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MICROPOWER<br />SYSTEMS<br />By:<br />________<br />___________________<br />_____________________________________________...
Topics<br />Driving forces for micro power systems<br />Energy scavenging/ collecting systems<br />Energy reservoir/ power...
What is Micro Power??<br />Generation of small amounts of electricity from sources close to where it&apos;s used. <br />El...
Why Micro Power Now??<br />
Why Micro Power ??<br />renewable, on the site energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions <br />plan not to replace the ...
Energy Scavenging Areas<br />       1.Solar/Ambient Light<br />		 2.Temperature Gradients<br />		 3.Human Power<br />		 4....
Solar and Ambient Light<br /><ul><li>Sources</li></ul>Noon on a sunny day - 100 mW/cm2<br />Office Lights: 7.2 mW/cm2<br /...
Solar PV Arrays<br />Solar Photo Voltaic (solar PV) is the direct conversion of solar energy into electricity <br />They a...
Solar PV Arrays<br />Solar Photo Voltaic (solar PV) is the direct conversion of solar energy into electricity <br />They a...
Temperature Gradients<br />Exploit gradients due to waste heat / ambient temp <br />Maximum power = Carnot efficiency<br /...
Autonomous nodes can only become reality when research on ultra-low-power electronics and micro-power generators join forc...
Air Flow<br />Power output/ efficiencies vary with velocity and motors<br />Applications exist where average air flow may ...
Pressure Gradients<br />Using ambient pressure variations<br />On a given day, for a change of .2 inches Hg, density on th...
Micro Heat Engines<br />MEMS scale parts for small scale engine<br />1 cm3 volume<br />13.9 W<br />Poor transient properti...
Solar PV Arrays<br />Solar Photo Voltaic (solar PV) is the direct conversion of solar energy into electricity <br />They a...
Temperature Gradients<br />Exploit gradients due to waste heat / ambient temp <br />Maximum power = Carnot efficiency<br /...
Human Power<br />Burning 10.5 MJ a day<br />Average power dissipation of 121 W<br />Areas of Exploitation<br />Foot<br />U...
Autonomous nodes can only become reality when research on ultra-low-power electronics and micro-power generators join forc...
Air Flow<br />Power output/ efficiencies vary with velocity and motors<br />Applications exist where average air flow may ...
Pressure Gradients<br />Using ambient pressure variations<br />On a given day, for a change of .2 inches Hg, density on th...
Energy Reservoirs/Power Generation<br />   Batteries<br />	Fuel Cells<br />	Capacitors<br />	Heat Engines<br />	Radioactiv...
Batteries<br />Macro Batteries - too big<br />Zinc air (3500 J/cm3), Alkaline (1800 J/cm3),<br />		Lithium (1000 - 2880 J/...
MEMS Fuel Cell<br />Current Generation<br />Toshiba 1 cm3 hydrogen reactor<br />Produces 1watt<br />Next Generation<br />P...
Capacitors<br />Capacitors<br />Energy density too low to be a real secondary storage component<br />Ultra capacitors<br /...
Micro Heat Engines<br />MEMS scale parts for small scale engine<br />1 cm3 volume<br />13.9 W<br />Poor transient properti...
Radioactive Approaches!!<br />High theoretical energy density<br />Power density inversely proportional to half life<br />...
CONCLUSION<br />Produce high quality competitive R&D<br />Micropower: The Next Electrical Era <br />Emergency Micro-Power ...
REFERENCES<br />terrain.org<br />powerconnect.com<br />micropower-connect.org<br />the-infoshop.com<br />
THANK YOU<br />
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Micro Power Stations

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Transcript of "Micro Power Stations"

  1. 1. MICROPOWER<br />SYSTEMS<br />By:<br />________<br />___________________<br />__________________________________________________________________<br />_______________<br />
  2. 2. Topics<br />Driving forces for micro power systems<br />Energy scavenging/ collecting systems<br />Energy reservoir/ power generation systems<br />
  3. 3. What is Micro Power??<br />Generation of small amounts of electricity from sources close to where it&apos;s used. <br />Eliminates the need for both excess production by the traditional generating stations powered by coal, oil or nuclear power, and transmission grids to deliver that power. <br />
  4. 4. Why Micro Power Now??<br />
  5. 5. Why Micro Power ??<br />renewable, on the site energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions <br />plan not to replace the traditional electrical grid<br /> providing reliable service in remote communities <br />waste energy scavenger concepts<br />
  6. 6. Energy Scavenging Areas<br /> 1.Solar/Ambient Light<br /> 2.Temperature Gradients<br /> 3.Human Power<br /> 4.Air Flow<br /> 5.Pressure Gradients<br /> 6.Vibrations<br />
  7. 7. Solar and Ambient Light<br /><ul><li>Sources</li></ul>Noon on a sunny day - 100 mW/cm2<br />Office Lights: 7.2 mW/cm2<br /><ul><li>Collectors</li></ul>SC Silicon<br /><ul><li>15% - 30% efficient</li></ul>Poly-Silicon <br /><ul><li>10% - 15% efficient</li></ul>Photoelectric Dyes<br /><ul><li>5% to 10% efficient</li></ul>Solar Powered Pico Radio Node<br />
  8. 8. Solar PV Arrays<br />Solar Photo Voltaic (solar PV) is the direct conversion of solar energy into electricity <br />They are formed using semi-conductor materials like Si<br />Light energy bounces the electrons away from their atoms<br /> † flow of electrons<br /> † current<br />
  9. 9. Solar PV Arrays<br />Solar Photo Voltaic (solar PV) is the direct conversion of solar energy into electricity <br />They are formed using semi-conductor materials like Si<br />Light energy bounces the electrons away from their atoms<br /> † flow of electrons<br /> † current<br />
  10. 10. Temperature Gradients<br />Exploit gradients due to waste heat / ambient temp <br />Maximum power = Carnot efficiency<br />10˚C differential =<br /> (308K –298K) /308 = 3.2%<br />Through silicon this can be up to 110 mW/cm2<br />Methods<br />Thermoelectric (Seebeck effect) ~ 40µW/cm2 @ 10˚C<br />Piezo thermo engine ~ 1 mW/mm2 (theoretical)<br />Piezo thermo engine<br />
  11. 11. Autonomous nodes can only become reality when research on ultra-low-power electronics and micro-power generators join forces<br />Thermal energy scavengers that use Seebeck effect to transform the temperature difference between the environment and the human body into electricity<br />Generators are mounted on a bracelet - 150μW <br />Bismuth telluride thermoelectric block, consisting of about 3000 thermocouples<br />Flexible wireless sensor moduleattached to this bracelet and powered by the thermoelectric generator <br />
  12. 12. Air Flow<br />Power output/ efficiencies vary with velocity and motors<br />Applications exist where average air flow may be on the order of 5 m/s<br />At 100% efficiency ~1 mW<br />MEMS turbines may be viable<br />
  13. 13. Pressure Gradients<br />Using ambient pressure variations<br />On a given day, for a change of .2 inches Hg, density on the order of nW/cm3<br />Manipulating temperature<br />Using 1 cm3 of helium, assuming 10˚C and ideal gas behavior, ~ µW/cm3<br />No active research on pressure gradient manipulation<br />
  14. 14. Micro Heat Engines<br />MEMS scale parts for small scale engine<br />1 cm3 volume<br />13.9 W<br />Poor transient properties<br />Micro size heat engine<br />ICE’s, thermoelectrics, thermoionics, thermo photo voltaics via controlled combustion<br />Meant for microscale applications with high power needs<br />
  15. 15. Solar PV Arrays<br />Solar Photo Voltaic (solar PV) is the direct conversion of solar energy into electricity <br />They are formed using semi-conductor materials like Si<br />Light energy bounces the electrons away from their atoms<br /> † flow of electrons<br /> † current<br />
  16. 16. Temperature Gradients<br />Exploit gradients due to waste heat / ambient temp <br />Maximum power = Carnot efficiency<br />10˚C differential =<br /> (308K –298K) /308 = 3.2%<br />Through silicon this can be up to 110 mW/cm2<br />Methods<br />Thermoelectric (Seebeck effect) ~ 40µW/cm2 @ 10˚C<br />Piezo thermo engine ~ 1 mW/mm2 (theoretical)<br />Piezo thermo engine<br />
  17. 17. Human Power<br />Burning 10.5 MJ a day<br />Average power dissipation of 121 W<br />Areas of Exploitation<br />Foot<br />Using energy absorbed by shoe when stepping<br />330 µW/cm2 obtained through MIT study<br />Skin<br />Temperature gradients, up to 15˚C<br />Blood<br />Panasonic, Japan demonstrated electrochemically converting glucose<br />
  18. 18. Autonomous nodes can only become reality when research on ultra-low-power electronics and micro-power generators join forces<br />Thermal energy scavengers that use Seebeck effect to transform the temperature difference between the environment and the human body into electricity<br />Generators are mounted on a bracelet - 150μW <br />Bismuth telluride thermoelectric block, consisting of about 3000 thermocouples<br />Flexible wireless sensor moduleattached to this bracelet and powered by the thermoelectric generator <br />
  19. 19. Air Flow<br />Power output/ efficiencies vary with velocity and motors<br />Applications exist where average air flow may be on the order of 5 m/s<br />At 100% efficiency ~1 mW<br />MEMS turbines may be viable<br />
  20. 20. Pressure Gradients<br />Using ambient pressure variations<br />On a given day, for a change of .2 inches Hg, density on the order of nW/cm3<br />Manipulating temperature<br />Using 1 cm3 of helium, assuming 10˚C and ideal gas behavior, ~ µW/cm3<br />No active research on pressure gradient manipulation<br />
  21. 21. Energy Reservoirs/Power Generation<br /> Batteries<br /> Fuel Cells<br /> Capacitors<br /> Heat Engines<br /> Radioactive Sources<br />
  22. 22. Batteries<br />Macro Batteries - too big<br />Zinc air (3500 J/cm3), Alkaline (1800 J/cm3),<br /> Lithium (1000 - 2880 J/cm3)<br />Micro Batteries - on the way<br />Lithium<br /> (i) Thin film Li (1-D micro scale, 2-D macro scale )<br /> (ii) 3-D Lithium Ion (in initial stages)<br />Ni/ NaOH /Zn<br />
  23. 23. MEMS Fuel Cell<br />Current Generation<br />Toshiba 1 cm3 hydrogen reactor<br />Produces 1watt<br />Next Generation<br />Planar Arrays<br />Fraunhofer - 100 mW/cm2<br />Stanford - &gt; 40 mW/cm2 (more room for improvement)<br />Fraunhofer<br />Stanford University<br />
  24. 24. Capacitors<br />Capacitors<br />Energy density too low to be a real secondary storage component<br />Ultra capacitors<br />Energy density on order of 75 J/cm3<br />Work being done to shrink them<br />
  25. 25. Micro Heat Engines<br />MEMS scale parts for small scale engine<br />1 cm3 volume<br />13.9 W<br />Poor transient properties<br />Micro size heat engine<br />ICE’s, thermoelectrics, thermoionics, thermo photo voltaics via controlled combustion<br />Meant for microscale applications with high power needs<br />
  26. 26. Radioactive Approaches!!<br />High theoretical energy density<br />Power density inversely proportional to half life<br />Demonstrated power on the order of nanowatts<br />Environmental concerns<br />
  27. 27. CONCLUSION<br />Produce high quality competitive R&D<br />Micropower: The Next Electrical Era <br />Emergency Micro-Power Systems<br />Squeezed every wasted kilowatt-hour or leaking calorie of heat out of our homes and businesses<br />
  28. 28. REFERENCES<br />terrain.org<br />powerconnect.com<br />micropower-connect.org<br />the-infoshop.com<br />
  29. 29. THANK YOU<br />
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