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Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
Sattellite Power Station1
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Sattellite Power Station1
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Sattellite Power Station1
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Sattellite Power Station1

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  • US Department of Energy, EREC Brief Solar Power Satellites,< http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumerinfo/refbriefs/l123.html>(accessed April 10, 2004)
  • Wikipedia, Solar Power Satellite, < http://www.fact-index.com/s/so/solar_power_satellite.html>(accessed April 10, 2004)
  • Wikipedia, Solar Power Satellite, < http://www.fact-index.com/s/so/solar_power_satellite.html>(accessed April 10, 2004) Wikipedia, Microwave Power Transmission, < http://www.fact-index.com/m/mi/microwave_power_transmission.html>(accessed April 10, 2004)
  • Quote: Gomes, Pedro, Microwave Power Transmission,< http://www.infosatellite.com/news/2003/01/p200103microwave.html>(accessed April 10, 2004)
  • http://www.spacedaily.com/images/solar-sps-satellite-bg.jpg
  • http://www.ssi.org/assets/images/slide02.jpg
  • Wikipedia, Solar Power Satellite, < http://www.fact-index.com/s/so/solar_power_satellite.html>(accessed April 10, 2004)
  • ISIS, Highlights in Space 2000, < http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/isis/highlights2000/sect6b.html>(accessed April 10, 2004)
  • Nagatomo, Makoto, Conceptual Study of a Solar Power Satellite, SPS 200, < http://www.spacefuture.com/pr/archive/conceptual_study_of_a_solar_power_satellite_sps_2000.shtml>(accessed April 10, 2004)
  • Quote: http://www.spacetalent.com/cgi/glossary.cgi?gl=term&term=Rectenna Wikipedia, Solar Power Satellite, < http://www.fact-index.com/s/so/solar_power_satellite.html>(accessed April 10, 2004)
  • http://www.spacefuture.com/power/sps2000.shtml
  • Space Future, Beam It Down: How the New Satellites Can Power the World, <http://www.spacefuture.com/archive/beam_it_down_how_the_new_satellites_can_power_the_world.shtml>(accessed April 11, 2004)
  • http://www.spacefuture.com/pr/archive/conceptual_study_of_a_solar_power_satellite_sps_2000.shtml
  • Space Future, Beam It Down: How the New Satellites Can Power the World, <http://www.spacefuture.com/archive/beam_it_down_how_the_new_satellites_can_power_the_world.shtml>(accessed April 11, 2004) Wikipedia, Solar Power Satellite, < http://www.fact-index.com/s/so/solar_power_satellite.html>(accessed April 10, 2004)
  • R.K. Pradhan
  • Transcript

    • 1. Satellite Power Station and Microwave Power Transmission Presented by- _______________________ ___________________ ___________ ________ R.K.Pradhan 09:59 AM
    • 2. Outline
      • Introduction
      • Basic Concept
      • Solar Power Satellite
      • Microwave Power Transmission
      • SPS 2000
      • Issues Involved
      • Conclusion
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 3. Introduction
      • The demand for energy worldwide has increasing by 100% or almost doubled in every decade.
      • The world’s main source of power is still generated by fossil fuels which is limited
      • (85% of the total power globally).
      • Harmful effects of hydrocarbon-based power sources to environment.
      • Regional political and religious conflicts can disrupt world-wide distribution of fossil fuel.
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 4. Basic Concept
      • Solar Power Satellites providing a better way of power generation
      • Transmission of power to earth via microwaves
      • Collection of power by specially developed antennas (rectennas)
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 5. SOLAR POWER SATELLITES
      • Solar Power Satellite or SPS , is a proposed satellite built in geostationary orbit that uses microwave power transmission to beam power to a very large antenna on Earth where it can be used in place of conventional power sources.
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 6. Basic components
      • A huge solar collector, typically made of solar cells.
      • D.C. to Microwave conversion through magnetron.
      • Transmitting antenna sub array on the satellite, aimed at earth.
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 7. Magnetron Operation 09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 8. Continued… 09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 9. Reference system 09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 10. DOE (US) Study
      • Construct the satellites in space
        • Each SPS would have 400 million solar cells
      • Use the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) to get Solar Sailing Array Panels (SSAP) to a Low Earth Orbit (LEO)
      • Tow pieces to the assembly point (GEO) using ion thruster mechanism powered by the solar energy obtained from solar panels
      • Integration into SPS by telerobotics
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 11. Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles 09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 12. Advantages over Earth based solar power
      • More intense sunlight
      • In geosynchronous orbit, 36,000 km (22,369 miles) an SPS would be illuminated over 99% of the time
      • Power can be beamed to any location where it is desired.
      • No air or water pollution is created during generation
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 13. Specifications
      • Satellite antenna must be between 1 and 1.5 kilometers in diameter and the ground rectenna around 14 kilometers by 10 kilometers .
      • Collector area must be between 50 (19 sq miles) and 150 square kilometers (57 sq miles)
      • 50 Tons of material
        • Current rates on the Space Shuttle run between $3500 and $5000 per pound
        • 50 tons (112,000lbs)=$392,000,000
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 14. Continued…
      • 4. Possible power generation of 5 to 10 Gigawatts
        • “ If the largest conceivable space power station were built and operated 24 hours a day all year round, it could produce the equivalent output of ten 1 million kilowatt-class nuclear power stations.”
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 15. 09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 16. Possible Designs 09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 17. 09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 18. 09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 19. Deployment Issues
      • Cost of transporting materials into space
      • Construction of SSAP
        • Space Walks
      • Maintenance
        • Routine checkup
        • Meteor impacts
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 20. Microwave Power Transmission How the power gets to Earth? R.K.Pradhan 09:59 AM
    • 21. From the Satellite
      • Power from the satellite is sent to Earth using a microwave transmitter
      • The beamed power is received through “rectenna” located at a place on Earth
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 22. Microwave Transmission
      • Frequency 2.45 GHz microwave beam
      • Beamed Power level is well below lethal levels of concentration even for prolonged exposure
      • High efficiency up to 85%
      • Cause interference with communication satellites
      • Safety ensured for flying bodies to greater extent.
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 23. Rectenna
        • “ An antenna comprising a mesh of dipoles and diodes for absorbing microwave energy from a transmitter and converting it by rectification into D.C. power.”
      • Microwaves are received with about 85% efficiency
      • 95% of the beam will fall on the rectenna
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 24. Basic block diagram 09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 25. Power captured by rectenna
      • The voltage at the terminal of rectenna is equal to the electric field times the effective length.
      • V T =El
      • Half of the power captured is scattered back and half is delivered to the load.
      • P T = V T 2 /4R T
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 26. Rectification
      • The conversion from A.C. to D.C. by means of rectifying device.
      • Types of rectification schemes.
      • -half wave
      • -full wave
      • The expected overall rectification efficiency,
      • η c =dc output power/rf incident power
      • The obtained conversion efficiency due to mismatch,
      • η c =dc output power/
      • (rf incident power-rf reflected power)
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 27. Full-Wave Vs Half-Wave Rectification
      • Why full wave rectification?
      • -Large V min
      • -Smaller ripple factor
      • Full wave rectification by two diodes.
      • Diode’s inputs 180 degrees out of phase.
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 28. Rectenna’s method of Interconnection
      • Solar rectenna’s model.
      • Series connection.
      • Parallel Connection.
      • Hybrid Connection.
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 29. Solar Rectenna’s model 09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 30. Hybrid connections 09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 31. Rectenna Design
      • Currently there are two different design types being looked at
        • Wire mesh reflector
          • Built on a rigid frame above the ground
          • Visually transparent so that it would not interfere with plant life
        • Magic carpet
          • Material pegged to the ground
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 32. Wire mesh reflector 09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 33. Magic carpet 09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 34. Rectenna Issues
      • Size
        • Miles across
      • Location
        • Aesthetic
        • Near population center
      • Health and environmental side effects
        • Although claim that microwaves would be safe, how do you convince people
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 35. SPS 2000 09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan                                                                                                                                                   
    • 36. Working model of Japanese Space Solar Power Plant SPS2000 in Sagamihara, Japan. 09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 37. Design Features
      • LEO satellite: Approx. 1000Km altitude to reduce launch costs and to minimize size of transmitting antenna.
      • Power output: Ranging from 5GW to 10GW
      • Microwave beam footprints: ground footprint of 3Km in diameter and transmitting antenna of 100m in diameter.
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 38. Continued…
      • 5-10 GW satellite delivering microwave power
        • Will not be in geosynchronous orbit, instead low orbit 1000 km
        • Much cheaper to put a satellite in low orbit
        • 200 seconds of power on each pass over rectenna
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 39. Microwave Beam Footprint 09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 40. Low Orbit
      • Proposed to have hundreds of satellites in low earth orbit
      • Since a low orbit microwave beam would spread less, the ground based rectenna could be smaller i.e. in the range of few hundred meters across instead of 10 kilometers.
      • In low orbit they circle the Earth in about every 90 minutes
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 41. Constructional design of SPS 09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 42. 09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 43. 09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 44. Reliability
      • Ground based solar only works during clear days, and must have storage for night
      • Power can be beamed to the location where it is needed
      • A network of low orbit satellites could provide power to almost any point on Earth continuously because one satellite would always be in range
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 45. Issues Involved
      • Motivation towards improved technology and economic benefits.
      • Effect of long term exposure to microwave
      • Large no. of satellites would take up large section of space
      • Would require a network of satellites
      • Proper agreement about SPS paths
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 46. Conclusion
      • In order for SPS to become a reality several things have to happen:
        • Government support
        • Cheaper launch prices
        • Involvement of the private sector
      09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • 47. Thank you 09:59 AM R.K.Pradhan

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