Micro Power Stations
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Micro Power Stations

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Micro Power Stations Micro Power Stations Presentation Transcript

  • MICROPOWER
    SYSTEMS
    By:
    ________
    ___________________
    __________________________________________________________________
    _______________
  • Topics
    Driving forces for micro power systems
    Energy scavenging/ collecting systems
    Energy reservoir/ power generation systems
  • What is Micro Power??
    Generation of small amounts of electricity from sources close to where it's used.
    Eliminates the need for both excess production by the traditional generating stations powered by coal, oil or nuclear power, and transmission grids to deliver that power.
  • Why Micro Power Now??
  • Why Micro Power ??
    renewable, on the site energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions
    plan not to replace the traditional electrical grid
    providing reliable service in remote communities
    waste energy scavenger concepts
  • Energy Scavenging Areas
    1.Solar/Ambient Light
    2.Temperature Gradients
    3.Human Power
    4.Air Flow
    5.Pressure Gradients
    6.Vibrations
  • Solar and Ambient Light
    • Sources
    Noon on a sunny day - 100 mW/cm2
    Office Lights: 7.2 mW/cm2
    • Collectors
    SC Silicon
    • 15% - 30% efficient
    Poly-Silicon
    • 10% - 15% efficient
    Photoelectric Dyes
    • 5% to 10% efficient
    Solar Powered Pico Radio Node
  • Solar PV Arrays
    Solar Photo Voltaic (solar PV) is the direct conversion of solar energy into electricity
    They are formed using semi-conductor materials like Si
    Light energy bounces the electrons away from their atoms
    † flow of electrons
    † current
  • Solar PV Arrays
    Solar Photo Voltaic (solar PV) is the direct conversion of solar energy into electricity
    They are formed using semi-conductor materials like Si
    Light energy bounces the electrons away from their atoms
    † flow of electrons
    † current
  • Temperature Gradients
    Exploit gradients due to waste heat / ambient temp
    Maximum power = Carnot efficiency
    10˚C differential =
    (308K –298K) /308 = 3.2%
    Through silicon this can be up to 110 mW/cm2
    Methods
    Thermoelectric (Seebeck effect) ~ 40µW/cm2 @ 10˚C
    Piezo thermo engine ~ 1 mW/mm2 (theoretical)
    Piezo thermo engine
  • Autonomous nodes can only become reality when research on ultra-low-power electronics and micro-power generators join forces
    Thermal energy scavengers that use Seebeck effect to transform the temperature difference between the environment and the human body into electricity
    Generators are mounted on a bracelet - 150μW
    Bismuth telluride thermoelectric block, consisting of about 3000 thermocouples
    Flexible wireless sensor moduleattached to this bracelet and powered by the thermoelectric generator
  • Air Flow
    Power output/ efficiencies vary with velocity and motors
    Applications exist where average air flow may be on the order of 5 m/s
    At 100% efficiency ~1 mW
    MEMS turbines may be viable
  • Pressure Gradients
    Using ambient pressure variations
    On a given day, for a change of .2 inches Hg, density on the order of nW/cm3
    Manipulating temperature
    Using 1 cm3 of helium, assuming 10˚C and ideal gas behavior, ~ µW/cm3
    No active research on pressure gradient manipulation
  • Micro Heat Engines
    MEMS scale parts for small scale engine
    1 cm3 volume
    13.9 W
    Poor transient properties
    Micro size heat engine
    ICE’s, thermoelectrics, thermoionics, thermo photo voltaics via controlled combustion
    Meant for microscale applications with high power needs
  • Solar PV Arrays
    Solar Photo Voltaic (solar PV) is the direct conversion of solar energy into electricity
    They are formed using semi-conductor materials like Si
    Light energy bounces the electrons away from their atoms
    † flow of electrons
    † current
  • Temperature Gradients
    Exploit gradients due to waste heat / ambient temp
    Maximum power = Carnot efficiency
    10˚C differential =
    (308K –298K) /308 = 3.2%
    Through silicon this can be up to 110 mW/cm2
    Methods
    Thermoelectric (Seebeck effect) ~ 40µW/cm2 @ 10˚C
    Piezo thermo engine ~ 1 mW/mm2 (theoretical)
    Piezo thermo engine
  • Human Power
    Burning 10.5 MJ a day
    Average power dissipation of 121 W
    Areas of Exploitation
    Foot
    Using energy absorbed by shoe when stepping
    330 µW/cm2 obtained through MIT study
    Skin
    Temperature gradients, up to 15˚C
    Blood
    Panasonic, Japan demonstrated electrochemically converting glucose
  • Autonomous nodes can only become reality when research on ultra-low-power electronics and micro-power generators join forces
    Thermal energy scavengers that use Seebeck effect to transform the temperature difference between the environment and the human body into electricity
    Generators are mounted on a bracelet - 150μW
    Bismuth telluride thermoelectric block, consisting of about 3000 thermocouples
    Flexible wireless sensor moduleattached to this bracelet and powered by the thermoelectric generator
  • Air Flow
    Power output/ efficiencies vary with velocity and motors
    Applications exist where average air flow may be on the order of 5 m/s
    At 100% efficiency ~1 mW
    MEMS turbines may be viable
  • Pressure Gradients
    Using ambient pressure variations
    On a given day, for a change of .2 inches Hg, density on the order of nW/cm3
    Manipulating temperature
    Using 1 cm3 of helium, assuming 10˚C and ideal gas behavior, ~ µW/cm3
    No active research on pressure gradient manipulation
  • Energy Reservoirs/Power Generation
    Batteries
    Fuel Cells
    Capacitors
    Heat Engines
    Radioactive Sources
  • Batteries
    Macro Batteries - too big
    Zinc air (3500 J/cm3), Alkaline (1800 J/cm3),
    Lithium (1000 - 2880 J/cm3)
    Micro Batteries - on the way
    Lithium
    (i) Thin film Li (1-D micro scale, 2-D macro scale )
    (ii) 3-D Lithium Ion (in initial stages)
    Ni/ NaOH /Zn
  • MEMS Fuel Cell
    Current Generation
    Toshiba 1 cm3 hydrogen reactor
    Produces 1watt
    Next Generation
    Planar Arrays
    Fraunhofer - 100 mW/cm2
    Stanford - > 40 mW/cm2 (more room for improvement)
    Fraunhofer
    Stanford University
  • Capacitors
    Capacitors
    Energy density too low to be a real secondary storage component
    Ultra capacitors
    Energy density on order of 75 J/cm3
    Work being done to shrink them
  • Micro Heat Engines
    MEMS scale parts for small scale engine
    1 cm3 volume
    13.9 W
    Poor transient properties
    Micro size heat engine
    ICE’s, thermoelectrics, thermoionics, thermo photo voltaics via controlled combustion
    Meant for microscale applications with high power needs
  • Radioactive Approaches!!
    High theoretical energy density
    Power density inversely proportional to half life
    Demonstrated power on the order of nanowatts
    Environmental concerns
  • CONCLUSION
    Produce high quality competitive R&D
    Micropower: The Next Electrical Era
    Emergency Micro-Power Systems
    Squeezed every wasted kilowatt-hour or leaking calorie of heat out of our homes and businesses
  • REFERENCES
    terrain.org
    powerconnect.com
    micropower-connect.org
    the-infoshop.com
  • THANK YOU