Engaging more Students with Disabilities
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    Engaging more Students with Disabilities Engaging more Students with Disabilities Presentation Transcript

    • DISTANCE EDUCATION: CHALLENGES OF ACCESS AND SUCCESS FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION CAN HELP!
    •  
    • The Query: Has Distance Education Improved Access And Course Completions For Students With Disabilities in 3 prominent international universities?
    • Research Design
      • Interviews
        • Dean/Head of Teaching & Learning
        • Disability/Equity & Diversity Officer
        • Coordinator - Flexible/Distance Learning
        • 1 or more ‘distance’ Professors
      • 2. Collect/analyze current statistics
    • Interviews explored
      • financial/assistive technologies available
      • the number/types of SWD
      • challenges SWDs must overcome
    • Factors correlating with Internet access AC Nielsen Netwatch 2000 (NZ)
      • Low income least access
      • Rural versus urban – Q of broadband coverage
      • Ethnicity “other” more access than “native”
      • Age – older less access
    • Issues Identified
      • Self identification by SWD problematic
      • Availability of trained professionals
      • SWD demographics unreliable
      • Availability of Distance Courses
    • Edith Cowan University Perth, Western Australia
      • 23000+ students; 3000 intnl from 80 countries
      • 300+ courses, 40-50% “external delivery”
      • Camtasia provides l’ing experience like F2F
      • ’ 08 kit out 5 lecture theatres @$1.5 million
      • 1 year university prep course
      • Wireless 3 campuses “state of the art” IT
      • Stopped fully integrated on-line –lack resources ($, designers & time)
      • Blackboard & CMS; rubric for quality control
    •  
      • Support @ Edith Cowan
      • 1Diversity/Equity Officer for 3 campuses
      • low self-identification by SWDs
      • SWD Profiles & student ID->services letter
      • Network= support orgs /all WA unis monthly (PSEDN)
      • Paid note-takers
      • W3C adapted
      • Technology: - Camtasia & Blackboard
      • attributes rubric for course design
      • ICT oversees course design
      • No $ for IDs
    • Table 1: Students with a Disability: Year x Delivery Mode Mode of Delivery 2006  2005  2004  2003  2002  ME SCH  ME SCH  ME SCH  ME SCH  ME SCH  01 Local Face to Face Class 37,800 1,293,099 35,197 1,149,519 32,490 1,101,072 30,917 1,081,239 23,327 846,778 02 Remote Live Electronic Conferencing 293 10,501 369 11,049 483 12,626 339 8,986 277 8,618 03 Self paced - Scheduled 4,766 157,146 4,976 168,391 5,313 181,183 5,801 182,499 5,873 195,481 04 Self paced - Unscheduled 1,808 63,226 1,810 61,345 1,526 48,374 2,166 72,833 1,286 40,908 05 External Studies 635 23,115 917 28,941 996 25,803 1,001 28,564 716 24,615 06 Workplace Learning 1,823 60,774 1,512 54,643 1,133 45,272 1,279 42,682 527 18,060 07 Mixed delivery 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,252 109,332 08 Video/Television based Learning 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 51 09 Online Learning 47 1,246 37 1,145 79 2,145 92 3,125 19 643 90 Not Applicable 629 19,511 348 11,944 406 13,564 483 14,456 404 11,963 All Delivery Strategies 47,801 1,628,618 45,166 1,486,977 42,426 1,430,039 42,079 1,434,388 35,682 1,256,449
    • Massey University, New Zealand
      • 9600 sts @Palmerston North;4400@ Wellington; 7000@ Auckland; 1300 intnl
      • Only NZ uni with Vet school & Aviation
      • 150 programs; part-time popular (4 X SS)
      • No competition to “extramural” @18000 students
      • Like WA, #’s down; jobs & trades push
    • Support @ Massey University
      • 1518 SWD in 2004; 2007, 3000+ self-identify
      • Strong background in needs assessment
      • Achieve program & student centre
      • Use alternative formats)- options known
      • Work closely with support orgs ->recruitment & $
      • Use on-line ASL translators & many assistive technologies
      • Digital resources produced by Disability Services; uniform/ quality controls
    •  
    • Chulalongkorn University Bangkok, Thailand
      • Prestigious uni began 1917 (King Rama V)
      • 18 faculties,3 colleges & 2 schools
      • 19000 undergrad; 12000+ postgrads
      • Competitive scholarships (ed fees - 20000 Bht & living 4000 Bht/month)
      • Education seeks student/faculty exchange; ICT dept seeks collaboration
      • 62 international programs in English
    •  
    •  
    •  
      • Persons with Disabilities in Thailand  
      • Total population (2005) 64,261,000
      • No. of PWD (2001) 1,068,179
      • Source: Report of Disabled Persons Survey 2001, National Statistics Office 
      • Disabled 6 years of age and over by educational attainment( 2001 )
      • Education attainment Number of PWD Total 1,068,179
      • No education at all 337,843
      • Education attainment
      • 1. Lower elementary (K) 476,045
      • 2. Elementary (1-6) 123,667
      • 3. Lower secondary (7-9) 67,409
      • 4. Upper secondary (10-12) 38,603
      • 5. Higher education 19,464
      • 6. Other education 1,177
      • 7. Unknown level of ed 2,416
      • 8. Nonformal 1,555
      • Source: The Report of Disabled Person Survey. (2001). National Statistics Office, Thailand.
    •  
      • Disabled students in higher education in 2004 in Thailand
      •  
      • Institutions Number of Enrollments
      • Public Institutions 575
      • Private Institutions 29
      • __________________________
      • Total 604 
      • Source: Office of Basic Education. 2004. Report of Educational Administration for Disabled Persons of Office of Basic Education. Minister of Education: Thailand.
      • Level of Enrollments
      • Undergraduates 590
      • Masters 7
      • Unspecific degree 7
      • Total 604
      • Commission for Higher Education in Thailand (2007) survey of 187 institutions:
      • 1,928 SWDs
      • 64.35% of Thai universities had SWDs.
      • 68.75% had no center for SWDs.
      • 2008 Chula Uni had 0 SWDs
      • Thai media used in education
        • Online Learning 75%
        • VDO tape 55%
        • VDO conference 53%
        • PC based presentation 51%
        • Audio conference 27%
        • Digital VDO 19%
        • Other 19%
      • Thailand Cyber University (TCU) founded National Education Act (1999) to widen educational opportunity - infrastructure & broadband only in big cities & tourist meccas.
    • What can we offer?
      • Accessible websites are available without:
      • a particular web browser
      • a particular plug-in or program, eg. Java Script or Flash
      • graphics or color alone
      • a mouse to navigate
      • being unduly complex or using jargon
      • (Ford & Robertson, 2003; The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), 2003)
    • Software people with disabilities may use
      • (Microsoft)
      • Screen enlargers
      • Screen readers -
      • Speech recognition systems -
      • Speech synthesizers
      • Refreshable Braille displays
      • Braille embossers
      • Talking and large-print word processors
    • Assist people with hearing impairments
      • Voice recognition products – to convert speech to sign language.
      • Conversion modems- to enable telephone communication.
      • We can share:
      • highly skilled ID’s for courses
      • professionals for needs & assistive technology assessments
    • Assist people with physical impairments
      • On-screen keyboard programs –
        • Keyboard filters
        • Touch screens
      • Alternative input devices include:
        • Alternative keyboards
        • Electronic pointing devices
        • Sip-and-puff
        • Wands
        • Joysticks
        • Trackballs
    • Assists people with cognitive impairments
      • Word prediction programs
      • Reading comprehension programs
      • Reading tools and learning disabilities software .
    • SWD in PSE – Canada
      • 8% PSE institutions with no SWD identified
      • Of these ¼ - ½ receive disability services
      • Only 21.4 % paid for by the healthcare system or other government programs
      • (Fichten, Asuncion, Barile, Robillard, Fossey & Lamb 2003)
      • 2006 – over 4.2 million people 15 and over with disabilities
      • (Participation and Activity Limitation Survey 2006 Stats Canada)
    • SWD in Distance Education: Summary
      • Equal educational opportunity for all – Neither will nor resources exist now
      • Cultural ‘fit” a ?
      • Learner access / support uneven
      • Alternate “distance ed” forms predominant
      • No upward trend in Distance enrolment
      • Changes recommended go beyond the responsibilities of the Disabilities Resource Office
      • Better data collection
      • Information out to SWDs’
      • Professional support provision