Micro Power Stations
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Micro Power Stations

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    Micro Power Stations Micro Power Stations Presentation Transcript

    • MICROPOWER
      SYSTEMS
      By:
      ________
      ___________________
      __________________________________________________________________
      _______________
    • Topics
      Driving forces for micro power systems
      Energy scavenging/ collecting systems
      Energy reservoir/ power generation systems
    • What is Micro Power??
      Generation of small amounts of electricity from sources close to where it's used.
      Eliminates the need for both excess production by the traditional generating stations powered by coal, oil or nuclear power, and transmission grids to deliver that power.
    • Why Micro Power Now??
    • Why Micro Power ??
      renewable, on the site energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions
      plan not to replace the traditional electrical grid
      providing reliable service in remote communities
      waste energy scavenger concepts
    • Energy Scavenging Areas
      1.Solar/Ambient Light
      2.Temperature Gradients
      3.Human Power
      4.Air Flow
      5.Pressure Gradients
      6.Vibrations
    • Solar and Ambient Light
      • Sources
      Noon on a sunny day - 100 mW/cm2
      Office Lights: 7.2 mW/cm2
      • Collectors
      SC Silicon
      • 15% - 30% efficient
      Poly-Silicon
      • 10% - 15% efficient
      Photoelectric Dyes
      • 5% to 10% efficient
      Solar Powered Pico Radio Node
    • Solar PV Arrays
      Solar Photo Voltaic (solar PV) is the direct conversion of solar energy into electricity
      They are formed using semi-conductor materials like Si
      Light energy bounces the electrons away from their atoms
      † flow of electrons
      † current
    • Solar PV Arrays
      Solar Photo Voltaic (solar PV) is the direct conversion of solar energy into electricity
      They are formed using semi-conductor materials like Si
      Light energy bounces the electrons away from their atoms
      † flow of electrons
      † current
    • Temperature Gradients
      Exploit gradients due to waste heat / ambient temp
      Maximum power = Carnot efficiency
      10˚C differential =
      (308K –298K) /308 = 3.2%
      Through silicon this can be up to 110 mW/cm2
      Methods
      Thermoelectric (Seebeck effect) ~ 40µW/cm2 @ 10˚C
      Piezo thermo engine ~ 1 mW/mm2 (theoretical)
      Piezo thermo engine
    • Autonomous nodes can only become reality when research on ultra-low-power electronics and micro-power generators join forces
      Thermal energy scavengers that use Seebeck effect to transform the temperature difference between the environment and the human body into electricity
      Generators are mounted on a bracelet - 150μW
      Bismuth telluride thermoelectric block, consisting of about 3000 thermocouples
      Flexible wireless sensor moduleattached to this bracelet and powered by the thermoelectric generator
    • Air Flow
      Power output/ efficiencies vary with velocity and motors
      Applications exist where average air flow may be on the order of 5 m/s
      At 100% efficiency ~1 mW
      MEMS turbines may be viable
    • Pressure Gradients
      Using ambient pressure variations
      On a given day, for a change of .2 inches Hg, density on the order of nW/cm3
      Manipulating temperature
      Using 1 cm3 of helium, assuming 10˚C and ideal gas behavior, ~ µW/cm3
      No active research on pressure gradient manipulation
    • Micro Heat Engines
      MEMS scale parts for small scale engine
      1 cm3 volume
      13.9 W
      Poor transient properties
      Micro size heat engine
      ICE’s, thermoelectrics, thermoionics, thermo photo voltaics via controlled combustion
      Meant for microscale applications with high power needs
    • Solar PV Arrays
      Solar Photo Voltaic (solar PV) is the direct conversion of solar energy into electricity
      They are formed using semi-conductor materials like Si
      Light energy bounces the electrons away from their atoms
      † flow of electrons
      † current
    • Temperature Gradients
      Exploit gradients due to waste heat / ambient temp
      Maximum power = Carnot efficiency
      10˚C differential =
      (308K –298K) /308 = 3.2%
      Through silicon this can be up to 110 mW/cm2
      Methods
      Thermoelectric (Seebeck effect) ~ 40µW/cm2 @ 10˚C
      Piezo thermo engine ~ 1 mW/mm2 (theoretical)
      Piezo thermo engine
    • Human Power
      Burning 10.5 MJ a day
      Average power dissipation of 121 W
      Areas of Exploitation
      Foot
      Using energy absorbed by shoe when stepping
      330 µW/cm2 obtained through MIT study
      Skin
      Temperature gradients, up to 15˚C
      Blood
      Panasonic, Japan demonstrated electrochemically converting glucose
    • Autonomous nodes can only become reality when research on ultra-low-power electronics and micro-power generators join forces
      Thermal energy scavengers that use Seebeck effect to transform the temperature difference between the environment and the human body into electricity
      Generators are mounted on a bracelet - 150μW
      Bismuth telluride thermoelectric block, consisting of about 3000 thermocouples
      Flexible wireless sensor moduleattached to this bracelet and powered by the thermoelectric generator
    • Air Flow
      Power output/ efficiencies vary with velocity and motors
      Applications exist where average air flow may be on the order of 5 m/s
      At 100% efficiency ~1 mW
      MEMS turbines may be viable
    • Pressure Gradients
      Using ambient pressure variations
      On a given day, for a change of .2 inches Hg, density on the order of nW/cm3
      Manipulating temperature
      Using 1 cm3 of helium, assuming 10˚C and ideal gas behavior, ~ µW/cm3
      No active research on pressure gradient manipulation
    • Energy Reservoirs/Power Generation
      Batteries
      Fuel Cells
      Capacitors
      Heat Engines
      Radioactive Sources
    • Batteries
      Macro Batteries - too big
      Zinc air (3500 J/cm3), Alkaline (1800 J/cm3),
      Lithium (1000 - 2880 J/cm3)
      Micro Batteries - on the way
      Lithium
      (i) Thin film Li (1-D micro scale, 2-D macro scale )
      (ii) 3-D Lithium Ion (in initial stages)
      Ni/ NaOH /Zn
    • MEMS Fuel Cell
      Current Generation
      Toshiba 1 cm3 hydrogen reactor
      Produces 1watt
      Next Generation
      Planar Arrays
      Fraunhofer - 100 mW/cm2
      Stanford - > 40 mW/cm2 (more room for improvement)
      Fraunhofer
      Stanford University
    • Capacitors
      Capacitors
      Energy density too low to be a real secondary storage component
      Ultra capacitors
      Energy density on order of 75 J/cm3
      Work being done to shrink them
    • Micro Heat Engines
      MEMS scale parts for small scale engine
      1 cm3 volume
      13.9 W
      Poor transient properties
      Micro size heat engine
      ICE’s, thermoelectrics, thermoionics, thermo photo voltaics via controlled combustion
      Meant for microscale applications with high power needs
    • Radioactive Approaches!!
      High theoretical energy density
      Power density inversely proportional to half life
      Demonstrated power on the order of nanowatts
      Environmental concerns
    • CONCLUSION
      Produce high quality competitive R&D
      Micropower: The Next Electrical Era
      Emergency Micro-Power Systems
      Squeezed every wasted kilowatt-hour or leaking calorie of heat out of our homes and businesses
    • REFERENCES
      terrain.org
      powerconnect.com
      micropower-connect.org
      the-infoshop.com
    • THANK YOU