4c human capital and income
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  • 1. EPF4 demonstrate knowledge that many factors affect income
  • 2.  People’s incomes, in part, reflect choices they have made about education, training, skill development, and careers. People with few marketable skills are likely to earn much less than people with more skills. When people improve their knowledge and skills through education and/or experience, it is called an investment in their human capital. What workers earn depends primarily on the market value of what they produce and how much they add to its production. More productive workers—those who can produce more in a given period of time— are likely to be of greater value to employers and earn higher wages than less productive workers.
  • 3.  People with more skills and knowledge tend to earn more. For this reason, many people choose to invest in their human capital through education and/or training.
  • 4.  As people gain human capital (knowledge and/or skills) and practice in a field, they become more efficient and productive in that field. This can lead to higher income because employers prefer more productive workers.
  • 5.  Unskilled workers earn low pay because many people can qualify for that work; employers do not have to pay more to attract these workers. Workers with skills and education also earn more when there is a smaller supply of people who can do the job because businesses and consumers who want those higher skills must pay more.
  • 6.  Market value is the price a seller can expect to receive for a product in a competitive marketplace.
  • 7.  What workers earn depends primarily on the market value of the goods and/or services they produce (i.e., what the market is willing and able to pay) and how much they add to the process of its production. For example, a surgeon earns more than the people who assist her in surgery because she adds the most value to the production of that service.