Geography Project about EarthquakesPresentation Transcript
“Earthquake in Haiti, 2010 has a greaterdestruction than earthquake in Sichuan,2008. Redevelopment in Haiti is moreeffective than that in Sichuan.” Discuss. Group Members: Tiffany Chan (5) [ F. 4C ] May Chan (6) Lily Cheung (9) Kathy Leung (21) Fiona Leung (22) Chloe Yam (36)
Sichuan Earthquake, 2008 Physical factors that led to earthquake 240 million years ago… • Indo-Australian plate moved northward, collided with the Eurasian plate, causing uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. (青藏高原)
Sichuan Earthquake, 2008 Physical factors that led to earthquake • The high Tibetan Plateau continue to have a slow eastward movement of 10-15 mm per year. • The movement meets strong resistance from the South China Block • Causing the formation of Longmenshan Fault
Sichuan Earthquake, 2008 Physical factors that led to earthquakeOn May 12, 2008…• The movement of the crustal materials along the Longmenshan Fault resulted earthquakes in the past, which also caused this violent earthquake
Sichuan Earthquake, 2008 Damages caused by human factors Construction of Zipingpu Dam The construction and filling of the Zipingpu Dam (紫坪鋪水庫) triggered the earthquake. • The sudden shift of a huge quantity of water into the region could have relaxed the tension between the two sides of the fault • allowing them to move apart, and could have increased the direct pressure on it, causing a violent rupture.
Sichuan Earthquake, 2008 Damages caused by human factors Photos of Zipingpu Dam:
Sichuan Earthquake, 2008 Damages caused by human factors Low Technological Level • The Chinese government hid the earthquake warning • No advanced warning system
Sichuan Earthquake, 2008 Damages caused by human factors The buildings were poorly constructed • Many of the buildings were quite old and not built with any regulations overseeing them • The central government estimates that over 7000 schoolrooms collapsed in the earthquake. • Chinese citizens have since invented a catch phrase “ tofu-dregs schoolhouses” (豆腐渣校舍) to mock both the quantity of these inferior constructions that killed so many children.
Sichuan Earthquake, 2008 Damages caused by human factors Low education level & low awareness towards earthquake • When there are earthquakes, people don’t know how to react properly • The Chinese government did not have a well-developed Emergency mechanism
Sichuan Earthquake, 2008 Damages caused by human factors Low emergency relief • Outdated medical facilities victims couldn’t receive proper medical treatment • Poor communication network delayed the rescue work
Sichuan Earthquake, 2008 Solutions by government/voluntary organization For the government: • Central set up earthquake relief headquarters, appointed by the commander Wen Jiabao. • Military dispatched soldiers and helicopters to the disaster area, militia and reserve forces and medical teams also put into relief.
Sichuan Earthquake, 2008 Solutions by government/voluntary organization For the voluntary organizations: • Donated and contributed money and materials (eg. Food, clothes) to the victims. • Offered resettlement assistance (eg. proceeded domestic adoption, family foster care, boarding schools, etc.)
Haiti Earthquake, 2010 Plate involvedCaribbean plate and North American plate Plate boundaryConservative plate boundary
Haiti Earthquake, 2010Physical factors that led to earthquake The quake occurred in the region of the northern boundary where the Caribbean plate shifts eastwards by about 20 millimetres (0.79 in) per year to the North American plate.
Haiti Earthquake, 2010Physical factors that led to earthquake •The tear / transform fault system in the region has two branches in Haiti •The Septentrional-Oriente fault in the north and the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault in the south •Focal mechanism (震源機制解) suggest that the quake was caused by a rupture of the Enriquillo- Plantain Garden fault, which had been locked for 250 years, gathering stress.
Haiti Earthquake, 2010Physical factors that led to earthquake
Haiti Earthquake, 2010 Damages caused by human factors Population density of the area • a quarter of the population is concentrated in the capital Port-au-Prine Jerry-building • 60% of the buildings are all dangerous housing
Haiti Earthquake, 2010 Solutions by government/voluntary organization For the government: Reorganize the plans in order to increase the speed of relieving the victims Put up tents for the survivors Help to clear up and entomb the dead bodies Rally the transportation
Haiti Earthquake, 2010 Solutions by government/voluntary organization For the voluntary organizations: Médicins Sans Frontières (無國界醫生) set up temporary medical centers for the injuries International Committee of the Red Cross helped out with the distribute the goods and materials for the survivors United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti （聯合國海 地穩定特派團）set up rescue mission control centre to coordinate with the rescue operation
Which factor, human factor or physical factor, plays a more significant part in leading to damages of earthquakes?= Human factorBecause:• Human factors > physical factors• Corruption of government officials jerry-building• Low Technological Level no advanced warming system people cannot prevent early with measures• Construction work affect plate movement
What hinder the redevelopment in these regions? • As they are less developed countries Do not have enough money for the redevelopment Dependent on foreign countries’ donations Corruption of government officials