Perception 1


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  • People at all levels of an organization engage in impression management. Targets are especially likely to use impression management tactics when interacting with perceivers who have power over them and on whom they are dependent for evaluations, raises, and promotions. Individuals who are high in self-monitoring are more likely than individuals who are low in self-monitoring to engage in impression management tactics.
  • These are common impression management tactics.
  • Perception 1

    1. 1. Perception and Individual Decision Making 5- Session 14
    2. 2. What is Perception? <ul><li>A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. </li></ul><ul><li>People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. </li></ul><ul><li>The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important. </li></ul>5-
    3. 3. Factors that Influence Perception © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 5- See E X H I B I T 5-1
    4. 4. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others <ul><li>Selective Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Halo Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contrast Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 5-
    5. 5. low low low low low high high high high high Characteristic 1 Characteristic 2 Characteristic 3 Characteristic 4 Characteristic N The more favorably someone is perceived on some characteristics, The Halo Effect: A Demonstration of Positive Halo more likely that s/he will be perceived favorably on another characteristic, too. the
    6. 6. Another Shortcut: Stereotyping <ul><li>Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs – a prevalent and often useful, if not always accurate, generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Profiling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A form of stereotyping in which members of a group are singled out for intense scrutiny based on a single, often racial, trait. </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 5-
    7. 7. Specific Shortcut Applications in Organizations <ul><li>Employment Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptual biases of raters affect the accuracy of interviewers’ judgments of applicants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed in a single glance – 1/10 of a second! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance Expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-fulfilling prophecy ( Pygmalion effect ): The lower or higher performance of employees reflects preconceived leader expectations about employee capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance Evaluations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appraisals are often the subjective (judgmental) perceptions of appraisers of another employee’s job performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical impact on employees </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 5-
    8. 8. Poor Excellent Poor Excellent Initial Performance Initial Impression Quality of Actual Work Performed Evaluation of Work Performed First-Impression Error: A Summary Poor Excellent TIME Poor Excellent TIME Current Performance Current Impression Quality of Actual Work Performed Evaluation of Work Performed Current impression matches initial impression Current Impression does not match current performance
    9. 9. <ul><li>Self-fulfilling prophecy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectation of what should happen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You only act in this way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Becomes reinforced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus it reinforces stereotype </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ I am going to fail the test” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You study less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirm that you were going to fail </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>An attempt to control the perceptions or impressions of others </li></ul>Impression Management High Low
    11. 11. Impression Management Strategies Appreciating or Flattering Others The target compliments the per- ceiver. This tactic works best when flattery is not extreme and when it involves a dimension important to the perceiver. A coworker compliments a manager on his excellent handling of a troublesome employee. Behavioral Matching The target of perception matches his or her behavior to that of the perceiver. A subordinate tries to imitate her boss’s behavior by being modest and soft-spoken because her boss is modest and soft-spoken. Self- Promotion The target tries to present herself or himself in as positive a light as possible. A worker reminds his boss about his past accomplishments and associates with co- workers who are evaluated highly.
    12. 12. Impression Management <ul><li>Process by which people attempt to manage or control the perceptions others form of them. </li></ul><ul><li>Impression Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Impression Construction </li></ul>
    13. 13. Techniques for effectively managing perceptions and attributions. <ul><ul><li>Be self-aware. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek a wide range of differing information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to see a situation as others would. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of different kinds of schemas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of perceptual distortions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of self and impression management. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of attribution theory implications. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Attributions Forming personal explanations of and for the world
    15. 15. Attributions <ul><li>Way put causes on individual's behavior </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>2 basic attributes or causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  dispositional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  situational </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Several important factors on how we decide reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  social desireability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  nonnormative effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  noncommon effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  free choice </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Correspondent Inferences: Judging Dispositions Based on Behavior Description (what someone does) (what someone is like) Act Disposition Correspondent Inference Observe someone fall off a ladder Clumsy Example Assume that person is ...
    17. 17. Attribution Theory: Judging Others <ul><li>Our perception and judgment of others is significantly influenced by our assumptions of the other person’s internal state. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal causes are under that person’s control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External causes are not – person forced to act in that way </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Causation judged through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinctiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shows different behaviors in different situations. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Response is the same as others to same situation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responds in the same way over time. </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 5-
    18. 18. Elements of Attribution Theory © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 5- See E X H I B I T 5-2
    19. 19. You observe an individual complaining about the food, service, and decor in a restaurant. To answer “Why?” you note that... Kelly’s Theory of Causal Attribution: A Summary Several others also complain (consensus is high) This person always complains in this restaurant (consistency is high) This person does not complain in other settings (distinctiveness is high) No one else complains (consensus is low) This person always complains in this restaurant (consistency is high) This person also complains in other settings (distinctiveness is low) S/he complained because the restaurant is terrible (external attribution) S/he complained because s/he is difficult to please (internal attribution) You conclude that...
    20. 20. Errors and Biases in Attributions <ul><li>Fundamental Attribution Error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We blame people first, not the situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-Serving Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is “our” success but “their” failure </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 5-
    21. 21.   Fundamental attribution error: <ul><li>  Your good behaviors = dispositional </li></ul><ul><li>  Your bad behaviors = situational </li></ul><ul><li>  Other's good behaviors = situational </li></ul><ul><li>  Other's bad behaviors = dispositional </li></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul>