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Cdma Vs Gsm1
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  • 1. CDMA vs. GSM Presented by _________
  • 2. INTRODUCTION
    • The world's first cellular networks introduced in the early 1990s, used analog2 radio transmission technologies. Within a few years, millions of subscribers signed up for service provided by the cellular networks, and demanded more and more airtime. As a result, dropped calls and network busy signals became common in many areas
    • During the early 1980s, analog cellular telephone systems were experiencing rapid growth in Europe Each country developed its own system, which was incompatible with everyone else's in equipment and operation.
    • So in 1982 the Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs (CEPT) formed a study group called the Group Spécial Mobile (GSM) to study and develop a pan-European public land mobile system.
  • 3.
    • Within a few years, millions of subscribers signed up for service provided by the cellular networks, and demanded more and more airtime. As a result, dropped calls and network busy signals became common in many areas.
    • To accommodate more calls within the limited amount of radio spectrum4 available, the industry developed a digital5 wireless technology called GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication). Today, most of the cellular phones in the world, outside the U.S., use GSM technology.
  • 4.
    • But just as GSM was being standardized, an even better solution for mobile communication6 was found in another technology called CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access). CDMA, a digital wireless technology, was pioneered and commercially developed by Qualcomm.7
  • 5. Types Of Radio Mobile Communication
    •  Analog
    • e.g.- AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone system) which used FM and FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)
    • techniques.
    •  Digital
    • It uses CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) and TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) techniques.
    •  Digital radio mobile communication uses principally micro wave frequencies above 800MHz for the transmission and reception process.the method chosen is a combination of
    • 1>FDMA 2>TDMA 3> CDMA
  • 6.
    • FDMA
    • The ITU (International Telecommunication Union) which manages the international allocation of radio spectrum allocated the bands 890-915MHz for the uplink (mobile station to base station )and 935-960Mhz for the down link(base station to mobile station )for mobile networks.
    • The transmission and reception frequency should be different by about 5% of the nominal RF to provide isolation
    • The FDMA involves the division by frequency of the 25MHz BW(915-890)into 124 carrier frequencies spaced 200KHz apart. One or more carrier frequencies are assigned to each Base station
  • 7.
    • TDMA
    • Each of the carrier frequencies obtained using FDMA technique is then divided in time using a TDMA scheme
    •  The fundamental unit of time in this scheme is called Burst period and it lasts for 15/26msec (0.577msec)
    •  8 Burst periods =1TDMA frame (120/26msec)which forms the basic unit for a logical channel .
  • 8. Org. of Bursts ,TDMA Frames for Speech & Data
  • 9.
    • CDMA
    • The CDMA carriers require proprietary a handsets that are linked to one carrier only and are not card enabled .To upgrade a CDMA phone the carrier must deactivate the old phone then activate the new one. Thus rendering the old phone useless Depending on the protocol each call on a CDMA system is linked with a predefined code as per the protocols. this unique code is spread over the available frequencies
  • 10. ARCHITECTURE of a cellular network
    • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
    • PSTN (Public switched Telephone Network)
  • 11.
    • How a telephone call proceeds?
    • When we make a call the MSC dispatches the request to all the base stations . The MIN is the broadcasted as a paging message throughout the cellular system .the ,mobile receives the paging message and sends back an acknowledgement which is directed to the MSC which instructs the BS to move the call to an unused voice channel within the CELL .
    • the base station now signals the mobile to change frequencies to an unused FVC and RVC and a data message called ALERT is transmitted to instruct the mobile phone to ring.
  • 12.
    • Advantages & Disadvantages
    •  Advantages of CDMA include:
    • Increased cellular communications security.
    • Simultaneous conversations.
    • Increased efficiency, meaning that the carrier can serve more subscribers.
    • Smaller phones.
    • Low power requirements and little cell-to-cell coordination needed by operators.
    • Extended reach - beneficial to rural users situated far from cells.
    •  Disadvantages of CDMA include:
    • Due to its proprietary nature, all of CDMA's flaws are not known to the engineering community.
    • CDMA is relatively new, and the network is not as mature as GSM.
    • CDMA cannot offer international roaming, a large GSM advantage.
  • 13.
    •  Advantages of GSM:
    • GSM is already used worldwide with over 450 million subscribers.
    • International roaming permits subscribers to use one phone throughout Western Europe. CDMA will work in Asia, but not France, Germany, the U.K. and other popular European destinations.
    • GSM is mature, having started in the mid-80s. This maturity means a more stable network with robust features. CDMA is still building its network.
    • GSM's maturity means engineers cut their teeth on the technology, creating an unconscious preference.
    • The availability of Subscriber Identity Modules, which are smart cards that provide secure data encryption give GSM m-commerce advantages. 
    • In brief, GSM is a "more elegant way to upgrade to 3G," says Strategis Group senior wireless analyst Adam Guy.
    •    Disadvantages of GSM:
    • Lack of access to burgeoning American market.
  • 14. CONCLUSION
    • Today, the battle between CDMA and GSM is muddled. Where at one point Europe clearly favored GSM and North America, CDMA, the distinct advantage of one over the other has blurred as major carriers like AT&T Wireless begin to support GSM, and recent trials even showed compatibility between the two technologies.
    • GSM still holds the upper hand however. There's the numerical advantage for one thing: 1Billion GSM users versus CDMA's 270million.
  • 15.
    • Thank You