Operations like greasing or oiling which are required to be carried out in the close proximity of dangerous parts of the machine should not be attempted with the machine running. f. Threading of tapes or fixing of lapping on cylinders should not be carried out while the rollers are in motion, the Motions which marry be necessary should be provided either manually or by provision of inching arrangement. g. Such as face shields ro goggles, hand gloves, aprons and gum boots. c. Wherever persons have to reach and work parts of machines situated at heights, suitable means of access in the form of catwalks and platforms should be provided. Where these are not provided due to infrequency of the Operations or any other reason, alternate arrangement such as scaffolding should be provided and the operations carried out confirming to standard safe practices. d. Dismantling and fitting of heavy parts of machinery should be done with care. To the extent possible, mechanical handling devices should be used or the purpose.
3. METAL WORKING MACHINERY - a. Grinding machine must be equipped with well designed tool rest which should be adjusted properly. The wheels on these machines must be effectively guarded. b. Persons operating metal working machinery must be provided a safety goggles. Their use should be ensured by continuous education and supervision.4. TRANSMISSION MACHINERY – All mechanical power transmission parts such as belts, pulleys & shaft must be securely fenced to prevent access to them.5. MATERIAL HANDLED a. Safe methods of storing and transporting the many types of materials such as beams, cloth rolls and other materials must be established and it would be ensured that these are followed scrupulously. b. Mechanical handling devices must be provided for handling heavy objects. If this is not possible, additional assistance must be afford for manually heavy jobs.6. HAND TRUCKS – a. Wheels of hand trucks should be well with in the base. Also the design preferably should provide some tye of cladding to prevent access of the fest to the wheels. b. Trucks should be maintained in good conditions. c. Handler of truck should be equipped with knuckle guards wherever considering the type of handle and the method of operation, there is possibility of accidents due to
hand sticking against objects.7. WORKING ENVIRONMENT – Areas around machines and floors in general should be kept dry and non-slippery by measures such as preventing splashes, provide proper drainage near machines and promptly mapping up unintended spillages. a. Work areas and passage should be kept clear to facilitate safe and efficient movement of men and materials. All openings in the floors such as pits and trenches should be kept covered with suitable covers which should be flush with the surface. b. All pipe lines and valves should be inspected frequently and maintained in good conditions. c. Safe procedures should be laid down for dismantling and assembling of equipment including pipe lines and this procedure should be followed strictly. d. Before persons ascend of descend ladder, the latter should be lashed properly or held securely.8. CHEMICALSFrequent inspections and maintenance of plant and equipment is essential forpreventing leaks of chemicals of other possible risks. • Liquid chemical should not be carried in open containers like buckets and mage. Containers of suitable designs and shape with closely fitting lids should be used to avoid the risk of splashing. • Whenever chemicals are being handled or containers opened. Transported or emptied,
suitable personal protective equipment such as face shields or goggles’, aprons and gums boots hold be provided and their use ensured. • Pipe lines should be marked by appropriate colour coding to avoid risk of accidents du to mistaking the contents for another. • There should be a proper system of warning persons before any operation which without such snaring is likely to be source of danger to other is carried on. • Concentration of chemicals in the work environment should be maintained well within the permissible limits through adoption of appropriate control techniques.9. HAND TOOLS – a. Most of the accident due to hand tools being caused by unsafe actions it is essential to educate employees on the safe practices and correct methods of performing jobs. b. While using knives, hands and other parts of the body should be kept out of the path of out and the likely sweep of the knife at the end of the cut. c. Hand tools should be properly maintained. They should also be checked before use. d. While using screw driven, the practice of keeping the job in the palm is unsafe and should be avoided. Further, the method of work should be such that even if the tool slips, hands of singers should not be in the direction of the tool. 10. MISCELANEOUS • Many cylinders, rollers and vessels operate with stream under pressure. The usual safety measures under such conditions comprising the provision of safety and relief valves, thorough examination and pressure testing of the vessels periodically, laying down proper procedures for entry into vessels, etc. must be scrupulously adopted. • Electrical equipment should be periodically inspected and tested and maintained in
Chapter 8:SAFETY MANAGEMENT AT COLOURTEX ltd.
SAFETY MANAGEMENT AT COLOURTEX ltd.ACCIDENT INVESTIGATIONINTRODUCTIONThousands of accidents occur throughout the United States every day. The failure of people,equipment, supplies, or surroundings to behave or react as expected causes most of theaccidents. Accident investigations determine how and why these failures occur. By using theinformation gained through an investigation, a similar or perhaps more disastrous accidentmay be prevented. Conduct accident investigations with accident prevention in mind.Investigations are NOT to place blame.An accident is any unplanned event that results in personal injury or in property damage.When the personal injury requires little or no treatment, it is minor. If it results in a fatality orin a permanent total, permanent partial, or temporary total (lost-time) disability, it is serious.Similarly, property damage may be minor or serious. Investigate all accidents regardless ofthe extent of injury or damage.Accidents are part of a broad group of events that adversely affect the completion of a task.These events are incidents. For simplicity, the procedures discussed in later sections referonly to accidents. They are, however, also applicable to incidents.This discussion introduces the reader to basic accident investigation procedures and describesaccident analysis techniques.
ACCIDENT PREVENTIONAccidents are usually complex. An accident may have 10 or more events that can be causes.A detailed analysis of an accident will normally reveal three cause levels: basic, indirect, anddirect. At the lowest level, an accident results only when a person or object receives anamount of energy or hazardous material that cannot be absorbed safely. This energy orhazardous material is the DIRECT CAUSE of the accident. The direct cause is usually theresult of one or more unsafe acts or unsafe conditions, or both. Unsafe acts and conditions arethe INDIRECT CAUSES or symptoms. In turn, indirect causes are usually traceable to poormanagement policies and decisions, or to personal or environmental factors. These are theBASIC CAUSES.In spite of their complexity, most accidents are preventable by eliminating one or morecauses. Accident investigations determine not only what happened, but also how and why.The information gained from these investigations can prevent recurrence of similar orperhaps more disastrous accidents. Accident investigators are interested in each event as wellas in the sequence of events that led to an accident. The accident type is also important to theinvestigator. The recurrence of accidents of a particular type or those with common causesshows areas needing special accident prevention emphasis.INVESTIGATIVE PROCEDURESThe actual procedures used in a particular investigation depend on the nature and results ofthe accident. The agency having jurisdiction over the location determines the administrativeprocedures. In general, responsible officials will appoint an individual to be in charge of theinvestigation. The investigator uses most of the following steps:1. Define the scope of the investigation.2. Select the investigators. Assign specific tasks to each (preferably in writing).3. Present a preliminary briefing to the investigating team, including: a. Description of the accident, with damage estimates. b. Normal operating procedures.
c. Maps (local and general). d. Location of the accident site. e. List of witnesses. f. Events that preceded the accident.4. Visit the accident site to get updated information.5. Inspect the accident site. a. Secure the area. Do not disturb the scene unless a hazard exists. b. Prepare the necessary sketches and photographs. Label each carefully and keep accurate records.6. Interview each victim and witness. Also interview those who were present before theaccident and those who arrived at the site shortly after the accident. Keep accurate records ofeach interview. Use a tape recorder if desired and if approved.7. Determine a. What was not normal before the accident. b. Where the abnormality occurred. c. When it was first noted. d. How it occurred.8. Analyze the data obtained in step 7. Repeat any of the prior steps, if necessary.9. Determine a. Why the accident occurred. b. A likely sequence of events and probable causes (direct, indirect, basic). c. Alternative sequences.10. Check each sequence against the data from step 7.11. Determine the most likely sequence of events and the most probable causes.
12. Conduct a post-investigation briefing.13. Prepare a summary report, including the recommended actions to prevent a recurrence.Distribute the report according to applicable instructions.An investigation is not complete until all data are analyzed and a final report is completed. Inpractice, the investigative work, data analysis, and report preparation proceed simultaneouslyover much of the time spent on the investigation.FACT-FINDINGGather evidence from many sources during an investigation. Get information from witnessesand reports as well as by observation. Interview witnesses as soon as possible after anaccident. Inspect the accident site before any changes occur. Take photographs and makesketches of the accident scene. Record all pertinent data on maps. Get copies of all reports.Documents containing normal operating procedures, flow diagrams, maintenance charts, orreports of difficulties or abnormalities are particularly useful. Keep complete and accuratenotes in a bound notebook. Record pre-accident conditions, the accident sequence, and post-accident conditions. In addition, document the location of victims, witnesses, machinery,energy sources, and hazardous materials.In some investigations, a particular physical or chemical law, principle, or property mayexplain a sequence of events. Include laws in the notes taken during the investigation or inthe later analysis of data. In addition, gather data during the investigation that may lend itselfto analysis by these laws, principles, or properties. An appendix in the final report can includean extended discussion.INTERVIEWSIn general, experienced personnel should conduct interviews. If possible, the team assigned tothis task should include an individual with a legal background. In conducting interviews, theteam should:1. Appoint a speaker for the group.
2. Get preliminary statements as soon as possible from all witnesses.3. Locate the position of each witness on a master chart (including the direction of view).4. Arrange for a convenient time and place to talk to each witness.5. Explain the purpose of the investigation (accident prevention) and put each witness at ease.6. Listen, let each witness speak freely, and be courteous and considerate.7. Take notes without distracting the witness. Use a tape recorder only with consent of thewitness.8. Use sketches and diagrams to help the witness.9. Emphasize areas of direct observation. Label hearsay accordingly.10. Be sincere and do not argue with the witness.11. Record the exact words used by the witness to describe each observation. Do not "putwords into a witness mouth."12. Word each question carefully and be sure the witness understands.13. Identify the qualifications of each witness (name, address, occupation, years ofexperience, etc.).14. Supply each witness with a copy of his or her statements. Signed statements are desirable.After interviewing all witnesses, the team should analyze each witness statement. They maywish to re-interview one or more witnesses to confirm or clarify key points. While there maybe inconsistencies in witnesses statements, investigators should assemble the availabletestimony into a logical order. Analyze this information along with data from the accidentsite.Not all people react in the same manner to a particular stimulus. For example, a witnesswithin close proximity to the accident may have an entirely different story from one who saw
it at a distance. Some witnesses may also change their stories after they have discussed it withothers. The reason for the change may be additional clues.A witness who has had a traumatic experience may not be able to recall the details of theaccident. A witness who has a vested interest in the results of the investigation may offerbiased testimony. Finally, eyesight, hearing, reaction time, and the general condition of eachwitness may affect his or her powers of observation. A witness may omit entire sequencesbecause of a failure to observe them or because their importance was not realized.PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUESAccidents represent problems that must be solved through investigations. Several formalprocedures solve problems of any degree of complexity. This section discusses two of themost common procedures: Change Analysis and Job Safety Analysis.CHANGE ANALYSISAs its name implies, this technique emphasizes change. To solve a problem, an investigatormust look for deviations from the norm. Consider all problems to result from someunanticipated change. Make an analysis of the change to determine its causes. Use thefollowing steps in this method:1. Define the problem (What happened?).2. Establish the norm (What should have happened?).3. Identify, locate, and describe the change (What, where, when, to what extent).4. Specify what was and what was not affected.5. Identify the distinctive features of the change.6. List the possible causes.7. Select the most likely causes.
Job Safety AnalysisJob safety analysis (JSA) is part of many existing accident prevention programs. In general,JSA breaks a job into basic steps, and identifies the hazards associated with each step. TheJSA also prescribes controls for each hazard. A JSA is a chart listing these steps, hazards, andcontrols. Review the JSA during the investigation if a JSA has been conducted for the jobinvolved in an accident. Perform a JSA if one is not available. Perform a JSA as a part of theinvestigation to determine the events and conditions that led to the accident.REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONAs noted earlier, an accident investigation is not complete until a report is prepared andsubmitted to proper authorities. Special report forms are available in many cases. Otherinstances may require a more extended report. Such reports are often very elaborate and mayinclude a cover page, a title page, an abstract, a table of contents, a commentary or narrativeportion, a discussion of probable causes, and a section on conclusions and recommendations.The following outline has been found especially useful in developing the information to beincluded in the formal report:1. Background Informationa. Where and when the accident occurredb. Who and what were involvedc. Operating personnel and other witnesses2. Account of the Accident (What happened?)a. Sequence of eventsb. Extent of damagec. Accident typed. Agency or source (of energy or hazardous material)
3. Discussion (Analysis of the Accident - HOW; WHY)a. Direct causes (energy sources; hazardous materials)b. Indirect causes (unsafe acts and conditions)c. Basic causes (management policies; personal or environmental factors)4. Recommendations (to prevent a recurrence) for immediate and long-range action toremedy:a. Basic causesb. Indirect causesc. Direct causes (such as reduced quantities or protective equipment or structures)
Chapter 9:How to Maintain Industrial Safety?
How to Maintain Industrial SafetyIndustrial safety regulations are designated by the Federal Occupational Safety and HazardAdministration (OSHA) to reduce the risks of industrial injuries and harm to employees inwhatever their workplace situation or occupation is. These industrial safety regulationslargely depend on the specific industry, based on the equipment used, job location,procedures and operations undertaken and other potential risks attached. However, industrialsafety can be maintained through these general tips that could encompass differentoccupations: • Always be careful when handling industrial supplies. When youre in a highly specialized, technical occupation, youd most likely be regularly handling equipment that would cause severe injury and harm when used improperly. Invest some time in undergoing the proper training to get to know how to handle this equipment, and have someone supervise your handling methods until you are one hundred percent prepared and comfortable in operating such equipment. • Adhere to work safety standards. Always be aware of ongoing policies, processes and prescribed solutions, and adhere to them. Dont be tempted to do shortcuts on your job, as your actions could have tremendous negative reverberations not just on your part, but on many other people as well. Work safety standards could be as simple as donning your hard hat, wearing protective gloves and eye shields, having a fall protection kit, and having a good stock of safety supply that is pertinent to your occupation - yes, no matter how long youve been working or how good you are already at your job. • Respect regulated barriers. Stick within your job locations and avoid going to places that your job doesnt require you to go to. Some locations may require you to take special measures, such as gearing up with safety suits to avoid toxic and radioactive substances or infectious diseases, before you are allowed to gain entry. • Have your equipment consistently monitored and inspected. All equipment should be regularly checked for safety and efficiency since any damage they may have could lead to injury or even death. If youre in the cargo transport industry, for example, straps and chains (every single link) that attach heavy-duty loads to trucks should be inspected for cuts, scrapes or wear and tear; you could just
imagine what could happen if these damages, no matter how small, are left unnoticed and allowed to worsen over use. Other conditions should regularly be inspected, such as the air composition (whether toxic fumes or vapors are being leaked out from equipment), patterns of accidents (whether particular systems, procedures or equipment regularly cause injuries, and how to eliminate them) and whether the workers tools and equipment are ergonomically correct.• Take time to read safety posters. Safety posters put up around your workplace are there for a reason: to help you lower your risk from injuries and harm. Safety poster topics could include what to do in case of an emergency, how to avoid the injuries that commonly occur within your workplace, and other announcements that would definitely help you avoid risk and injury.• Attend safety programs and trainings. Some employees may brush off safety programs and trainings as a waste of their time; however, they serve to update you on current job safety regulations that you may not know of yet. Since employees have a tendency to get lax in safety measure adherence over time, its also good to subject yourself to regular wake-up calls to remind you to on how to protect your safety in the job.• Remember, your health and well-being are your best allies in your capacity as a wage earner, and it pays to make sure you keep yourself safe and unharmed at all times. Undertaking these measures can sometimes prove to be tiresome for you, but then again one day they just might save your life.
Chapter 10:My Learning
My Learning: • Practical knowledge of Safety management System. • Safety management is a key part of any manufacturing unit • Safety is a Tool of Motivation. • It is an indicator of company’s HR policy and its image.
Bibliography: • Colourtex ltd (Visit) • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_Safety_Management • www.bis.org.in/forms/ohsms.html • http://www.aerb.gov.in/T/sj/book/chapter10.pdf • www.npcil.nic.in/pdf/Endowment%20lecture%20by %20CMD-1.pdf • Book- Risk assessment and process safety management By Ian Sutton