Vaccines are very sensitive totemperature. Recommended storage temperature of EPI vaccines. type Storage temp. Most sensitive to Oral polio(live -15 to -25 (at the heat attenuated) freezer) Measles (freeze 15 to -15 (at the dried) freezer) Least sensitive to Dpt/Hep B +2 to +8 (in the heat body of the BCG (freeze dried) refrigerator) Tetanus Toxoid
When handling and transportingvaccines special care must be given FEFO- “first expiry and first out” Temperature monitoring of vaccines is done twice a day early in the morning and in the afternoon before going home. Each level of facilities have cold chain equipment for use in the storage of vaccines.
Administration of vaccinesvaccine dose Route of Site of administration administrationBCG Infants 0.05 ml ID Right deltoid region of upper armDPT 0.5 ml IM Upper outer portion of the thighOPV 2 drops (may vary) Oral MouthMEASLES 0.5 ml SC Outer part of upper armHep B 0.5 ml IM Upper outer portion of the thighTetanus toxoid 0.5ml IM Deltoid region of
Procedures in the giving ofvaccines Reconstituting the freeze dried BCG vaccine: Keep cold Aspirate 2ml of saline solution Inject saline in dried BCG Mix thoroughly by drawing mixture back into the syringe and expel it into the ampule several times
Giving BCG: Clean skin Hold child’s arm Hold syringe on dominant hand and point it up towards you Lay syringe on child’s arm, Insert tip of needle into skin Put your left thumb over needle end of syringe to hold it into place If vaccine is injected correctly a flat wheal will appear Withdraw needle gently
Giving OPV Read instructions Let mother hold child Open childs mouth Put drop’s of vaccine on the child’s tounge but don’t let dropper touch the tounge Make sure child swallows vaccine
Hep B and DPT Ask mother to hold child. Clean skin Grasp muscles slightly Quickly push needle into the space between your fingers going deep into the muscles Aspirate first Inject vaccine.
Measles Most likely the same with BCG but you don’t need to touch the needle because you are injecting subcutaneously. Aspirate inject
Tetnus Toxoid: Shake vial Clean skin Place thumb and index finger on the injection site and slightly grasp. Aspirate Inject (shake the vial before every injection)
The role of a nurse in improvingthe delivery of immunizationservices in the community Master list infants eligible in the community Immunize following the correct schedule Observe aseptic technique Dispose used syringe and needles properly Inform and communicate with parents Conduct health visits int the community Identify cases of EPI target diseases per standing case definition Manage vaccines properly Record children given with vaccination in the Target Client list and GECD/ GMC card or any standard recording utilized Submit report and record children vaccinated, cases and deaths on EPI diseases, vaccines received and utilized. Identify and actively search cases and deaths of EPI target diseases following standard case definition.