What clubs and groups do youidentify with?• The curious case of Mr Ryan.• I am a teacher.• I am an Historian.• I am a psychology student.• I am a Catholic.• I am an Esperantist.• I am Irish.• I am Male.• I am a Barbadian Resident.• I am a Codrington Employee.• I am a European.My membership ofthese groups meansthat I value thesegroups and woulddefend these groups ifthey were to becriticized.
Social Identity Theory says…• According to Social Identity Theory,• We all belong to social groups and asmembers we often compare the groupsstatus and power in relation to othergroups.• Manchester United supporters love remindingLiverpool supporters that they have a highersuccess rate in the English Premier League.• Northern Irish Catholics in North Belfast protestthat Orange Order Parades keep marching inproximity to their residential areas.• African Americans in the USA celebrate theelection of the first African American President.
• Social Identity not only describes what one believes but itprescribes what its members should believe?• What believes do you think the following groups prescribe?• The Codrington School,• The Barbados Labour Party,• The Chelsea Supporters Club,• The University of Yale,• The French,• The National Rifle Association.
As social group members.• We subscribe to the believes of the social group.• We favour our own group.• We take an interest in advancing our own group.• We identify with differences between our group and othergroups.
The Goals of the group.• According to Tajfel and Turner (1979)• The Individual in a social groups operates in the goal of enhancement.This is based on the esteem of the group.• There are 2belief systems to achieve enhancement. One is connected to 2additional beliefs.• 1. Social mobility belief system• Belief that intergroup boundaries are permeable. Thus, it is possible for someone to pass from a lower-status into a higher-status group to improve social identity.• 2.Social change belief system• Belief that intergroup boundaries are impermeable. Therefore, a lower-status individual can improvesocial identity only by challenging the legitimacy of the higher-status groups position.• Cognitive alternatives• Belief that the status quo is unstable and illegitimate, and that social competition with the dominantgroup is the appropriate strategy, to improve social identity.• Social creativity• Group-based behavioral strategies that improve social identity. but do not directly attack the dominantgroups position.
How do individuals AchieveEnhancement?
Can you explain the following actionsusing Social Identity Theory?• 1. ETA, a militant Basque organisation plants a bomb in Madridbecause they favour Basque independence from Spain.• 2. Mr Ryan, moved away from Northern Ireland because he was fedup with the Catholic and Protestant rivalry.• 3. Moldova wants to join Romania and become one country, andpeople in Romania generally are wealthier than Moldavians.4. In areas of poverty in Wales, people have become more patrioticand are learning Welsh and favoring cultural differentiation fromEngland.5. In 1960s USA and South Africa, the ‘Black is beautiful’ movementencouraging people of African descent to adopt African hairstylesand fashions.• 6. People in Quebec, send letters of ‘Solidarity’ to people inPalestine because they both perceive themselves to be unfree.
In the crowd???• 1. The individual does not lose an identity, but adopts an identitywith the social group.• 2. Depending on the meeting, the social group behave according tothe general rules of the group.• 3. The relationship between groups creates the base of how thegroups will interact. For example, Manchester United Fans at ameeting with Liverpool fans automatically carries the assumption of‘rivalry’- Where as two Christian groups are less likely to riot because bothgroup rules against rioting, this does not apply to football fans.• 4. The esteem of the group and the general beliefs of the groupregarding how to enhance the group play a role in guiding behaviour.
Exam Question:• Compare and contrast the theories of Deindividuation andSocial Identity Theory to explain anti-social behaviour withincrowds.