Sattellite Power Station1
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  • US Department of Energy, EREC Brief Solar Power Satellites,<>(accessed April 10, 2004)
  • Wikipedia, Solar Power Satellite, <>(accessed April 10, 2004)
  • Wikipedia, Solar Power Satellite, <>(accessed April 10, 2004) Wikipedia, Microwave Power Transmission, <>(accessed April 10, 2004)
  • Quote: Gomes, Pedro, Microwave Power Transmission,<>(accessed April 10, 2004)
  • Wikipedia, Solar Power Satellite, <>(accessed April 10, 2004)
  • ISIS, Highlights in Space 2000, <>(accessed April 10, 2004)
  • Nagatomo, Makoto, Conceptual Study of a Solar Power Satellite, SPS 200, <>(accessed April 10, 2004)
  • Quote: Wikipedia, Solar Power Satellite, <>(accessed April 10, 2004)
  • Space Future, Beam It Down: How the New Satellites Can Power the World, (accessed April 11, 2004)
  • Space Future, Beam It Down: How the New Satellites Can Power the World, (accessed April 11, 2004) Wikipedia, Solar Power Satellite, <>(accessed April 10, 2004)
  • R.K. Pradhan

Sattellite Power Station1 Sattellite Power Station1 Presentation Transcript

  • Satellite Power Station and Microwave Power Transmission Presented by- _______________________ ___________________ ___________ ________ R.K.Pradhan 09:58 AM
  • Outline
    • Introduction
    • Basic Concept
    • Solar Power Satellite
    • Microwave Power Transmission
    • SPS 2000
    • Issues Involved
    • Conclusion
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Introduction
    • The demand for energy worldwide has increasing by 100% or almost doubled in every decade.
    • The world’s main source of power is still generated by fossil fuels which is limited
    • (85% of the total power globally).
    • Harmful effects of hydrocarbon-based power sources to environment.
    • Regional political and religious conflicts can disrupt world-wide distribution of fossil fuel.
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Basic Concept
    • Solar Power Satellites providing a better way of power generation
    • Transmission of power to earth via microwaves
    • Collection of power by specially developed antennas (rectennas)
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    • Solar Power Satellite or SPS , is a proposed satellite built in geostationary orbit that uses microwave power transmission to beam power to a very large antenna on Earth where it can be used in place of conventional power sources.
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Basic components
    • A huge solar collector, typically made of solar cells.
    • D.C. to Microwave conversion through magnetron.
    • Transmitting antenna sub array on the satellite, aimed at earth.
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Magnetron Operation 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Continued… 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Reference system 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • DOE (US) Study
    • Construct the satellites in space
      • Each SPS would have 400 million solar cells
    • Use the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) to get Solar Sailing Array Panels (SSAP) to a Low Earth Orbit (LEO)
    • Tow pieces to the assembly point (GEO) using ion thruster mechanism powered by the solar energy obtained from solar panels
    • Integration into SPS by telerobotics
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Advantages over Earth based solar power
    • More intense sunlight
    • In geosynchronous orbit, 36,000 km (22,369 miles) an SPS would be illuminated over 99% of the time
    • Power can be beamed to any location where it is desired.
    • No air or water pollution is created during generation
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Specifications
    • Satellite antenna must be between 1 and 1.5 kilometers in diameter and the ground rectenna around 14 kilometers by 10 kilometers .
    • Collector area must be between 50 (19 sq miles) and 150 square kilometers (57 sq miles)
    • 50 Tons of material
      • Current rates on the Space Shuttle run between $3500 and $5000 per pound
      • 50 tons (112,000lbs)=$392,000,000
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Continued…
    • 4. Possible power generation of 5 to 10 Gigawatts
      • “ If the largest conceivable space power station were built and operated 24 hours a day all year round, it could produce the equivalent output of ten 1 million kilowatt-class nuclear power stations.”
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Possible Designs 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Deployment Issues
    • Cost of transporting materials into space
    • Construction of SSAP
      • Space Walks
    • Maintenance
      • Routine checkup
      • Meteor impacts
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Microwave Power Transmission How the power gets to Earth? R.K.Pradhan 09:58 AM
  • From the Satellite
    • Power from the satellite is sent to Earth using a microwave transmitter
    • The beamed power is received through “rectenna” located at a place on Earth
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Microwave Transmission
    • Frequency 2.45 GHz microwave beam
    • Beamed Power level is well below lethal levels of concentration even for prolonged exposure
    • High efficiency up to 85%
    • Cause interference with communication satellites
    • Safety ensured for flying bodies to greater extent.
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Rectenna
      • “ An antenna comprising a mesh of dipoles and diodes for absorbing microwave energy from a transmitter and converting it by rectification into D.C. power.”
    • Microwaves are received with about 85% efficiency
    • 95% of the beam will fall on the rectenna
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Basic block diagram 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Power captured by rectenna
    • The voltage at the terminal of rectenna is equal to the electric field times the effective length.
    • V T =El
    • Half of the power captured is scattered back and half is delivered to the load.
    • P T = V T 2 /4R T
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Rectification
    • The conversion from A.C. to D.C. by means of rectifying device.
    • Types of rectification schemes.
    • -half wave
    • -full wave
    • The expected overall rectification efficiency,
    • η c =dc output power/rf incident power
    • The obtained conversion efficiency due to mismatch,
    • η c =dc output power/
    • (rf incident power-rf reflected power)
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Full-Wave Vs Half-Wave Rectification
    • Why full wave rectification?
    • -Large V min
    • -Smaller ripple factor
    • Full wave rectification by two diodes.
    • Diode’s inputs 180 degrees out of phase.
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Rectenna’s method of Interconnection
    • Solar rectenna’s model.
    • Series connection.
    • Parallel Connection.
    • Hybrid Connection.
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Solar Rectenna’s model 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Hybrid connections 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Rectenna Design
    • Currently there are two different design types being looked at
      • Wire mesh reflector
        • Built on a rigid frame above the ground
        • Visually transparent so that it would not interfere with plant life
      • Magic carpet
        • Material pegged to the ground
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Wire mesh reflector 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Magic carpet 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Rectenna Issues
    • Size
      • Miles across
    • Location
      • Aesthetic
      • Near population center
    • Health and environmental side effects
      • Although claim that microwaves would be safe, how do you convince people
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • SPS 2000 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan                                                                                                                                                   
  • Working model of Japanese Space Solar Power Plant SPS2000 in Sagamihara, Japan. 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Design Features
    • LEO satellite: Approx. 1000Km altitude to reduce launch costs and to minimize size of transmitting antenna.
    • Power output: Ranging from 5GW to 10GW
    • Microwave beam footprints: ground footprint of 3Km in diameter and transmitting antenna of 100m in diameter.
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Continued…
    • 5-10 GW satellite delivering microwave power
      • Will not be in geosynchronous orbit, instead low orbit 1000 km
      • Much cheaper to put a satellite in low orbit
      • 200 seconds of power on each pass over rectenna
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Microwave Beam Footprint 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Low Orbit
    • Proposed to have hundreds of satellites in low earth orbit
    • Since a low orbit microwave beam would spread less, the ground based rectenna could be smaller i.e. in the range of few hundred meters across instead of 10 kilometers.
    • In low orbit they circle the Earth in about every 90 minutes
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Constructional design of SPS 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Reliability
    • Ground based solar only works during clear days, and must have storage for night
    • Power can be beamed to the location where it is needed
    • A network of low orbit satellites could provide power to almost any point on Earth continuously because one satellite would always be in range
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Issues Involved
    • Motivation towards improved technology and economic benefits.
    • Effect of long term exposure to microwave
    • Large no. of satellites would take up large section of space
    • Would require a network of satellites
    • Proper agreement about SPS paths
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Conclusion
    • In order for SPS to become a reality several things have to happen:
      • Government support
      • Cheaper launch prices
      • Involvement of the private sector
    09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
  • Thank you 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan