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  • Figure 2. DART tsunameters are now used in a few strategic locations in the deep ocean to measure tsunami waves unaltered by shoaling and refl ections at a coast. The tsunameters sense the pressure induced on the ocean bottom by passing tsunami waves, transmit these data by acoustic modem to an oceansurface buoy moored nearby, and from the buoy the data are sent via satellite to the warning centers.

Tsunami Detector1 Ppt Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Tsunami Detector
  • 2. Tsunami A sea wave of local or distant origin that results from large-scale seafloor displacements associated with large earthquakes, major submarine slides, or exploding volcanic islands.
  • 3. Regular Wind Generated Wave 10 Feet 300 Feet Speed: 10-20 mph
  • 4. Tsunami in Deep Ocean 1-2 Feet 316,800 Feet Speed: 450-650 mph
  • 5. Tsunami Approaching Shore 10-100+ Feet 5,000 – 10,000 Feet Speed: 35-220 mph
  • 6. Tsunami Cycle Tidal Surge Underlying Geological Event Water Displaced Wave Propagation Tidal Withdraw Detection Opportunities
  • 7. Detection Coastline Activity Wave Activity Geologic Activity Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3
  • 8. Current State of the Art 5,000 M Surface Buoy Hydrophone Anchor Tsunami Detector Acoustic Link Satellite Gonzalez, F.I. (1999): Tsunami!. Scientific American, 280(5), 56-65
  • 9. Advantages & Drawbacks
    • Advantages
      • Deep water pressure produces relatively low false-positives as wind-driven waves do not generate deep pressure differentials
      • Multiple sensors can triangulate epicenter of water displacement and wave propagation can be predicted.
      • Good advance warning
    • Drawbacks
      • Expensive equipment
      • High maintenance
      • Requires multiple communication links:
        • Sonar
        • Satellite uplink
        • Satellite downlink
        • Last-mile notification to authorities
        • Authorities must notify coastal dwellers
  • 10. Genesis Tsunami Coastal Alert Deep sea pressure Seismic Events Surface anomalies Coastal Alarm & Detection
  • 11. Leading Trough The receding sea that precedes a tsunami
    • Near-shore subsidence facilitate tsunami penetration inland
    • Theoretical predictions * and field surveys indicate that coastal run-up and inundation will be greater if the trough of the leading wave precedes the crest
    * Raissa Mazova of the Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University in Russia and by Costas Synolakis of the University of Southern California
  • 12. Genesis Tsunami Coastal Alert Anchor Tsunami trough threshold level Receding sea trigger Anchor line under constant spring tension at buoy
  • 13. Genesis Tsunami Coastal Alert Anchor Tsunami trough threshold level Tsunami trough (receding sea) Tension in anchor line pulls buoy into contact with trigger Flares ignited to signal coastal communities Satellite, RF, audible alarms execute responsive to contact with trigger
  • 14. Genesis Tsunami Coastal Alert Buoy measures tsunami crest – broadcasts satellite data for emergency response in other areas.
  • 15. Advantages to Coastal Alert
    • Direct warning system in third world and emerging industrial countries
      • Flares
      • Audible siren
      • Local RF broadcast on emergency marine VHF channels and terrestrial radio
      • Can be activated in advance by RF or satellite transmission if deep sea sensors forecast tsunami hit in the area
    • Low Cost Design
      • No expensive off-shore installation and maintenance
      • Multi-use design – can be used for navigation, temperature readings, etc.
    • Ideal supplement to sophisticated deep sea monitoring
  • 16. Genesis Tsunami Offshore Alert Responsive to seismic event GTOA releases non-buoyant pressure sensors at multiple depths below normal wave action. Genesis Offshore 02
  • 17. Genesis Tsunami Offshore Alert Detachable pressure sensors Pressure changes below predetermined depth are indicators of tsunami activity. NOAA’s DART system uses pressure sensors that are permanently mounted to seabed. Prone to failure. Genesis Offshore 02
  • 18. Genesis Tsunami Offshore Alert Detachable pressure sensors Pressure changes below predetermined depth are indicators of tsunami activity. Seismic event detected – Genesis Offshore buoys drop pressure sensors to multiple depths. Pressure Wave Genesis Offshore 02
  • 19. Genesis Tsunami Offshore Alert Detachable pressure sensors Pressure changes below predetermined depth are indicators of tsunami activity. Pressure readings are relayed to monitoring station. Multiple readings provide more accurate analysis of deep pressure readings. Satellite Genesis Offshore 02
  • 20. Genesis Drop Sensor Lead weight is adjusted so that rate of decent is controlled so that multiple sensors reach their operating depth in synchronization. Sensor is maintained above waterline before release. No fouling or damage from deep sea mounting. Pressure transducer supplied by Paroscientific, Inc. – Quartz crystal detection of flex of Bourdon tube. Telemetry and support line.
  • 21. Genesis Tsunami Offshore Alert
    • No permanent seabed pressure sensor
    • Pressure readings at multiple depths
    • Pressure transducer equipment kept out of hostile environment until deployed
    • Redundancy if a sensor fails
    • Lower false positives
    • No ROV needed for maintenance or deployment
  • 22. Genesis Tsunami System
    • Costal detection and notification
    • Offshore monitoring and early warning
    • Integrated systems provide prediction, notification and warning in a single package.
    • Low costs for deployment and maintenance
    • Superior data capture and uptime
  • 23. Deep Sea P Sensor
  • 24. Deep-sea pressure sensors (Germany)
  • 25.  
  • 26. Suggested global distribution of deep sea pressure sensors (to be defined)
  • 27. Suggested placement of new seismographic and deep sea pressure sensors (India)
  • 28. Suggested real-time sea level stations (India)
  • 29. TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM IN MOBILE ENVIRONMENT SOURCE: earth.observation@vtt.fi www.vtt.fi/space
    • 1. Tsunami detection
    • Sensor system for the detection of the earthquake and the tsunami wave
    • Data transfer from surface to the processing centers
    • 2. Data processing and data management
    • Data collection and processing at the processing centers
    • Derivation of alert messages including maps with evacuation routes
    • 3. Alert message distribution
    • Through the Internet
    • To cellular phones, including evacuation routes
    • 4. Rescue aid
    • Alert message collection and analysis from the cellular phones
    • Cellular phone location, including historical data
    • Damage estimation using satellite data
    • 5. Preparation
    • Land cover maps and elevation information using satellite data for flood area simulations
    津波   tsu nami  
  • 30. Local Tsunami – Alert System * Earthquake->Tsunami Seismic recording Civil Defense – to local administrations, 10 min Evacuation wave arrives in 45 minutes! Analysis – Seismic data center
    • Automatic procedures:
    • -Broad band sensor
    • Small seismic array
    • Virtual regional network
    Radio, TV stations – to population, 2 min Cellular phone –to local population, 2 min 10 min ? human factor 3 min
  • 31. Civil defence communication system Chinandega (El viejo) 1.- Venecia 2.- Aposentillo 3.- Jiquilillo 4.- Aserraderos 5.- Los Zorros 6.- Padre Ramos 7.- Mechapa 8.- Punta Nata 9.- Potosí Chinandega (Corinto) 10.- Corinto 11.- Isla del Cardón 12.- Isla del Amor Chinandega (El Realejo ) 13.- Isla Maderas Negras 14.- Isla Paredones 15.- Paso Caballos León 16.- El Tránsito 17.- Puerto Sandino 18.- Salinas Grandes 19.- Poneloya 20.- Las Peñitas 21.- Los Brasiles Managua 22.- Salamina 23.- Montelimar 24.- Masachapa 25.- Pochomil 26.- San Diego 27.- Gran Pacífica 28.- Miraflores Carazo 29.- Casares 30.- La Boquita 31.- Bocana de Masapa Jinotepe 32.- Tipilapa 33.- Huehuete 34.- La Bocana Rivas 35.- El Ostional 36.- San Juan del Sur 37.- El Menco 38.- El Gigante 39.- San Martín 40.- Las Salinas 41.- El Astillero 42.- La Flor (130,000) under risk 1 34 38 37 2 3 4 6 5 8 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 35 36 39 40 41 42 Source Defensa Civil, 2005 INETER CODE DEFENSA CIVIL 90 kms 45 min
  • 32. New communication methods (in development)
    • Alert messenger to PC screen of radio/TV presenters
    • (under testing)
    • SMS cell phone to decision maker
    • (under testing)
    • SMS cell phone to large sectors of population
    • (under development )
  • 33.  
  • 34. Thank you