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Medieval Art through American Art
 

Medieval Art through American Art

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    Medieval Art through American Art Medieval Art through American Art Presentation Transcript

    • UNDERSTANDING ARTExam 3 Review
    • Chapter 10Early Medieval and Romanesque Art
    • Hinged Clasp Early Medieval Art in the British Isles Anglo-Saxon metalwork Sutton-Hoo Burial 500s-700s ADMetal working was thepride of Anglo-Saxon art. Ahoard of treasures wasfound at the Sutton-Hooburial site. Grave’sunidentified occupant wasburied in a 90-foot-longship. The vessel had armorand weapons and luxurygoods for the afterlife.
    • Man Gospel of Matthew, Book of Durrow Early Medieval Art in the British Isles Hiberno-Saxon manuscript 500s-700s AD Borders were very important. The human figure is very unrealistic and armless. His robe has a checkerboard pattern. Monks made books in workshops called scriptoria. Each section began with a symbol page, a page or ornamentation and a page of elaborated text. Feet point one direction but face faces forward.
    • Chi Rho Page Early Medieval Art in the British Isles Gospel of Matthew, Book of Kells Hiberno-Saxon manuscript 500s-700s AD Nothing particularly Christian about it. Created by a monk, isolated, wealthy. Contains Greek letters chi, rho and iota that cluster together to resemble brooches. Human and animal forms are hidden within the depiction. Christ may be the red-headed
    • St. Gall Monastery Plan Under the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne (modern day France). First emperor since Roman Empire; forcibly Christianized people in the East and Muslims in Spain. Carolingian Art: renewal of learning, art and culture via the Catholic church 800s AD Livestock, kitchens, physician, garden, brewery, school, workshop and dormitory. Plus a church and sanctuary. Basic layout of a medieval monastery. Cloister: central courtyard linked to all of the monk’s most important
    • Lindau Gospel Book Cover Crucifixion with Angels and Mourning Figures Carolingian Art 800s AD Metalwork – figures hammered from the back Very expensive, polished stones are raised to enhance luster. Made before the printing press. Contains symbols of the sun and moon and a calm Classical Jesus who appears to be merely standing in front of the cross.
    • Seven-Headed Dragon Morgan Beatus manuscript – colored bands, Apocalypse, no realism, woman clothed in sun, ornamental style, nightmarish quality, bold eyes Spanish Medieval Art – mix of Muslim and Christian Mozarabic style – Muslim style incorporated into Christian art 700s-900s AD
    • Gero Crucifix Ottonian Art Under the Holy Roman Empire of Otto I, II, and III from Saxony (modern day Germany). The Carolingian Empire had been divided into 3 parts. 900s-1000s AD Painted wood Cologne Cathedral Very realistic, relatable, life-size, human suffering, sagging arms, thin legs, meant to inspire awe, empathy and pity.
    • Bronze Doors of St. Michael Ottonian Art Under the Holy Roman Empire of Otto I, II, and III from Saxony (modern day Germany) Hildesheim, Germany 900s-1000s AD Most ambitious and complex casting project since antiquity, scenes from Creation to the murder of Abel by Cain, Hebrew Bible on one side, New Testament on the other, opposition of good and evil, damnation and
    • Christ Washing the Feet of His Disciples Ottonian Art Under the Holy Roman Empire of Otto I, II, and III from Saxony (modern day Germany) 900s-1000s AD Page in the Gospels of Otto III Manuscript – large, dramatic hands and eyes, lavish gold background, Byzantine style, slender men, narrative power and expressiveness, village in background, controlled and balance architectural canopy. Jesus is largest; final meal together, Peter is hesitant but other disciple is eager.
    • St. James of Compostela Romanesque Art – axial direction, cross shape, nave and transept meet (called the crossing, marked by a tower), larger to accommodate more people on pilgrimages, more chapels, added an ambulatory 1000s-1100s AD Plan and reconstruction Spain
    • Interior Nave View of St. James ofCompostela  Romanesque Art  1000s-1100s AD  Spain  Groin vaults draw eye upward, barrel and half- barrel vaults, octagonal lantern tower for light, compound pillars at the corners.  Buttresses allowed cathedrals to be larger and taller
    • Portal Entrance to Church of St. Pierre,Moissac  Romanesque Art  1000s-1100s AD  Christ in Majesty  France  Tympanum – arched half circle, Second Coming, Christ is static but surrounding people writhe with excitement, great deal of ornamentation.  Second Coming of
    • Last Judgment Cathedral of St. Lazare Detail of tympanum carving – Christ in manderla, flanked by angels, judges naked humans, the damned suffer and the saved reach Heaven, architectural depiction, arches Romanesque Art 1000s-1100s AD Autun, France
    • Flight Into Egypt Capital from a column inside St. Lazare Romanesque Art 1000s-1100s AD Autun, France Circles on bottom may be wheels from a play for kids, historiated capital, charming and doll-like figures, escaping paranoid King Herod
    • Christ in Majesty Romanesque Art 1000s-1100s AD Large apse painting St. Climent, Spain Fresco – watercolor on wet plaster for wall or ceiling Jesus squatted, grand hand gesture, bold colors, surrounded by border, book in hand, alpha and omega symbols
    • Chapter 11Gothic Art
    • St. Denis, Interior View of Choir and GroundPlan  Gothic Art  1100s-1300s AD  France  Radiating chapels, ambulatory, rib vaulting, groin vaults, choir
    • Chartres Cathedral, Reconstruction and GroundPlan  Gothic Art  1100s-1300s AD  Chartres, France  Flying buttresses, triforium (middle floor), colonettes, archivolts, jambs, rose windows
    • Chartres Cathedral, ExteriorFaçade Gothic Art 1100s-1300s AD Tympanum
    • Chartres Cathedral, Façadedetail Gothic Art 1100s-1300s AD
    • Chartres Cathedral, Detail of JambFigures  Gothic Art  1100s-1300s AD
    • Chartres Cathedral, Interior NaveView Gothic Art 1100s-1300s AD Ribbed groin vaults
    • Chartres Cathedral, Good Samaritan Stained Glass Window Gothic Art 1100s-1300s AD Allegory on sin and salvation, on nave aisle, parable from Jesus, man helps other man that was beaten and robbed, next to Creation story
    • Chartres Cathedral, Rose Window andLancets  Gothic Art  1100s-1300s AD  Willowy figures
    • Notre-Dame Cathedral, SideView Gothic Art 1100s-1300s AD Paris
    • Reims Cathedral, Façade View Gothic Art 1100s-1300s AD France
    • Reims Cathedral, Jamb Figures Annunciation and Visitation 1100s-1300s AD Gothic Art France
    • Sainte-Chapelle, Nave with StainedGlass  Gothic Art  1100s-1300s AD  Paris
    • Chapter 12Early Renaissance Art
    • Virgin in Majesty Altarpiece, Raisingof Lazarus  Late Medieval Art in Italy  1300s AD  Detailed naturalism, still gold background
    • Virgin and Child Enthroned Late Medieval Art in Italy 1300s AD Cimbabue Both Byzantine and Renaissanceelements
    • Virgin and Child Enthroned Late Medieval Art in Italy 1300s AD Giotto Shows an increase innaturalism from Cimabue’sversion
    • Arena Chapel Frescoes Detail of Lamentation Late Medieval Art in Italy Naturalism, emerging narrativeapproach to art 1300s AD Giotto
    • Good and Bad GovernmentFrescoes Vernacular and allegorical scenes, one of the earliest landscapes since ancient Rome, rival lines of Popes, artists become individuals, formed guilds, bustling people large compared to buildings, shifting viewpoints, Late Medieval Art inItaly 1300s AD Lorenzetti
    • Florence Cathedral Dome Brunelleschi – studied ancient Roman Pantheon Early Renaissance Art in Italy 1400s AD Pointed arch, supported by internal ribs
    • Church of San Lorenzo in Florence,Nave  Brunelleschi – new visual clarity, mathematical proportion system, Classically inspired, molding, coffers, semicircular dome, Corinthian columns  Early Renaissance Art in Italy  1400s AD
    • Medici Palace in Florence, Exterior andCourtyard  Michelozzo – rusticated stone blocks, Classically inspired, massive in scale, arcade and frieze in courtyard  Early Renaissance Art in Italy  1400s AD
    • David Early Renaissance Art in Italy 1400s AD Donatello – first free-standingnude figure since antiquity,David slew Goliath, jaunty hatand boots, young featuresaccentuate the heroism andtriumph
    • Equestrian Figure ofGattamelata Early Renaissance Art in Italy 1400s AD Donatello –reminiscent of MarcusAurelius, first life-sizeequestrian figuresince antiquity, warriorgrown old and tired
    • Bronze Doors of Paradise, FlorenceBaptistery Ghiberti – scenes from Hebrew bible, begins with Creation, murder of Abel by Cain, Ghiberti’s portrait Early Renaissance Art in Italy 1400s AD
    • Trinity Fresco Early Renaissance Art in Italy 1400s AD Masaccio – one point perspective creates illusion of depth, looming figure of God, even illumination, dove of the Holy Spirit, kneeling in prayer
    • Tribute Money Early Renaissance Art in Italy 1400s AD Masaccio – atmospheric perspective, Tax collector asks Peter if Jesus paid temple tax, bold color, arm diagonals, tension
    • Battle of San Romano Uccello – mathematical perspective and spatial illusionism, for a Medici, fallen soldier, fruit symbolism Early Renaissance Art in Italy 1400s AD
    • Birth of Venus Botticelli – interest in classical subjects of the Renaissance, heavenly and earthly, physical and intellectual, for Medici family member, modest Venus, born of sea foam, blown by wind God Early Renaissance Artin Italy 1400s AD
    • February Calendar Page Early Renaissance Art in Northern Europe 1400s AD Limbourg brothers New vernacular trends in art, snow scene, low class people not in a hovel like usual, uncouth man, comfortable farm with fire, cutaway view of house, high placement of horizontal line
    • Merode Altarpiece of Annunciation Early Renaissance Art in Northern Europe Anonymous – triptych, vivid colors, Virgin Mary out of time, private chapel, village scene outside, unfocused eyes suggest meditation scene, carpenter Joseph, flowers and water pot, mousetraps 1400s AD
    • Ghent Altarpiece Early Renaissance Art in Northern Europe Van Eyck – Adam and Eve, for family chapel (wealthy patrons), rich colors, figure of God, many different kinds of people assembled to worship the Lamb 1400s AD
    • Arnolfini Wedding Portrait Early Renaissance Art inNorthern Europe Van Eyck – actual weddingcontract, toy dog, convexmirror, obvious signature,expensive fur coat and hat,self-made cloth merchant,prayer beads, religious scenesaround mirror 1400s AD
    • Deposition Early Renaissance Art in Northern Europe Van der Weyden – realism v. abstraction 1400s AD Removal of Christ’sbody from the cross,press forward intoviewer’s space, clearanguish, verypoignant
    • A Goldsmith in His Shop Christus – secular vocational portrait, once thought to be St. Eligius, convex mirror, his tools are present Early Renaissance Art in Northern Europe 1400s AD
    • Portinari Altarpiece Van der Goes – adoration of the shepherds, commissioned to be sent across Alps, admired and emulated in Florence, baby on ground, formal religious symbols Early Renaissance Art in Northern Europe 1400s AD
    • Chapter 15Art of the Americas
    • Beaver Effigy Platform Pipe Eastern 100-400 AD Back is a pipe, face to face with beaver, wide white eyes, window to the spiritual world
    • Great Serpent Mound East Ohio, Eastern 1000 AD Snake could be swallowing an egg
    • Stone Effigies Eastern, Georgia (Etowah) 1300 AD Remnants of pigment, wide all- knowing eyes, open mouths symbolizes oral tradition, exaggerate features denotes universality
    • Powhatan’s Mantle East Coast Algonquin 1600 AD Circles could be stars, man among the heavens with the animals linking him, embroidered with shell, existence implies they had the time/wealth to make it
    • Pueblo Bonito Southwest Chaco Canyon, New Mexico 830-1250 AD Not all rooms would have been inhabited, lack of fire pits found, probably for ceremonial purpose, kiva – subterranean ceremonial room, done without draft animals or
    • Seed Jar Southwest 1500 AD Cells reminiscent of Pueblo Bonito, low-fired ceramic, complex, angularity enhances curve of jar, positive and negative space suggests
    • Cedar Bentwood Chest Northwest coast 1800s AD Looks like a bear, which can stand on its hind legs and eats salmon like the Native Americans did Property of wealthy high ranking individuals
    • Eagle Transformation Mask Northwest Kwakiutl 1800s AD Link between animal and human, corresponding colors, used in spiritual winter ceremony, spirits mingle with mortals
    • Battle Scene, Painted Bison Hide Plains 1800s AD Read from right to left, depiction tells a story because they lack a written language, collected by Lewis and Clark Worn over shoulder to commemorate
    • Battle with a Cheyenne, Four Plains Plains 1800s AD Pencil on paper, elegant use of color, not realistic, flowing blood
    • Colossal Head Olmec 1200 BC Mesoamerica Environmentally diverse, quarried at distant sites and transported to ceremonial centers, each face is different
    • Teotihuacan City Center Teotihuacan culture 100 AD Mesoamerica First truly urban settlement, stepped pyramids One of the largest in the world at the time, made from volcanic stone Worshipped many deities,
    • Temple of the Feathered Serpent Teotihuacan culture 100 AD Talud-tablero architectural style Sloping base (talud) Vertical entablature (tablero) Flat, angular and abstract
    • Palenque City Center Mayan culture 600s AD Mesoamerica Administrative center, developed the most advanced hieroglyphic system, used sophisticated concepts like zero and place value
    • Portrait of Pakal the Great Mayan culture 600s AD Mesoamerica Competing city-states, elaborate and gory rituals to appease Gods, Pakal was found in a sarcophagus, seemingly suspended between the underworld and earth, elongated head because babies’ heads were bound, was colorfully painted, ideal
    • Chichen Itza City Center Mayan culture Mesoamerica 800s-1200s AD Imposing pyramids Densely populated cities Most sophisticated calendar system
    • Founding of Tenochtitlan, ManuscriptPage  Aztec culture  Mesoamerica  1500s AD  Began after decline of the Mayans, eagle (God) on cactus symbolized the end of their journey, much of the Empire was destroyed by the Spanish invasion, waterways divide city into four sectors, warriors at bottom depict victories over nearby cities
    • Goddess of Coatlicue Aztec culture 1500s AD Mesoamerica Monumental, powerful and often unsettling, skirt of twisted snakes, goddess has been decapitated by other children, though her son emerges to defend her, snakes form her head, commandingly solid
    • Calendar Stone Aztec culture 1500s AD Stylized serpents with flames Elements of sun and night Central God with claws and face; describes the day the fifth sun will be destroyed by an earthquake, earth has already been created 4 other times
    • Shaman with Drum and Snake Diquis culture – Central America Gold image – excellent goldsmiths 1500s AD Male figure with snake head covering his privates, scrolls could represent Shaman’s ability to speak with the animals, gold worn to inspire fear, it held a lot of power and energy
    • Machu Picchu City Center Incan culture: South America 1500s AD One of largest states the in world, culture center Conquest, alliance, intimidation… Linguistically and ethnically diverse Ruler’s summer home Produced textiles, fit offering for the Gods Patterns and colors formed uniform of sorts