Beirut Arab University Faculty of Science Chemistry Department Chemistry of cosmetics Collagen Submitted by: Mayssam Chahine Presented to: Dr. Mohamad Abdul Ghani
1.History of Cosmetics 2.Ingredients for Cosmetics 3.Creams 4.Skin structure 5.Collagen Contents:
1.The History of Cosmetics
i. 4000 BC:
The Egyptians applied Mesdemet (made of copper and lead ore ), bright green paste, to their faces.
They used kohl a combination of burnt almonds, oxidized copper, lead, ash, and ochre.
Then, they applied a mixture of red clay and water to their lips and cheeks. And the nails weren’t left out, either. They used “ henna ” to dye them orange or yellow. They also used perfumed oils.
ii. 1500 BC :
In China and Japan rice powder was used to paint faces pasty white .
iii. 1000 BC :
In Greece they used chalk or white lead face powder to have a white look. Women used ochre clays laced with red iron for lipstick.
iv. 100 AD :
In Rome people put barley flour and butter on their pimples, and sheep’s fat and blood on their fingernails for polish. They took mud baths.
Men frequently dyed their hair blond.
v. 1980- Present:
Due to the influence of movie stars, the Hollywood “ tan ” look emerges.
In 1935 Max Factor of Hollywood develops and introduces pancake makeup because of the adjustments required for photographing faces for film.
There is a diversity of new looks, cosmetics and beauty aids.
They form an industry of over $20 billion in sales annually.
2.Ingredients for Cosmetics
1.Oils 2.Waxes 3.Water and Mineral Oil 4.Fatty Esters 1.Organic Dyes 2.Coal tar colors 1.Talc 2.French chalk 3.Exotic Bulking Agents
Ingredients for Cosmetics
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which regulates cosmetics in the United States define cosmetics as:
" Intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions ."
Cosmetics are used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body.
A subset of cosmetics is called " make-up ", which refers primarily to colored products intended to alter the user’s appearance. Many manufacturers distinguish between decorative cosmetics and care cosmetics.
It includes skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and gels, deodorants, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts, butters and many other types of products.
Creams are prepared synthetically from chemicals.
Some of the common ingredients present in all facial creams are:
oils like olive oil, almond oil and mineral oil
Fats and waxes such as bees wax, spermaceti and paraffin.
Creams are semi-solid emulsions , which is mixtures of oil and water.
An emulsion can be defined simply as two immiscible fluids in which one liquid is dispersed as fine droplets in the other.
They are divided into two types:
Oil-in-water ( O/W ) creams which are composed of small droplets of oil dispersed in a continuous aqueous phase (less greasy and more easily washed off using water) .
Water-in-oil ( W/O ) creams which are composed of small droplets of water dispersed in a continuous oily phase (more moisturising and reduces water loss from the stratum corneum) .
Types of Creams and Lotions
Types of Creams and Lotions
Skin rejuvenating cream
Skin rejuvenating cream
Anti-aging creams gives a younger look by reducing :
visible wrinkles, expression lines, pigmentation changes, discolorations and other environmentally related conditions of the skin.
Anti-aging creams usually contain ingredients such as:
1)Retinol (retinyl palmitate): reduce fine lines and pores.
2)Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) made of 53 amino acids to stimulate cell renewal and Collagen production in the skin and strengthen elasticity and structure.
3)Alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) and beta hydroxy acids :
help to dissolve the intracellular "glue" that holds the dead cells together on the skin and stimulates the production of fresh skin cells to compensate for the missing ones. This exposes newer skin cells and can help improve appearance.
The skin's proteins:
It's the most abundant protein in the skin, making up 75 % of skin.
It's responsible for warding off wrinkles and fine lines.
This protein is found with collagen in the dermis.
It's another protein, responsible for giving structure to skin and organs.
A-What is Collagen?
It is a protein but a very special one.
Collagen is vital for the skin. It forms up to 30% of entire human protein and 70% of skin’s protein. The quaternary structure of collagen consists of three left-handed helices twisted into a right-handed coil. The most desirable property of these collagen super helixes is their sequence of three repeating amino acids .
Main functions of collagen are:
To give solidness to skin.
Give resistance and coherence to connective tissues.
Support coherence between cells.
Induce division and differentiation of cells (during the growth of an organism or wound healing).
Collagen is known to be reduced by aging and by exposure to ultraviolet rays, and this is closely related to the formation of wrinkles on the skin.
B-Types of collagen occurring in the human organism.
About 20 types of collagen are present in living organisms. The most important ones are listed below, together with where they occur.
Collagen I. ,ligaments, bone, cornea, teeth, fibrous cartilage, womb and the inter - vertebral disc.
Collagen II. Cartilage, vitreous cells and intervertebral disc.
Collagen III . Womb, skin , intestines, heart membranes, jaws.
Collagen IV. Membranes.
Collagen V. Cornea, bone, cartilage.
Collagen VI. Stomach membrane, skin and cartilage.
Collagen VII. Skin , lungs, cornea.
Collagen VIII. Unknown, produced in body cells.
Collagen IX. Cartilage.
Collagen X. Produces chondrocytes during ossification.
Collagen XI. Cartilage, intervertebral cartilage and bone enamel.
Collagen XII. Ligaments, tendons and tooth enamel.
C-Natural collagen benefits
1. Nerves and vessels
Collagen with calcium and phosphorus salts type I collagen constitutes the bone building material.
It forms 95% of bone matrix.
3. Organ of sight
Hydrated collagen can be found in lenses. Together with polysaccharides it forms the optic disc. Natural Collagen enhances visual acuity when applied on eye-lids.
Collagen constitutes the supporting material of hair follicles. Collagen pigment is identical with hair pigment. Natural Collagen restore beauty to the hair - gray hair gets darker, brows and eye lashes start growing again.
D-Sources of Collagen.
Soy products such as soymilk and cheese
Dark green vegetables
Red fruits and vegetables such as red peppers, beets , and tomatoes
Fish such as salmon and tuna.
Nuts such as cashews, pecans, almonds and Brazil nuts.
Foods that are rich in sulfur content are also important to collagen production. Among these are green and black olives, fresh cucumbers. Working in conjunction with the sulfur, vegetables that are rich in Vitamin A also aid in keeping collagen levels high
Fortunately, there are a number of foods that help to support the creation of collagen within our bodies. Here are a few examples of the many different foods that provide the building blocks for the collagen production.
Formation of Collagen can be stimulated from some plants such as:
GOTU - KOLA (Centella Asiatica, Fo-Ti-Tieng)
Gotu Kola is a creeping vine found growing in tropical and subtropical climates.
It stimulates the formation of hyaluronic acid. Proven to work in synergy with collagen.
2) NONI (Morinda Citrifolia) The extract of this Polynesian plant forms the base of many successful cosmetics. It is used as a topical treatment for wound healing stimulating collagen formation.
3) CUCUMBER Cucumber is a vital source of proteolytic enzymes, vitamin B1and C and they all possess great healing power regarding facial treatments like formation or detoxification of skin. It stimulates collagen formation.
E-Application in cosmetics: Conventionally, products obtained by mixing collagen with a composition for external application to skin, such as cosmetics are brought into the market to take advantage of the skin moisturizing effect and wound healing effect of collagen. However, since the collagen has large molecules, it cannot be absorbed percutaneously just by being applied to the skin. Collagen loses its therapeutic properties at high temperatures because heat loosens the triple helix structure of the protein. This causes the amino acids in collagen to denature and break down.
Most commercial Active collagen preparations are manufactured at high temperatures and distributed at room temperature , leading the triple helical protein to unravel thus loses its therapeutic effect . Collagen preparations of this nature are called “hydrolyzed collagen” or “gelatin”. Gelatin products advertised as collagen in many cosmetic creams and lotions are just simple proteins which may hydrate the skin. Inactive collagen has been found to inhibit the function of surrounding cells when applied to the skin. In contact with this material, the skin cells’ ability to compound collagen is decreased . This can lead to deeper wrinkles and decreased skin elasticity.
For the first time in history it was possible to extract biologically active collagen in the 1990’s as a result of experiments made by Polish chemists in the University of Gdansk.
Freshwater fish skin extract possesses a three dimensional structure of triple helix which remains bioactive up to the temperature of 27 degrees Celsius.
Natural Collagen , if used systematically, is able to stimulate the fibroblasts – cells responsible for new collagen synthesis .
The scientific discovery
G - Advanced Dermal Technology Telopeptides are the major cause of immune reactions to proteins , because they are unique to each individual. In atelocollagen , the telopeptides are removed from collagen molecule, creating a far more viable, non-immunogenic form of the protein. Furthermore, atelocollagen is much higher in density than general collagen; so, it is easily absorbed into the skin.
Negatively Ionized Collagen Collagen is typically dissolved in an acid solution of less than pH 4.0 . This creates many restrictions for collagen used as a cosmetic material, which require slow acidity (pH 5.5 – pH 6.5). Researchers enhanced the hydrophilic properties through succinylation, deriving a negative ionization of the molecule. Negatively ionized collagen creates an electrostatic interaction with the skin. In this way, absorbed negatively ionized collagen penetrates deep into the dermal and basal tissue, increasing proliferation of the body’s own collagen, and helping to activate dermal cell regeneration. Low Solubility | High Solubility