Communication Systems
Utilizing Soft
Distances on
The Multicell
Multiuser MIMO
Uplink with Very
Large Antenna
Arrays and a
We consider multice...
Energy and
Efficiency of
Very Large
Multiuser MIMO
A multiplicity of autonomous terminals simultaneousl...
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IEEE 2013 projects,M.Tech 2013 Projects,Final year Engineering Projects,Best student Projects,MS Projects,BE Projects,2013 2014 IEEE Projectstlab communication


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IEEE 2013 projects,M.Tech 2013 Projects,Final year Engineering Projects,Best student Projects,MS Projects,BE Projects,2013 2014 IEEE Projectstlab communication

  1. 1. Communication Systems NO PRJ TITLE ABSTRACT DOMAIN YOP 1 Sum-Product Algorithm Utilizing Soft Distances on Additive Impulsive Noise Channels In this letter, a Sum-Product algorithm (SPA) utilizing soft distances is shown to be more resilient to impulsive noise than conventional likelihood-based SPAs, when the noise distribution is unknown. An efficient version of the soft distanceSPA is also developed but with half the storage requirements and running time. Transaction On Communicat ion Systems 2013 2 Downlink Optimization with Interference Pricing and Statistical CSI In this paper, we propose a downlink transmission strategy based on intercell interference pricing and a distributed algorithm that enables each base station (BS) to design locally its own beamforming vectors without relying on downlink channel state information of links from other BSs to the users. This algorithm is the solution to an ptimization problem that minimizes a linear combination of data transmission power and the resulting weighted intercell interference with pricing factors at each BS and maintains the required signal-to-interference-plusnoise ratios (SINR) at user terminals. We provide a convergence analysis for the proposed distributed algorithm and derive conditions for its existence. We characterize the impact of the pricing factors in expanding the operational range of SINR targets at user terminals in a power-efficient manner. Simulation results confirm that the proposed algorithm converges to a networkwide equilibrium point by balancing and stabilizing the intercell interference levels and assigning power optimal beamforming vectors to the BSs. The results also show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in closely following the performance limits of its centralized coordinated beamforming counterpart. Transaction On Communicat ion Systems 2013 3 Evaluation of the Low Error-Rate Performance of LDPC Codes over Rayleigh Fading Channels Using Importance Sampling In this paper we propose a novel importance sampling (IS) scheme to estimate the low error-rate performance of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over Rayleigh fading channels. The proposed scheme exploits the tructural weakness of LDPC codes due to trapping sets (TSs). The Rayleigh fading distribution on the bits belonging to a TS is biased by parameter scaling (PS), while the noise distribution on them is biased via mean translation (MT) according to their fading coefficients. The biases in PS and MT are determined so that the variance of the proposed IS estimator is minimized. The proposed IS scheme is compared with the Monte Carlo (MC) simulator and other IS schemes modified from the conventional IS scheme employed for performance estimation of LDPC codes over an AWGN channel. Numerical results show that it provides much more accurate performance than other IS schemes. Furthermore, the proposed IS estimator is even more efficient than the MC estimator and other IS estimators from the viewpoint of the number of requiredsimulation runs. Transaction On Communicat ion Systems 2013 4 Extended Reed- Solomon Codes for Optical CDMA In this paper, the extended Reed-Solomon codes are modified to construct a new family of 2-D codes for synchronous optical code-division multiple access (O-CDMA). In addition of having expanded and asymptotically optimal cardinality, these 2-D asynchronous optical codes can be partitioned into multiple tree structures of code subsets, in which code cardinality is a function of the (periodic) cross- correlation value assigned to the subset. The performance of these 2-D optical codes is analyzed and compared with that of the multilevel prime codes. Our results show that the unique partition property of the new optical codes supports a trade-off between code cardinality and performance for meeting different system requirements, such as user capacity and throughput. In addition, the multiple tree structures of the new codes potentially support applications that require rapid switching of many codewords, such as in O-CDMA-network gateway or in strategic environments where code obscurity is essential. Transaction On Communicat ion Systems 2013 #56, II Floor, Pushpagiri Complex, 17th Cross 8th Main, Opp Water Tank,Vijaynagar,Bangalore-560040. Website:, Email ID:, MOB: 9886173099 / 9986709224, PH : 080 -23208045 / 23207367 MATLAB – 2013 ((Image Processing, Wireless Sensor Network, Power Electronics, Signal Processing, Power System, Communication, Wireless communication, Geoscience & Remote sensing) )
  2. 2. 5 The Multicell Multiuser MIMO Uplink with Very Large Antenna Arrays and a Finite- Dimensional Channel We consider multicell multiuser MIMO systems with a very large number of antennas at the base station (BS).We assume that the channel is estimated by using uplink training. We further consider a physical channel model where the angular domain is separated into a finite number of distinct directions. We analyze the so-called pilot contamination effect discovered in previous work, and show that this effect persists under the finite-dimensional channel model that we consider. In particular, we consider a uniform array at the BS. For this scenario, we show that when the number of BS antennas goes to infinity, the system performance under a finite-dimensional channel model with P angular bins is the same as the performance under anuncorrelated channel model with P antennas. We urther derive a lower bound on the achievable rate of uplink data transmission with a linear detector at the BS. We then specialize this lower bound to the cases of maximum-ratio combining (MRC) and zero-forcing (ZF) receivers, for a finite and an infinite number of BS antennas. Numerical results corroborate our analysis and show a comparison between the performances of MRC and ZF in terms of sum-rate. Transaction On Communicat ion Systems 2013 5 A Study on Inter-Cell Subcarrier Collisions due to Random Access in OFDM-Based Cognitive Radio Networks In cognitive radio (CR) systems, one of the main implementation issues is spectrum sensing because of the uncertainties in propagation channel, hidden primary user (PU) problem, sensing duration and security issues. This paper considers an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)- based CR spectrum sharing system that assumes random access of primary network subcarriers by secondary users (SUs) and absence of the PU’s spectrum utilization information, i.e., no spectrum sensing is employed to acquire information about the PU’s activity or availability of free subcarriers. In the absence of information about the PU’s activity, the SUs randomly access (utilize) the subcarriers of the primary network and collide with the PU’s subcarriers with a certain probability. In addition, inter-cell collisions among the subcarriers of SUs (belonging to different cells) can occur due to the inherent nature of random access scheme. This paper conducts a stochastic analysis of the number of subcarrier collisions between the SUs’ and PU’s subcarriers assuming fixed and random number of subcarriers requirements for each ser. The performance of the random scheme in terms of capacity and capacity (rate) loss caused by the subcarrier collisions is investigated by assuming an interference power constraint at PUs to protect their operation. Transaction On Communicat ion Systems 2013 6 Normalized Adaptive Channel Equalizer Based on Minimal Symbol-Error- Rate Existing minimum-symbol-error-rate equalizers were derived based on the symbol-error-rate objective function. Due to the complexity of the objective function the derivation is not straightforward. In this paper we present a new approach to derive the minimum-symbol-error-rate adaptive equalizers. The problem is formulated as minimizing the norm between two subsequent parameter vectors under the constraint of symbolerror- rate minimization. The constrained optimization problem then is solved with the Lagrange multiplier method, which results in an adaptive algorithm with normalization. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the existing adaptive minimum-symbol-error- rate equalizer in convergence speed and steady-state performance. Transaction On Communicat ion Systems 2013 7 Generalized Mean Detector for Collaborative Spectrum Sensing In this paper, a unified generalized eigenvalue based spectrum sensing framework referred to as Generalized mean detector (GMD) has been introduced. The generalization of the detectors namely (i) the eigenvalue ratio detector (ERD) involving the ratio of the largest and the smallest eigenvalues; (ii) the Geometric mean detector (GEMD) involving the ratio of the largest eigenvalue and the geometric mean of the eigenvalues and (iii) the Arithmetic mean detector (ARMD) involving the ratio of the largest and the arithmetic mean of the eigenvalues is explored. The foundation of the proposed unified framework is based on the calculation of exact analytical moments of the random variables of test statistics of the respective detectors. In this context, we approximate the probability density function (PDF) of the test statistics of the respective detectors by Gaussian/Gamma PDF using the moment matching method. Finally, we derive closed-form expressions to calculate the decision threshold of the eigenvalue based detectors by exchanging the derived exact moments of the random variables of test statistics with the moments of the Gaussian/Gamma distribution function. The performance of the eigenvalue based detectors is compared with the traditional detectors such as energy detector (ED) and cyclostationary detector (CSD) and validate the importance of the eigenvalue based detectors particularly over realistic wireless cognitive environments. Analytical and simulation results show that the GEMD and the ARMD yields considerable performance advantage in realistic spectrum sensing scenarios. Moreover, our results based on proposed simple and tractable approximation approaches are in perfect agreement with the empirical results. Transaction On Communicat ion Systems 2013
  3. 3. 8 Energy and Spectral Efficiency of Very Large Multiuser MIMO Systems A multiplicity of autonomous terminals simultaneously transmits data streams to a compact array of antennas. The array uses imperfect channel-state information derived from transmitted pilots to extract the individual data streams. The power radiated by the terminals can be made inversely proportional to the square-root of the number of base station antennas with no reduction in performance. In contrast if perfect channel-state information were available the power could be made inversely proportional to the number of antennas. Lower capacity bounds for maximum-ratio combining (MRC), zeroforcing (ZF) and minimum mean-square error (MMSE) detection are derived. An MRC receiver normally performs worse than ZF and MMSE. However as power levels are reduced, the cross-talk introduced by the inferior maximum-ratio receiver eventually falls below the noise level and this simple receiver becomes a viable option. The tradeoff between the energy efficiency (as measured in bits/J) and spectral efficiency (as measured in bits/channel use/terminal) is quantified for a channel model that includes small-scale fading but not large-scale fading. It is shown that the use of moderately large antenna arrays can improve the spectral and energy efficiency with orders of magnitude compared to a single-antenna system. Transaction On Communicat ion Systems 2013 9 Stochastic Decoding of LDPC Codes over GF(q) Despite the outstanding performance of non-binary low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over many communication channels, they are not in widespread use yet. This is due to the high implementation complexity of their decoding algorithms, even those that compromise performance for the sake of simplicity. In this paper, we present three algorithms based on stochastic computation to reduce the decoding complexity. The first is a purely stochastic algorithm with error-correcting performance matching that of the sum-product algorithm (SPA) for LDPC codes over Galois fields with low order and a small variable node degree. We also present a modified version which reduces the number of decoding iterations required while remaining purely stochastic and having a low per-iteration complexity. The second algorithm, relaxed half-stochastic (RHS) decoding, combines elements of the SPA and the stochastic decoder and uses successive relaxation to match the error-correcting performance of the SPA. Furthermore, it uses fewer iterations than the purely stochastic algorithm and does not have limitations on the field order and variable node degree of the codes it can decode. The third algorithm, NoX, is a fully stochastic pecialization of RHS for codes with a variable node degree 2 that offers similar performance, but at a significantly lower computational complexity. We study the performance and complexity of the algorithms; noting that all have lower per-iteration complexity than SPA and that RHS can have comparable average per-codeword computational complexity, and NoX a lower one. Transaction On Communicat ion Systems 2013 10 SHARP: Spectrum Harvesting with ARQ Retransmission and Probing in Cognitive Radio In underlay cognitive radio, a secondary user transmits in the transmission band of a primary user without serious degradation in the performance of the primary user. This paper proposes a method of underlay cognitive radio where the secondary pair listens to the primary ARQ feedback to glean information about the primary channel. The secondarytransmitter may also probe the channel by transmitting a packet and listening to the primary ARQ, thus getting additional information about the relative strength of the cross channel and primary channel. The method is entitled Spectrum Harvesting with ARQ Retransmission and Probing (SHARP). The probing is done only infrequently to minimize its impact on the primary throughput. Two varieties of spectrum sharing, named conservative and aggressive SHARP, are introduced. Both methods avoid introducing any outage in the primary; their difference is that conservative SHARP leaves the primary operations altogether unaffected, while aggressive SHARP may occasionally force the primary to use two instead of one transmission cycle for a packet, in order to harvest a better throughput for the secondary. The performance of the proposed system is analyzed and it is shown that the secondary throughput can be significantly improved via the proposed approach, possibly with a small loss of the primary throughput during the transmission as well as probing period. Transaction On Communicat ion Systems 2013 11 Per-Antenna Constant Envelope Precoding for Large Multi-User MIMO Systems We consider the multi-user MIMO broadcast channel with M single-antenna users and N transmit antennas under the constraint that each antenna emits signals having constantenvelope (CE). The motivation for this is that CE signals facilitatethe use of power-efficient RF power amplifiers. Analytical and numerical results show that, under certain mild conditions on the channel gains, for a fixed M, an array gain is achievable even under the stringent per-antenna CE constraint. Essentially, for a fixed M, at sufficiently large N the total transmitted power can be reduced with increasing N while maintaining a fixed information rate to each user. Simulations for the i.i.d. Rayleigh fading channel show that the total transmit power can be reduced linearly with increasing N (i.e., an O(N) array gain). We also propose a precoding scheme which finds near-optimal CE signals to be transmitted, and has O(MN) complexity. Also,in terms of the total transmit power required to achieve a fixed desired information sum-rate, despite the stringent per-antenna CE constraint, the proposed CE precoding scheme performs close to the sum-capacity achieving scheme for an average-only total transmit power constrained channel. Transaction On Communicat ion Systems 2013