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Between Public Domain and Private Funding. Public Private Partnerships for Cultural Heritage Online (Extended Version)

Between Public Domain and Private Funding. Public Private Partnerships for Cultural Heritage Online (Extended Version)



Extended version of presentation at DISH 2011 - Digital Strategies for Heritage, Rotterdam, 6-8 December, 2011

Extended version of presentation at DISH 2011 - Digital Strategies for Heritage, Rotterdam, 6-8 December, 2011



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    Between Public Domain and Private Funding. Public Private Partnerships for Cultural Heritage Online (Extended Version) Between Public Domain and Private Funding. Public Private Partnerships for Cultural Heritage Online (Extended Version) Presentation Transcript

    • Between Public Domain and Private Funding Public Private Partnerships for Cultural Heritage Online (Extended Version) Max Kaiser Head R&D, Austrian National Library DISH 2011 Rotterdam, 7–8 December 2011@maxkaiser
    • www.slideshare.net/maxkaiser@maxkaiser
    • @maxkaiser
    • is aPublic PrivatePartnership?@maxkaiser
    • ≠ Service contract or service outsourcing →Long duration of the relationship →Substantial investment by private partner →Distribution of risks @maxkaiser
    • Rationales→ Private Funding for Public Sector→ Benefit from know-how and working methods of the private sector→But not a „miracle solution“ for the public sector (EC Green Paper on Public Private Partnerships, 2004) @maxkaiser
    • Public PrivatePartnerships in theCultural Sector@maxkaiser
    • Why?→ Libraries, Archives, Museums have preserved Europe‘s cultural heritage and collective memory→ Remit to maximise access→ Private partners can provide funding, technology, software and expertise for large-scale digitisation @maxkaiser
    • 10 January 2011http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/digital_libraries/doc/reflection_group/final_report_%20cds.pdf @maxkaiser
    • „Stimulating the flow of private fundsfor the digitisation of cultural assets throughequitable public private partnershipsappears as a viable and sustainable wayof tackling the pressing questionof making Europe’s cultural wealthaccessible online and preserving itfor future generations.“ @maxkaiser
    • Public-sector partners→ Often legal-deposit responsibilities→ Remit: provide maximum access for citizens→ Responsibility to store & preserve content→ Work for the long term→ Content IPR held by others or Public Domain→ Often restrictions in commercialisation @maxkaiser
    • @maxkaiser
    • Objectives for public partners→ Funding for digitisation→ Enhanced Access→ Engaging new audiences→ Access to technology→ Access to private sector competencies→ Commercial income through user fees, royalties or revenue share→ Lobbying effort to increase public funding @maxkaiser
    • Objectives for private partners→ Commercial objectives →Access to new markets or customer groups →Association with strong public brands →Access to (rare, unique) content→ Corporate social responsibility @maxkaiser
    • Benefits for citizens→ Increased online access→ Democratisation of access to knowledge→ Added-value services→ Services for print-disabled citizens→ Benefit for learning and tourism→ New creative endeavours @maxkaiser
    • Typology→ Sponsoring / Donation→ Indirect commercial exploitation→ Direct commercial exploitation→ Collaborative digitisation→ (Service provision)→ (Grant and loan programmes) @maxkaiser
    • „The key question is notwhether public-privatepartnerships for digitisationshould be encouraged, buthow‚ and under whichconditions.“ @maxkaiser
    • 27 October 2011 @maxkaiser
    • „(...) recommends that Member States (...)encourage partnerships between culturalinstitutions and the private sector inorder to create new ways of fundingdigitisation of cultural material and tostimulate innovative uses of the material,while ensuring that public privatepartnerships for digitisation are fair andbalanced (…).“ @maxkaiser
    • Key principles:1. Respect for intellectual property rights2. Non-exclusivity3. Transparency of the process4. Transparency of agreements5. Accessibility through Europeana6. Key criteria → [Next slide] @maxkaiser
    • Key criteria for assessing PPPs→ Total investment by private partner / effort of public partner→ (Free) access to material for general public, including through Europeana→ Cross-border access→ Length of any period of preferential commercial use by private partner→ Quality of digital copies for public partner→ Usage conditions for public partner in non- commercial context→ Time-scale of project @maxkaiser
    • @maxkaiser
    • „Genuine PPPs currently not a widespreadmethod for financing digitisation by culturalinstitutions in Europe.“ Commission Staff Working Paper Accompanying the document Commission Recommendation on the digitisation and online accessibility of cultural material and digital preservation, p18 http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/digital_libraries/doc/recommendation/recom28nov_all_versions/staff_working_paper.pdf @maxkaiser
    • Aim to maximize access and re-use via digitisation Access restrictions / Re-Use limitations in PPPs@maxkaiser
    • Public Private Partnershipsas Commodificationof the Cultural Commons?@maxkaiser
    • Cultural Commons→ Body of work freely available to the public for legal use, sharing, repurposing, and remixing→ Source for cultural creativity→ http://creativcommons.org/culture @maxkaiser
    • @maxkaiser
    • Public Domain→ Material to derive knowledge and create new cultural works→ Essential for society and economy @maxkaiser
    • http://www.europeana-libraries.eu/web/europeana-project/publications @maxkaiser
    • Public Domain Mark„This work has been identifiedas being free of knownrestrictions under copyrightlaw, including all related andneighbouring rights.You can copy, modify,distribute and perform the http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/work, even for commercialpurposes, all without askingpermission.“ @maxkaiser
    • Public Domain Charter„Public-Private Partnerships have become oneoption for funding large scale digitisation efforts.Commercial content aggregators pay for thedigitisation in exchange for privileged access to thedigitised collections. These activities are seen as areason for attempting to exercise as much control aspossible over digital reproductions of Public Domainworks. Organisations are claiming exclusive rights indigitised versions of Public Domain works and areentering into exclusive relationships with commercialpartners that hinder free access.” @maxkaiser
    • @maxkaiser
    • Public Sector Information→ Information produced, collected and held by public institutions→ Single largest source of information in Europe→ Should be widely re-used to foster economy and creativity @maxkaiser @maxkaiser
    • PSI Directive→ EC Directive on Re-Use of PSI (2003)→ Aim: Foster re-use of PSI→ Implemented by all Member States in 2008→ Cultural & research institutions excluded from directive @maxkaiser
    • Key provisions of PSI Directive→ Clear procedures for re-use requests→ Upper limit for charging→ Transparency of conditions and standard charges for re-use→ Avoid discrimination between players→ Prohibition of exclusive agreements @maxkaiser
    • http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2009:0212:FIN:EN:PDF http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/policy/psi/docs/pdfs/directive/com09_212/staff_working_document.pdfhttp://ec.europa.eu/information_society/policy/psi/docs/pdfs/report/cc462d011_1_1final_report.pdf @maxkaiser
    • → Review of PSI Directive 2009→ Should Cultural Institutions be brought within the scope of the PSI Directive?→ Hybrid sector →Material with 3rd party copyrights →Public Domain Material @maxkaiser
    • „Cultural Institutions should aim to abide bythe principles of the European Directive […]on the re-use of Public Sector Information.” Recommendation by High Level Group on Digital Libraries Sub.Group on PPPs http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/digital_libraries/doc/hleg/reports/ppp/ppp_final.pdf @maxkaiser
    • Austrian Books Onlinewww.onb.ac.at/ev/austrianbooksonline/@maxkaiser
    • Digitisationof the entire historicalbook holdings of theAustrian National Library @maxkaiser
    • Largest AustrianPublic Private Partnershipin the cultural sector @maxkaiser
    • Largest AustrianPublic Private Partnershipin the cultural sector@maxkaiser@maxkaiser
    • One of the world‘s most significant historical collections@maxkaiser@maxkaiser
    • 600,000 volumes 200 Mio pages@maxkaiser@maxkaiser
    • Public Domain@maxkaiser
    • 16th century 2nd half of 19th century _ @maxkaiser
    • Google Books Digital Library Austrian National Library@maxkaiser
    • Partner ProgramGoogle Books Library Program @maxkaiser
    • 13 Libraries in Europe5 National Libraries  Italy  Austria  The Netherlands  Czech Republic  Great Britain @maxkaiser
    • Key principles:→ Only public-domain works digitised→ Non-exclusivity → Free to digitise material with other partners→ Transparency of the process → Public Tender→ Transparency of agreements → Very detailed FAQs online→ Digital copies for library @maxkaiser
    • Key principles:→ Free Access for non-commercial use →Accessibility through Europeana →Provision to research partners→ Free cross-border access→ Restrictions have time limit→ Selection of books by library→ Institute for Restoration involved→ Termination @maxkaiser
    • Who is paying for what?http://www.bildarchivaustria.at/downl/1148453/layout/CE%2043_3.jpg
    • Google:→ Transport→ Insurance→ Scanning→ OCR→ Image processing→ Quality control→ Google Books @maxkaiser
    • Austrian National Library:→ Provision of Metadata→ Selection→ Internal logistics→ Conservational assessment→ Barcoding→ Metadata adjustments→ Data download and control→ Data storage & digital preservation→ Digital Library @maxkaiser
    • More informationwww.onb.ac.at/ev/austrianbooksonlinewww.onb.ac.at/ev/austrianbooksonline/faq.htmtwitter.com/abooksonline @maxkaiser
    • Thank you!max.kaiser@onb.ac.atwww.onb.ac.atwww.slideshare.net/maxkaiserwww.linkedin.com/in/maxkaisergplus.to/maxkaisertwitter.com/maxkaiser @maxkaiser