Allegory A story that acts as a metaphor where characters, events and location occur on a literal level, but represent something different on a symbolic level.
Example: Take two minutes and turn to a partner and discuss why Animal Farm is an allegory. Give proof and write it in your notes.
Archetype The model or pattern that represents the essence of a universally recognizable character.
Example I have a peg-leg, a patch over one eye and a parrot on my shoulder. I love long walks on the beach to find treasure, and won’t hesitate to hang you from the yard-arm. My favorite saying is “Shimmer me Timbers” and I have a tattoo of a skull and crossbones on my right forearm. What Am I?
You have one minute to list as many archetypal characteristics of a cowboy as you can. You have one minute to list as many archetypal characteristics of a “thug” as you can. You have one minute to list as many archetypal characteristics of a Priest as you can.
EPIC A poem or story which uses formal language, features superheroes performing heroic deeds, and encompasses a wide geographic area.
You have two minutes to turn to a neighbor and brainstorm the epic characteristics of The Odyssey Please write them in your notes
Hubris Excessive arrogance and overconfidence that often results in a character’s destruction.
In the epic The Odyssey , Odysseus’ hubris causes him to do foolish things, such as taunt the Cyclops as he and his men escape to safety.
You have 3 minutes to think of a movie and identify a character who possesses hubris. In your notes, name the movie and list at least three things the character did to demonstrate hubris
Pulls a gun in a bowling alley
Always tells Donny to shut the %$#@ up
Brags about ‘Nam
Metonymy A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated, but not actually a part of.
According to the White house, unemployment is going down. In this sentence, “White House” is referring to the president.
Complete these metonyms You’re going to get in trouble with the cops. Cops = law The pen is mightier than the sword. pen = _________? “ By the sweat of thy brow thy shall eat thy bread.” sweat = _________? “ Hey holmes, don’t get up in my grill”! Grill = __________?
Diction The author’s choice of specific words to communicate effectively to his/her reader.
Change the diction to better represent the tone being expressed. Please write these in your notes.
A hardened criminal saying the words “Police Officer”:
Fuzz (circa 1970)
A hippie expressing feelings of joy.
A soldier’s word for “kill”
Hyperbole Over-exaggeration for dramatic effect
When I was fifteen, I told a girl on the phone whom I hadn’t yet met that I was 5’8” tall. When we finally met, she looked at me and sneered, “There’s no way in hell you’re five feet eight!”
Take two minutes to turn to your neighbor and exchange stories about a time when you “hyperbolized” and got in trouble for it. Summarize both stories in your notes.
Foil A character in a story whose primary purpose is to contrast characteristics with another, more major character.
Batman Confident, wise, experienced, tall Robin Unsure, hesitant, inexperienced, short
Take three minutes and brainstorm with a neighbor about a film or story that has foil characters. Name both characters, and list at least three characteristics of each one.
The Big Lebowski Donny Walter Quiet, unsure, needy, empathetic Obnoxious, overconfident, brash, self-centered