23 00 N, 102 00 W
◦ Mexico is located in North America.
◦ It borders the United States to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the west
and south, and the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea to the east;
also Guatemala and Belize to the south.
◦ Mexico's total area covers 1,972,550 square kilometers, including
approximately 6,000 square kilometers of islands in the Pacific Ocean,
Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of California.
Central America is the central geographic
portion of the Americas.
It is a narrow neck of land which contains
Panama, Guatemala, Honduras, Belize,
Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Costa Rica
592,000 square kilometers.
The Pacific Ocean lies to the southwest, the
Caribbean sea lies to the northeast, and the Gulf
of Mexico lies to the north.
During the Autumnal Equinox, days and nights
are of equal length.
During the Vernal Equinox, days vary within
March 17- 12 hours of day and night. March 18-
12 hours 3 minutes of day, 12 hours 5 minutes
During the Autumnal Equinox, both day and
night are of equal length
During the Vernal Equinox, hours vary in terms
March 17-Sunrise 6am Sunset 6pm. March 18,
Sunrise 6:04am Sunset 6:05 pm
12 hours of day and night in all equinox, except
the vernal (spring) equinox
Mexico uses three time zones.
◦ Central Standard Time-most of the country uses this.
◦ Mountain Standard Time- states of Chihuahua, Nayarit,
Sonora, Sinaloa and Baja California Sur.
◦ Pacific Standard Time- Baja California Norte.
Daylight Saving Time begins at 2:00 a.m. local time on the first Sunday in April. On the
last Sunday in October areas on Daylight Saving Time fall back to Standard Time at
2:00 a.m. The names in each time zone change along with Daylight Saving Time.
Central Standard Time (CST) becomes Central Daylight Time (CDT), and so forth. The
state of Sonora does not observe Daylight Saving Time.
Mexico has a Central Standard Time with the UTC of 6
subtracted hours and 5 daylight savings time hours, based on
the mean solar time of the 90th degree meridian west of the
Central America has a Central Standard Time
Subtraction of 6 hours from the Coordinated
Universal Time, and 5 hours during daylight
The clock time in this zone is based on the
mean solar time of the 90th degree meridian
west of the Greenwich Observatory
Tropic of Cancer- directly separates Central
America from Mexico.
Tropic of Capricorn-Central America lies south of
it, and Mexico lies north of it, also lies west of
the Prime Meridian.
Equator-Both are north of the equator.
In Central America we have many calcites and
crystals like Red Opal, Blue Opal, Pink Opal, and
Elements, Oxides, carbonates
North American plate- Most of the Mexican
landmass rests on this westward moving plate.
Cocos plate- The Pacific Ocean floor off southern
Mexico is being carried northeast by the
underlying motion of this plate.
Pacific plate- Areas of Mexico's coastline on the
Gulf of California, including the Baja California
Peninsula, are riding northwestward on this plate.
The Plate Tectonics of both Mexico and Central
America are intertwined.
This means that the possibility of volcanoes
erupting is plausible.
Earthquakes are created by these eruptions and
tsunamis are triggered as well.
Ocean floor material is relatively dense; when it strikes the lighter granite of the Mexican
landmass, the ocean floor is forced under the landmass, creating the deep Middle
America Trench that lies off Mexico's southern coast.
The westward moving land atop the North American plate is slowed and crumpled where
it meets the Cocos plate, creating the mountain ranges of southern Mexico.
◦ Mexico is crossed from north to south by two mountain ranges known as Sierra Madre Oriental and Sierra Madre
Occidental, which are the extension of the Rocky Mountains from northern North America. From east to west at the
center, the country is crossed by the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt also known as the Sierra Nevada. A fourth
mountain range, the Sierra Madre del Sur, runs from Michoacán to Oaxaca. As such, the majority of the Mexican
central and northern territories are located at high altitudes, and the highest elevations are found at the Trans-
Mexican Volcanic Belt: Pico de Orizaba (5,700 m), Popocatépetl(5,462 m) and Iztaccíhuatl(5,286 m) and the
Nevado de Toluca (4,577 m). Three major urban agglomerations are located in the valleys between these four
elevations: Toluca, Greater Mexico City and Puebla.
The subduction of the Cocos plate accounts for the frequency of earthquakes near
Mexico's southern coast. As the rocks constituting the ocean floor are forced down, they
melt, and the molten material is forced up through weaknesses in the surface rock,
creating the volcanoes in the Cordillera Neovolcánica across central Mexico.
Rather than one plate subducting, the Pacific and North American plates grind past each
other, creating a slip fault that is the southern extension of the San Andreas fault in
California. Motion along this fault in the past pulled Baja California away from the coast,
creating the Gulf of California. Continued motion along this fault is the source of
earthquakes in western Mexico.
Mountain ranges vary from big to small like any other place in
the world that contains mountains. Mountains like Epicztal
All of the volcanoes are located on the eastern side of Central
America; among them are Santa Maria, Fuego, Arenal,
Terica, Casita, etc.
No glaciers, however in terms of lakes and rivers we have the
San Juan Lake, Marion, Putnam, Osceola, among others. In
terms of Rivers we have Rio Lempa and Rio Grande (Mexico
border) also Veracruz.
The possibility of earthquakes is moderate since volcanoes
are present, but calm (sleeping). Tsunamis can also be
created by these earthquakes due to both geographic parts of
Since atmospheric pressure results from the
weight of the overlying air, it is less at higher
According to the formula given above, the
atmospheric pressure in Mexico City is 764 atm.
Keeping in mind that oxygen makes up 21% of the
atmospheric constituents, the partial pressure of
oxygen (O2) in 2240 m altitude is roughly 160 atm,
compared to the 213 atm at sea level.
The mercury level at a high atmospheric
pressure in Central America is somewhere
between 20-25 inch of mercury. Its low points
are between 12-15 inches of mercury
In the western cities of Central America and Mexico we have a moderate
concentrated amount of carbon dioxide.
Both Central America and Mexico do not contribute as much to Global
Warming as other places due to shortage of technology.
In the countryside, ironically the level of carbon dioxide is higher.
There are too many volcanoes located to the eastern portion of both
geographic places, as a matter of fact, all of them are there.
High amounts of both carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide.
Carbon Dioxide emissions chart
This corrected chart shows carbon dioxide emissions for
Mexico. They are expressed in total metric tons, metric
tons per capita and metric tons per $1,000 of gross national
1988 Total Per Capita Emissions/GNP
Mexico 306.9 3.7 1.74
The surface wind speed, zonal and meridional
wind and the surface pressure averaged over
93W - 97W.
◦ Winds tend to blow across the city from the northeast,
where a slight opening in the mountains allows moisture
and winds from the Gulf of Mexico to enter the basin.
These winds blow pollution from the region of heaviest
industrial development towards downtown and the
residential areas southwest of the city are pressed
against the southern mountain chain.
Wind patterns tend to vary from cold fronts to
(Not Miami weather) this means that when it is
summer it is hot, and when it is winter it’s cold,
Mostly in all directions, however south of the
equator, wind tends to blow eastward.
Mexico-The rainy season of the interior Mexico falls
during the Summer. However, since the major part of
the interior is on a high elevation, the temperature and
humidity are fairly moderate.
Central America- this applies too, however certain
differences can be noted; during winter the humidity
levels are extremely high, and on low elevations it is
A)The Tropic of Cancer effectively divides the country into temperate and tropical
zones. Land north of the twenty-fourth parallel experiences cooler temperatures
during the winter months. South of the twenty-fourth parallel, temperatures are fairly
constant year round and vary solely as a function of elevation.
B) This high-elevation region exhibits a huge difference between Summer and
Winter. Summer generally covers the period from June to October, but it may rain
in the central and southern regions while the north remains relatively dry. Winter is
traditionally the tourist season and December is by default the busiest month for the
big beach resorts.
During Winter, it is not surprising for snow bed to cover the upper regions from
December through February. The temperatures can drop to ten
degrees and highs to sixty degrees. On the
other hand, Summer rim temperatures can be
in the eighties whereas deep in the canyons
it can reach a hundred twenty or higher.
C) Maritime climates are fairly moderate and
“soothing” during summer seasons and Continental
climates vary, but it is mostly dry in cities, the
countryside is humid, this is due to humid climates
among mountain ranges like Sierra Madre.
D) Results show a marked seasonal variation of q
(humidity) from around 7·9 g kg-1
during the dry
months to 10 g kg-1
in the wet season (May-October)
on both urban and suburban sites.
E) Vegetation is diverse due to microclimates
among other factors that are involved.
Both Central America and Mexico are surrounded by the
Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean sea.
The Gulf of Mexico is located northeast of Central
America, and east of Mexico
Salinity varies in terms of latitude. The water near the
equator is less salty than that found in the mid-latitudes
because of abundant equatorial precipitation throughout
the year. In terms of poles the temperate latitudes
salinity is also low, because little evaporation of
seawater takes place in these frigid areas.
Mexico lies squarely within the hurricane belt, and all regions of
both coasts are susceptible to these storms from June through
November. Hurricanes on the Pacific coast are less frequent and
often less violent than those affecting Mexico's eastern coastline.
Several hurricanes per year strike the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico
coastline, however, and these storms bring high winds, heavy rain,
extensive damage, and occasional loss of life.
Situated atop three of the large tectonic plates that constitute the
earth's surface, Mexico is one
of the most seismologically active
regions on earth. The motion of
these plates causes earthquakes
and volcanic activity.
Everything ranging from severe thunderstorms to major
hurricanes and typhoons
Tsunamis (triggered by these earthquakes)
Aquatic (in low amounts)
Both contain all of these, however Mexico does not have many
Population density ranks among the top most
reproductive populations, which amounts to 4.4 people
per square smile.
This has lead to exponential growth in terms of
Large-scale immigration from Mexico is a very recent
phenomenon. In 1970, the Mexican immigrant
population was less than 800,000, compared to nearly 8
million in 2000.
In a 2008 study, it was shown that 12.7 million Mexicans