CULTURAL CLUSTERS AND CONTEMPORARY ART FAIRS The coming of age of Artissima_ Supervisor Professor CRISTINA BOARI Managing Networks in the Arts Candidate ALESSANDRA SPERI LM GIOCA - Gestione e Innovazione delle Organizzazioni Culturali e Artistiche ALMA MATER STUDIORUM Università di Bologna Facoltà di ECONOMIA III Graduation Session 2009/2010 March 28, 2011
Industrial Clusters_ Cultural Clusters_ Hans Mommaas (2004) argues they are set up Michael Porter describes them as geographic for the revitalisation of a urban space, tourism, concentration of unusually competitive firms the stimulation of a more entrepreneurial in a certain field. approach to culture, of creativity, of cultural • REDUCTION OF TRANSACTION COSTS diversity and democratization (quality of life) • PROMPT SERVICES or to find a new use for buildings • INTENSE INFORMAL INTERACTION • hybrid/multisectorial OR focused • TRUST • monofunctional OR multifunctional • INFLUENCE LOCAL AUTHORITIES • centrally managed OR informally managed • EMPLOYMENT cluster • ATTRACTION OF WORKFORCE • public OR private/independent support • PEER PRESSURE (INNOVATION) • openness/adaptability OR closeness/solidity in • POSSIBLE COMPLEMENTARITY term of use of the spaces and communication • REPUTATION LEAKS • top-down OR bottom-up developmental path • SELF REINFORCING LOOP • margin OR centre Santagata cultural districts_I N D U S T R I A L INSTITUTIONAL MUSEUM METROPOLITANCULTURAL DISTRICTS CULTURAL DISTRICTS CULTURAL DISTRICTS CULTURAL DISTRICTS
Cluster Timeline_Strategic Plan 2000/10 Legge Finanziaria (art. W i n t e r O l y m p i c s1.Integrate the metropolitan 35) of 2002 2006 in Turinarea in the international system Turin was the first Italian town The Olympic event helped2.Construct the metropolitan to apply the law: on July 26, in the realization ofgovernment 2002 Fondazione Torino numerous infrastructural3. Develop training and Musei is founded by the works thanks to theresearch as strategic resources Municipality with the coordination of public and4. Promote enterprise and partecipation of Regione private initiatives andemployment Piemonte, Compagnia di resources. It fostered the5. Promote Torino as city of San Paolo and Fondazione development of national andculture, tourism, commerce CRT. It manages Palazzo international links andand sport Madama, Borgo Medioevale, aimed to promote the6. Improve urban quality MAO and GAM. whole local system.
Governance_ARTISSIMA s.r.l [formerly Rebus s.r.l, Revolution s.r.l. andAssociazione Artissima]
Uncertainty in the segment_ Contemporary art fairs are key actors in the system. They are occasions of face-to-face interaction between gatekkepers and influencers that provide a shared interpretation is often established. Contemporary art system ACTORS Time 3:• Artists NEXT• Contemporary art galleries EDITION• Collectors Time I:• Public and private museums CHOICES• Gatekeepers (curators and critics)• Contemporary art fairs• Auction houses• The civil society Time 2: IN ITALY THE FAIR• public sector• bank foundations Both egocentric and altercentric uncertainty are very strong in the emerging contemporary art fairs segment. The trade-off (status/structural holes) is more difficult for not established fairs.
EU Benchmarking_ Others Non-EU Others 12% US Netherlands 21% 24% 3% SwitzerlandOthers EU USA 3% 13% Italy 19% 6% Austria Italy 3% 7% Germany France 17% 3% Great Britain 9% Germany France Other GB 22% 15% Brazil 24% 9% Switzerland SwitzerlandArtBasel (2010) 11% 5% 3% Frieze, London Belgium 6% (2010) Italy 7% France US 38% 11% Germany 11% FIAC, Paris (2010)
ITALY Benchmarking_ Germany Germany 6%France 9%Extra-EU 4% GB 3% US 4% 6% Others GB 8% 7% Italy Italy 79% Swiss UK 5% Other EU 76%ArteFiera (2011) USA 11% 13% ROMA -Road to 5% Other extra-EU Contemporary art 6% (2010) Germany 12% Italy 38% France 11% Artissima (2010)
Artissima 17_ COSTS % TOTAL Rent Booth set-up and Special settings Surveillance and Ticket Office Foundations Region Other costs (SIAE, cleanings) 7% 16% Insurance Venue, booth setting and related 35%Tickets sold costs 20% Municipality Hospitality, travels and 10% 11% transportations Province Communication and Advertising and 10% 1% external Press Office Private sponsorship Curatorial and special projects 15% 9% Chamber of Commerce Secretary and Accounting 3% Legal and Administrative consultancy Galleries 34% Collaborations and additional fees Levies and Taxes( + IVA su contributi) Income Bank expenses and additional fees Runnin costs Running costs, organization and 30% management TOTAL 100% 2 479 700 ! Expenditure
Turin contemporary art cluster_PRIVATE FOR PROFIT Paratissima RESo’ MIAAO Torino Internazionale PPP Galliano Habitat ArtKey 5 roles for actors: GiornoxGiorno Castello di Rivoli (Museo del Design) GAM°* Museo di Arte GAI •Incubator Venaria Reale Contemporanea Contempor ary Art •Hub MAO* Palazzo Museo Cavour Galleries •Showcase Nazionale del Palazzo PAV Cinema Camera di Il Giornale •Cultural Memory Madama* Commercio di dell’Arte Site Chiara Torino ZonArte Borgo Torino Città Capitale Figone Palazzo Birago •Patronage Medioevale* Europea Artissima s.r.l. Circolo dei Compagnia di Fond. Merz Lettori San Paolo fills a Contemporary Cittadellarte/ Torino CRAA Fond.Pistoletto Fond. Guido e structural Ettore de Piemonte Notte delle Arti Fornaris° Regione Piemonte: Share Festival Contemporanee Castello di hole direz. Cultura, Turismo e Sport Luci Fond.107 Fond. Fond.Spinola Rivara in the contemp. d’Artista Palazzo Banna Fond.CRT Fondo Bricherasio Fond.CRT art cluster of Città di Torino: div. Cultura, GiovAnna arte M. e C. Barriera Comunicazione e Piras Turin Promozione CeSAC Filatoio ClubtoClub Caraglio Arte Giovane FRAC Piemonte Fond. Sandretto Pinacoteca PROMOTION Accademia Re Rebaudengo G. e M. Albertina di Belle Agnelli Coll. La Gaia Arti PRIVATE Diogene Turn design ARCA Arte ArsCaptiva PUBLIC community VercelliNON-PROFIT FitzLAB a.titolo
theFair&theCluster SWOT_ STRENGTH WEAKNESSES• Arte Povera Movement in Turin, collector basis•Recent growth of contemporary art cluster •Italian system lacks appropriate artistic educational system,• Until now galleries need the contemporary art fairs to promote institutional and corporate collectros and strategic promotiontheir artists, gain legitimation and status through their admission and abroadthe presence of gatekeepers •Status of the fair is high but not established•Private behaviour, Public funding (STRATEGIC PLAN) & •No collaboration with local non-institutional organizationsPromotional role of the fair•Presence of 2 committed bank foundations (e.g. Paratissima)•Acquisitions inside the fair (FRAC and for GAM and Rivoli) •In the last edition Lingotto Fiere imposed its suppliers•International canon, only actually international fair •Emerging galleries have less financial resources•Established collaborations with public sector•Relatively low price of spaces for the galleries•Located in lively cultural district, process of cultural addiction(lower transaction costs) • Constant reduction of public funding•Italian and foreign partners of private and public museums • New city government in 2011(e.g. Fondazione Sandretto Re Rebaudengo) • Reputation leaks: if the cultural sector and the•Success of 17th edition of the fair contemporary art cluster lose their competiveness also•Paratissima the fair status is affected•Main asset is know-how of employees and possible supliers, • Possible birth of new fairs with similar targetthe fair can be held anywhere (availability of infrastructures) • High egocentric and altercentric uncertainty in the•Celebrations for 150th anniversary of unification of the Italian segmentnation OPPORTUNITIES THREATSSHOULD THE PUBLIC SECTOR STOP FINANCING THE FAIR AND CULTURE?