Sattellite Power Station1


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  • US Department of Energy, EREC Brief Solar Power Satellites,<>(accessed April 10, 2004)
  • Wikipedia, Solar Power Satellite, <>(accessed April 10, 2004)
  • Wikipedia, Solar Power Satellite, <>(accessed April 10, 2004) Wikipedia, Microwave Power Transmission, <>(accessed April 10, 2004)
  • Quote: Gomes, Pedro, Microwave Power Transmission,<>(accessed April 10, 2004)
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  • ISIS, Highlights in Space 2000, <>(accessed April 10, 2004)
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  • Quote: Wikipedia, Solar Power Satellite, <>(accessed April 10, 2004)
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  • Space Future, Beam It Down: How the New Satellites Can Power the World, <>(accessed April 11, 2004) Wikipedia, Solar Power Satellite, <>(accessed April 10, 2004)
  • R.K. Pradhan
  • Sattellite Power Station1

    1. 1. Satellite Power Station and Microwave Power Transmission Presented by- _______________________ ___________________ ___________ ________ R.K.Pradhan 09:58 AM
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Power Satellite </li></ul><ul><li>Microwave Power Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>SPS 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Issues Involved </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>The demand for energy worldwide has increasing by 100% or almost doubled in every decade. </li></ul><ul><li>The world’s main source of power is still generated by fossil fuels which is limited </li></ul><ul><li>(85% of the total power globally). </li></ul><ul><li>Harmful effects of hydrocarbon-based power sources to environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Regional political and religious conflicts can disrupt world-wide distribution of fossil fuel. </li></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    4. 4. Basic Concept <ul><li>Solar Power Satellites providing a better way of power generation </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission of power to earth via microwaves </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of power by specially developed antennas (rectennas) </li></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    5. 5. SOLAR POWER SATELLITES <ul><li>Solar Power Satellite or SPS , is a proposed satellite built in geostationary orbit that uses microwave power transmission to beam power to a very large antenna on Earth where it can be used in place of conventional power sources. </li></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    6. 6. Basic components <ul><li>A huge solar collector, typically made of solar cells. </li></ul><ul><li>D.C. to Microwave conversion through magnetron. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitting antenna sub array on the satellite, aimed at earth. </li></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    7. 7. Magnetron Operation 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    8. 8. Continued… 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    9. 9. Reference system 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    10. 10. DOE (US) Study <ul><li>Construct the satellites in space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each SPS would have 400 million solar cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) to get Solar Sailing Array Panels (SSAP) to a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) </li></ul><ul><li>Tow pieces to the assembly point (GEO) using ion thruster mechanism powered by the solar energy obtained from solar panels </li></ul><ul><li>Integration into SPS by telerobotics </li></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    11. 11. Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    12. 12. Advantages over Earth based solar power <ul><li>More intense sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>In geosynchronous orbit, 36,000 km (22,369 miles) an SPS would be illuminated over 99% of the time </li></ul><ul><li>Power can be beamed to any location where it is desired. </li></ul><ul><li>No air or water pollution is created during generation </li></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    13. 13. Specifications <ul><li>Satellite antenna must be between 1 and 1.5 kilometers in diameter and the ground rectenna around 14 kilometers by 10 kilometers . </li></ul><ul><li>Collector area must be between 50 (19 sq miles) and 150 square kilometers (57 sq miles) </li></ul><ul><li>50 Tons of material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current rates on the Space Shuttle run between $3500 and $5000 per pound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50 tons (112,000lbs)=$392,000,000 </li></ul></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    14. 14. Continued… <ul><li>4. Possible power generation of 5 to 10 Gigawatts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ If the largest conceivable space power station were built and operated 24 hours a day all year round, it could produce the equivalent output of ten 1 million kilowatt-class nuclear power stations.” </li></ul></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    15. 15. 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    16. 16. Possible Designs 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    17. 17. 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    18. 18. 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    19. 19. Deployment Issues <ul><li>Cost of transporting materials into space </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of SSAP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Space Walks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routine checkup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meteor impacts </li></ul></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    20. 20. Microwave Power Transmission How the power gets to Earth? R.K.Pradhan 09:58 AM
    21. 21. From the Satellite <ul><li>Power from the satellite is sent to Earth using a microwave transmitter </li></ul><ul><li>The beamed power is received through “rectenna” located at a place on Earth </li></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    22. 22. Microwave Transmission <ul><li>Frequency 2.45 GHz microwave beam </li></ul><ul><li>Beamed Power level is well below lethal levels of concentration even for prolonged exposure </li></ul><ul><li>High efficiency up to 85% </li></ul><ul><li>Cause interference with communication satellites </li></ul><ul><li>Safety ensured for flying bodies to greater extent. </li></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    23. 23. Rectenna <ul><ul><li>“ An antenna comprising a mesh of dipoles and diodes for absorbing microwave energy from a transmitter and converting it by rectification into D.C. power.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microwaves are received with about 85% efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>95% of the beam will fall on the rectenna </li></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    24. 24. Basic block diagram 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    25. 25. Power captured by rectenna <ul><li>The voltage at the terminal of rectenna is equal to the electric field times the effective length. </li></ul><ul><li>V T =El </li></ul><ul><li>Half of the power captured is scattered back and half is delivered to the load. </li></ul><ul><li>P T = V T 2 /4R T </li></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    26. 26. Rectification <ul><li>The conversion from A.C. to D.C. by means of rectifying device. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of rectification schemes. </li></ul><ul><li>-half wave </li></ul><ul><li>-full wave </li></ul><ul><li>The expected overall rectification efficiency, </li></ul><ul><li>η c =dc output power/rf incident power </li></ul><ul><li>The obtained conversion efficiency due to mismatch, </li></ul><ul><li>η c =dc output power/ </li></ul><ul><li>(rf incident power-rf reflected power) </li></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    27. 27. Full-Wave Vs Half-Wave Rectification <ul><li>Why full wave rectification? </li></ul><ul><li>-Large V min </li></ul><ul><li>-Smaller ripple factor </li></ul><ul><li>Full wave rectification by two diodes. </li></ul><ul><li>Diode’s inputs 180 degrees out of phase. </li></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    28. 28. Rectenna’s method of Interconnection <ul><li>Solar rectenna’s model. </li></ul><ul><li>Series connection. </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel Connection. </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid Connection. </li></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    29. 29. Solar Rectenna’s model 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    30. 30. Hybrid connections 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    31. 31. Rectenna Design <ul><li>Currently there are two different design types being looked at </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wire mesh reflector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built on a rigid frame above the ground </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visually transparent so that it would not interfere with plant life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magic carpet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Material pegged to the ground </li></ul></ul></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    32. 32. Wire mesh reflector 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    33. 33. Magic carpet 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    34. 34. Rectenna Issues <ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Miles across </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near population center </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health and environmental side effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although claim that microwaves would be safe, how do you convince people </li></ul></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    35. 35. SPS 2000 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan                                                                                                                                                   
    36. 36. Working model of Japanese Space Solar Power Plant SPS2000 in Sagamihara, Japan. 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    37. 37. Design Features <ul><li>LEO satellite: Approx. 1000Km altitude to reduce launch costs and to minimize size of transmitting antenna. </li></ul><ul><li>Power output: Ranging from 5GW to 10GW </li></ul><ul><li>Microwave beam footprints: ground footprint of 3Km in diameter and transmitting antenna of 100m in diameter. </li></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    38. 38. Continued… <ul><li>5-10 GW satellite delivering microwave power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will not be in geosynchronous orbit, instead low orbit 1000 km </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much cheaper to put a satellite in low orbit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200 seconds of power on each pass over rectenna </li></ul></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    39. 39. Microwave Beam Footprint 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    40. 40. Low Orbit <ul><li>Proposed to have hundreds of satellites in low earth orbit </li></ul><ul><li>Since a low orbit microwave beam would spread less, the ground based rectenna could be smaller i.e. in the range of few hundred meters across instead of 10 kilometers. </li></ul><ul><li>In low orbit they circle the Earth in about every 90 minutes </li></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    41. 41. Constructional design of SPS 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    42. 42. 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    43. 43. 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    44. 44. Reliability <ul><li>Ground based solar only works during clear days, and must have storage for night </li></ul><ul><li>Power can be beamed to the location where it is needed </li></ul><ul><li>A network of low orbit satellites could provide power to almost any point on Earth continuously because one satellite would always be in range </li></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    45. 45. Issues Involved <ul><li>Motivation towards improved technology and economic benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of long term exposure to microwave </li></ul><ul><li>Large no. of satellites would take up large section of space </li></ul><ul><li>Would require a network of satellites </li></ul><ul><li>Proper agreement about SPS paths </li></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    46. 46. Conclusion <ul><li>In order for SPS to become a reality several things have to happen: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaper launch prices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involvement of the private sector </li></ul></ul>09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan
    47. 47. Thank you 09:58 AM R.K.Pradhan