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Immigration Shifts and Changing Needs of International Students in Post-secondary Institutions Sophia J. Lowe, World Educa...
Outline <ul><li>Canadian context </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian immigration policy shifts </li></ul><ul><li>Global race for in...
Canadian Context  <ul><li>Ageing Canadian population & consistently low fertility rates </li></ul><ul><li>Labour shortages...
Broken Promises <ul><li>Immigrant underemployment and underutilization </li></ul><ul><li>60% of immigrants are not able to...
Immigration Policy Reactions <ul><li>Immigration policy shifting in an attempt to better match immigrants with occupations...
Migration Flows to Canada by Category, 2003-2007
Global Race for International Students <ul><li>All countries are competing to attract international students, and other co...
Changes in Canada for International Students <ul><li>OCWP and PGWP changes </li></ul><ul><li>September 2008 Launch of CEC ...
Challenges for International Students <ul><li>Changing service needs, increasing adult immigrants and two-step migration  ...
The Australian Migration Model <ul><li>Australian immigration system changed in early 1990s to respond to the underemploym...
Australian International Student Flows Australian Government, AEI 2007
Canadian International Student Flows CIC, Facts and Figures 2007
Learning from Australia <ul><li>Changing international student flows – previously more students from Singapore and Indones...
Persistent Issues for International Students in Canada <ul><li>The transition from school to work can “still be in progres...
Inconclusive Conclusions <ul><li>International Students are entering Canada in greater numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Different...
Questions? Sophia J Lowe World Education Services [email_address]
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Immigration Shifts And Changing Needs Of International Students

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Transcript of "Immigration Shifts And Changing Needs Of International Students"

  1. 1. Immigration Shifts and Changing Needs of International Students in Post-secondary Institutions Sophia J. Lowe, World Education Services CBIE, November 1-4, St. John’s, NFLD & Labrador
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Canadian context </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian immigration policy shifts </li></ul><ul><li>Global race for international students </li></ul><ul><li>Recent changes for international students </li></ul><ul><li>New challenges for international students and post-secondary institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons from the Australian model </li></ul><ul><li>Issues that still must be addressed </li></ul><ul><li>Inconclusive Conclusions… </li></ul>
  3. 3. Canadian Context <ul><li>Ageing Canadian population & consistently low fertility rates </li></ul><ul><li>Labour shortages in key sectors (high and low skill levels) </li></ul><ul><li>By 2012, all of Canada’s net labour market growth will come from immigration </li></ul><ul><li>By 2030, all population growth will be due to immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants are highly educated ( 70% have some post-secondary education) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Broken Promises <ul><li>Immigrant underemployment and underutilization </li></ul><ul><li>60% of immigrants are not able to find jobs in their intended occupations </li></ul><ul><li>In Ontario, the unemployment rate of immigrants was 2.5 times higher than that of Canadian born Ontarians (11% vs. 4.4%) </li></ul><ul><li>Major barriers; lack of credential recognition, language barriers, lack of ‘Canadian experience’, employment discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Labour market shortages persist and skilled jobs remain vacant </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants themselves and policy makers are quickly reacting to these issues </li></ul>
  5. 5. Immigration Policy Reactions <ul><li>Immigration policy shifting in an attempt to better match immigrants with occupations seen as in need in the labour market and to circumvent some of the barriers currently plaguing skilled immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Employer Driven Faster Permanent Immigration Routes: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provincial Nominee Programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bill C-50 – prioritize certain FSWP applicants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Faster Two-Step Migration Policies: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion of Temporary Foreign Worker Programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of International Student Streams (PGWP, OCWP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canadian Experience Class (CEC) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Migration Flows to Canada by Category, 2003-2007
  7. 7. Global Race for International Students <ul><li>All countries are competing to attract international students, and other countries are more aggressively attracting and retaining international students </li></ul><ul><li>In Australia, international students’ contribution to the economy reached $9.8 billion (2006) and is the third largest industry </li></ul><ul><li>Canada has been following the lead of other countries by shifting immigration policies to attract and retain international students </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Designer Immigrants’ – circumvent issues of credential recognition, social supports, language, etc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Changes in Canada for International Students <ul><li>OCWP and PGWP changes </li></ul><ul><li>September 2008 Launch of CEC </li></ul><ul><li>CEC for international students: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hold a post-secondary diploma or degree that required at least two years to complete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have completed one year of recent full time employment in Canada at the NOC 0, A or B levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canadian Language Benchmarks (5 for NOC B and 7 for NOC 0 and A work experience) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only full-time recent work experience after graduation counts </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Challenges for International Students <ul><li>Changing service needs, increasing adult immigrants and two-step migration </li></ul><ul><li>Service Gaps for international students: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>international students ineligible for regular settlement services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beyond most student service mandates to deal with immigration and settlement issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If increasing numbers of international students remain in Canada, we will need to address such service gaps </li></ul><ul><li>Recent immigration policy shifts may mean international student flows will change and their needs may be significantly different </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Australian Migration Model <ul><li>Australian immigration system changed in early 1990s to respond to the underemployment and unemployment of highly skilled immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>These changes targeted international students as skilled immigrants directly from school. 88% of Australia’s skilled migration first arrive as international students (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Exponential increase in the number of international students since 2001 when they could apply for permanent residency without having to first leave Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Struggles with a growing international education industry are arising – (2007 policy changes) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Australian International Student Flows Australian Government, AEI 2007
  12. 12. Canadian International Student Flows CIC, Facts and Figures 2007
  13. 13. Learning from Australia <ul><li>Changing international student flows – previously more students from Singapore and Indonesia, now most from China (66%) and India (38%) </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary findings from Australia show that there has been compromise in academic entry and standards, as well as immigration routes </li></ul><ul><li>Employment barriers and lower salary levels for immigrants who came from international student streams continue (more than offshore applicants) </li></ul><ul><li>In light of these concerns, Australia has since created language requirements for international students as well (Sept 2007) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Persistent Issues for International Students in Canada <ul><li>The transition from school to work can “still be in progress two years after graduation” </li></ul><ul><li>In 2000, college graduates had an unemployment rate of 3.3% and university graduates 5.4% </li></ul><ul><li>Additional barriers for immigrants and international students in finding meaningful work </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure of increasing debts – higher for international students </li></ul><ul><li>Survival jobs for international students – under PGWP, but then not qualified for CEC </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement with employers is needed </li></ul>
  15. 15. Inconclusive Conclusions <ul><li>International Students are entering Canada in greater numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Different student flows </li></ul><ul><li>Recent changes will allow many to remain in Canada (two-step migrants) </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation for study and coming to Canada may change </li></ul><ul><li>Academic integrity and standards, new programs to cater migration? </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting responsibilities for settlement onto institutions </li></ul>
  16. 16. Questions? Sophia J Lowe World Education Services [email_address]
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