Website functions: general
Multimedia Entertain Technical specs of the products
Website Sell e-commerce
main Functions Reserved areas under login
Link to social network Discuss search bar
Forum FAQ/ help
geo info / shop locator
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Webisite: the elements
Website core elements
Mood Tone of voice
Languages & editions
Goal and priorities
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Lettering Key element
An example of classiﬁcation
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Definition of IxD
Interaction Design (IxD) deﬁnes the
structure and behavior of interactive
systems. Interaction Designers strive to
create meaningful relationships
between people and the products and
services that they use, from computers to
mobile devices to appliances and
beyond. Our practices are evolving with
the world; join the conversation
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Interaction on a website: Content
1. Articles -
a. There is no doubt that free reprint articles are the best way to populate websites. You can maximize the
beneﬁts of articles by writing them yourself or by offering a small fee to writers for customized versions of
their popular articles.
2. Quotes -
a. An interesting set of quotes on topic will help motivate and inspire visitors. Add and delete quotes
regularly to keep your site fresh. Find quotes at http://www.annabelle.net/ and http://
3. Puzzles -
a. People love games and puzzles. Appeal to the child that exists inside all of your visitors and they will
reward you with their time and attention. One place to get a new monthly puzzle is http://tinyurl.com/6spgk.
Consider investing a small sum to have a custom crossword puzzle developed for your site.
4. Forums -
a. Follow in the footsteps of successful websites by adding free forums to your site. Check out forum software
at http://www.yabbforum.com/ and www.phpbb.com Ask loyal visitors to serve as moderators for speciﬁc
http://www.rocketface.com/archive/sticky_sites_rule.html 5. Feedback/Guestbook -
a. Allow visitors to ask questions or comment on an issue raised by your site or your blog. Make this
information public (so long as it is in good taste) and searchable by visitors.
6. Reviews -
a. Unbiased reviews are universally popular. Add reviews of books, software, hardware, scripts, movies,
television shows, schools or spas to your site and visitors will return again and again.
7. Case Studies/Success Stories -
a. Everyone loves a success story. Interview your best customers and add their stories to your website to
bolster your credibility and satisfy your content needs. Be careful to make the success story interesting
and motivational rather than commercial.
8. Jokes -
a. A sense of humor is often lacking on the internet. Imagine how impressed you would be by an attorney
who has such a good sense of humor that he keeps all the best attorney jokes on his website. Follow in
the footsteps of that attorney and visitors will look forward to visiting your site.
9. Newsfeeds -
a. Does your site cover a topic that frequently generates breaking news? Add current news to your site via
feeds available at such websites as http://www.news4sites.com/services/index.php?t=sites and enjoy a
higher rate of return visits from your readers.
10. Resource Directories -
a. Instead of the usual reciprocal link campaign consider adding a resource directory to your site that
actually points your visitors to valuable sites that complement your own. List only the sites you choose and
do not incur search engine wrath by insisting upon reciprocal links. All links in the directory should open to
a new browser window.
11. Newsletter & Archives -
a. You don't have to recreate the wheel and attempt to create a huge list for your newsletter. Offer regular
updates by e-mail or blog to current and potential clients and include links to pertinent articles or
resources. Keep archives publicly accessible and search engines will visit often.
12. Blogs -
a. Why should you jump on the current trend of blogging? Search engines adore blogs and visit them often
because they tend to be updated frequently. You can use a blog to replace your e-mail newsletter and to
feature your product or service reviews and other bits of pertinent information that do not merit a special e-
mail to your customers.
13. Job Listings -
a. Consider adding fresh job listings to your site that ﬁt your topic. For instance, you could feature
telecommuting jobs if your site topic is "work at home." Make sure you have the permission of the
employer prior to posting their openings on your site.
14. Testimonials -
a. Request testimonials form current and past clients and sprinkle them throughout your website. Remove
outdated testimonials and add fresh ones on a regular basis. Give your clients live links (opening in a new
browser window) to their website within the testimonial.
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Tone of voice
OUR TONE OF VOICE
Tone of voice 07
It is your company personality and goals expressed in words
Our tone of voice is the way in which we write and speak,
what we say and how we say it. Like a person, what we say
is dictated by our principles, experiences and aspirations,
how we say it is informed by our personality. WA
TF OR CO
We’ve been through a rigorous process to deﬁne our
unique qualities. We’ve distilled these into a vision, big RA NGING GENER EN
TONE OF VOICE
idea, principles and personality for the University. Here we
ST CH ALLE O SI
explore in more detail how each of these elements affects
the language we use.
R AT CE
E TO MAKE A
tone_of_voice.pdf TO BE
THE TOP 50 IN THE
5TH IN THE UK.
OUR BIG IDEA
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Business requirements Functional requiremets
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Personas are ﬁctional characters created to represent the
different user types within a targeted demographic, attitude and/or
behaviour set that might use a site, brand or product in a similar way.
Personas are a tool or method of market segmentation. The term
persona is used widely in online and technology applications as well
as in advertising, where other terms such as pen portraits may also
Personas are useful in considering the goals, desires, and
limitations of brand buyers and users in order to help to guide
decisions about a service, product or interaction space such as
features, interactions, and visual design of a website. Personas are
most often used as part of a user-centered design process for
designing software and are also considered a part of interaction
design (IxD), have been used in industrial design and more recently
for online marketing purposes.
A user persona is a representation of the goals and behavior of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persona_(marketing) a real group of users. In most cases, personas are synthesized
from data collected from interviews with users. They are captured in
1–2 page descriptions that include behavior patterns, goals,
skills, attitudes, and environment, with a few ﬁctional personal
details to make the persona a realistic character. For each
product, more than one persona is usually created, but one persona
should always be the primary focus for the design.
As used in the design ﬁeld, the Persona is an artifact that consists of
a narrative relating to a desired user or customer's daily
behavior patterns, using speciﬁc details, not generalities. A very
popular artifact is the 'persona poster' that is usually presented in an
18 inch format with photo and text.
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Personas: what to define
Who they are
What they want
Action path Relation with the brand
Relation with the media
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Define Business requirements
There are a number of techniques that a Business Analyst will use
when facilitating business change. These range from workshop
facilitation techniques used to elicit requirements, to techniques for
analysing and organising requirements.
This is used to prioritise requirements by allocating an
appropriate priority, gauging it against the validity of the
requirement itself and its priority against other requirements.
1. Must have -
a. or else delivery will be a failure
2. Should have -
a. otherwise will have to adopt a workaround
3. Could have -
a. to increase delivery satisfaction
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_analysis 4. Would like to have in the future -
a. but won't have now
Example Of Business requirements
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In software engineering, a functional requirement deﬁnes a function of a
software system or its component. A function is described as a set of
inputs, the behavior, and output
Behavioral requirements describing all the cases where the system uses
the functional requirements are captured in use cases.
Functional requirements are supported by non-functional requirements
(also known as quality requirements), which impose constraints on the
design or implementation (such as performance requirements, security,
or reliability). How a system implements functional requirements is detailed
in the system design.
Esempio Functional requirements
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Use cases describe the system from the user's point of
Use cases describe the interaction between one or
more actors (an actor that is the initiator of the interaction
may be referred to as the 'primary actor') and the
system itself, represented as a sequence of simple steps.
Actors are something or someone which exists outside
the system ('black box') under study, and that take part in
a sequence of activities in a dialogue with the system to
achieve some goal. Actors may be end users, other
systems, or hardware devices. Each use case is a
complete series of events, described from the point of
view of the actor.
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Use case example
Use case template
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1. A wireframe is a visualization tool for presenting proposed functions,
structure and content of a Web page or Web site.
a. Unfortunately, the most common interpretation of this deﬁnition practiced in workplaces
leaves much to be desired:
2. A wireframe is a line drawing that dictates exactly what functionality and
content is located where on a Web page or Web site.
a. This interpretation drastically limits the potential of a web design. It sets a glass ceiling for
the visuals and copywriting, two supremely important aspects of great web design. It
promotes the notion that visual designers and copywriters needn't bother themselves with
size, location and functionality of the elements of a design and that their individual products
—the UI and the copy—don't play much of a role in shaping the ﬂow and interaction on a web
3. Functional Wireframes (see example following page and read article linked)
a. They democratize layout decisions, allowing the natural synthesis of a more uniﬁed ﬁnal
http://www.visitmix.com/Articles/The-Future- b. They encourage collaboration and allow designers (visual, IA, content, interaction, etc.) to
of-Wireframes arrive at a holistic vision.
c. They help manage client and stakeholder expectations by focusing the discussion on page-
level functionality during reviews.
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While interaction design deﬁnes behaviors, gestures, and responses, visual design brings those elements to life on the screen.
a. The sum is greater than the parts. We all know this, but how often do we look at the parts of a design
to make sure they are there to balance out the sum? Too often you ﬁnd designs where it seems on
element tries to take control of the design. Every design will have dominant elements to it, but they
are always balanced out nicely by smaller elements. This is where paying attention to detail really
i. Appleʼs website is a great example of this.
b. Another term that can be used with similar effect is proportion.Having a good proportion helps to
maintain the balance of the site
a. This is something that I have yet to master. Great design provides the eye with necessary variety.
Without contrast, good design becomes boring. It loses itʼs power. While balance and proportion are
used to maintain cohesiveness, contrast is used to maintain interest. Usually this applies to the
colors that are used on a site. When a site sticks with a singular color scheme, it causes the eye and
mind to lose focus.
principles-of-great-design/99/ a. I like the term economy because it reminds me of a budget. In any design we are limited by
something. It could be budget, space or materials. Economy takes into account that less is more and
ﬁnds the best way to work within the limitations that we are presented. How many great meals are
made (designed) with a minimal amount of ingredients?
a. This is another place where many designs fail. Designers have to remember that they are designing
to guide the eyes of the user to some goal. Going back to the Apple website, what if they had the
large image at the bottom of the page instead of the top? Wouldnʼt your eye be drawn to the bottom
initially instead of having it work its way down? This is why ads on sites bother me so much. They
arenʼt integrated in the design to help enhance direction. Instead, they seemed to be placed to
purposefully disrupt the direction of the design. You want your readers to read your content, but
instead they keep getting pulled to the blinking image on the right.
i. Great designs are like a map that gently guide the userʼs eye down a path.
a. White space. Sometimes I see a design that uses too much and other times I see one that uses too
little. I donʼt know what it is, but good designers just seem to have a good eye for spacing. Great
designers understand the importance of using a grid and within that grid they can ﬁnd the spacing
that is required to pull great effect from the design. The problem with white space is that many
people perceive it to be applicable only to minimal designs. Why wouldnʼt the spacing of elements
play just as an important role on a content-rich site than it does on a poster?
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Web identity manual
1. Web identity is whole set of rules which run the corporate
image on the web.
2. In detail they are:
a. the communication objectives (web site's mood, look and
b. the rules for the management of a logo, of institutional layout
and of the other elements of the coordinated image.
c. thechnical characteristics of the website or Intranet (page
size, compatible technologies and browsers, etc)
d. restraints to which an software developer must be bound to
in order to create a web site or section of it perfectly on line
with the style of a company and the institutional
Example of a style guide manual
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Lesson 4 : website
1. Other resopurces
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1. Deﬁne your personas
a. Should map also business & functional requirements
2. Design your website wireframes
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