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LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn
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LefrancoisGandon@MTT11: ILexicOn

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Slides of the first paper on the ULiS project, availiable at http://maxime-lefrancois.info/Publications …

Slides of the first paper on the ULiS project, availiable at http://maxime-lefrancois.info/Publications

We are interested in bridging the world of natural language and the world of the semantic web in particular to support natural multilingual access to the web of data. In this paper we introduce a new type of lexical ontology called interlingual lexical ontology (ILexicOn), which uses semantic web formalisms to make each interlingual lexical unit class (ILUc) support the projection of its semantic decomposition on itself. After a short overview of existing lexical ontologies, we briefly introduce the semantic web formalisms we use. We then present the three layered architecture of our approach: i) the interlingual lexical metaontology (ILexiMOn); ii) the ILexicOn where ILUcs are formally defined; iii) the data layer. We illustrate our approach with a standalone ILexicOn, and introduce and explain a concise human-readable notation to represent ILexicOns. Finally, we show how semantic web formalisms enable the projection of a semantic decomposition on the decomposed ILUc.

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  • 1. ITEM1>ITEM2>www.data.gov ? Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 1
  • 2. ITEM1>ITEM2> open and link dataGovernments, organisations, … Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 2
  • 3. ITEM1>ITEM2> April 2008 September 2008May 2007 a Web of Linked Open Data One standard beats them all: RDF March 2009 September 2010 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ MTT 2011 - 3
  • 4. ITEM1>ITEM2> >25 billion RDF triples 203 data sets Interlinked by >395 million RDF links September 2010 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ MTT 2011 - 4
  • 5. ITEM1>ITEM2> Web of data ? multilingual access to the web of data The ULiS project Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 5
  • 6. The core of the ULiS project: ILexicOn: An ECD-compliant interlingual lexical ontology described with semantic web formalisms Maxime Lefrançois & Fabien Gandon Edelweiss – INRIA Sophia-Antipolis – France {Maxime.Lefrancois|Fabien.Gandon}@inria.fr MTT 2011
  • 7. ITEM1>ITEM2>OUTLINEThe Semantic Web FormalismsThe ULiS project: multilingual access to web of data Proposal 1: An architecture that unlocks motivating scenariosThe ILexicOn : defining interlingual lexical units Proposal 2: A formal way to represent lexicographic definitions Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 7
  • 8. 1. The Semantic Web Formalisms Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 -8
  • 9. ITEM1>ITEM2> One standard beats them all: RDF September 2010 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/ MTT 2011 - 9
  • 10. ITEM1>ITEM2> RDF stands for Resource: pages, images, ILUc, ... everything that can have a URI Description: attributes, features, and relations of the resources Framework: model, languages and syntaxes for these descriptions Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 10
  • 11. ITEM1>ITEM2> W3C® Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 11
  • 12. ITEM1>ITEM2> RDF is a triple model i.e. every piece of knowledge is broken down into ( subject , predicate , object ) Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 12
  • 13. ITEM1>ITEM2> doc.html has for author Fabien and has for theme Music Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 13
  • 14. ITEM1>ITEM2> ( doc.html , author , Fabien ) ( doc.html , theme , Music ) the RDF atom: a triple Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 14
  • 15. ITEM1>ITEM2> Fabien author doc.html theme Music RDF: a graph Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 15
  • 16. ITEM1>ITEM2> http://inria.fr/~fabien#me http://inria.fr/schema#author http://inria.fr/rr/doc.html http://inria.fr/schema#theme Music resources and properties are identified by URIs Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 16
  • 17. ITEM1>ITEM2>< RDF/> has an XML syntax<rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:inria="http://inria.fr/schema#" > <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://inria.fr/rr/doc.html"> <inria:author rdf:resource= "http://inria.fr/~fabien#me" /> <inria:theme>Music</inria:theme> </rdf:Description></rdf:RDF> Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 17
  • 18. ITEM1>ITEM2> SPARQL: query / update SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 18
  • 19. ITEM1>ITEM2>SPARQL: query / updateExample: persons at least 18-year oldPREFIX ex: <http://inria.fr/schema#>SELECT ?person ?nameWHERE { ?person rdf:type ex:Person ?person ex:name ?name . ?person ex:age ?age . FILTER (?age > 17)} Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 19
  • 20. ITEM1>ITEM2>RDFSchema to declare classes of resources, properties, and organize their hierarchy Document creator author Report Document Person Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 20
  • 21. ITEM1>ITEM2>OWL:Complexify models ▪ classes ▪ instances ▪ properties algebraic properties union ! restriction  disjunction 1..1 cardinality intersection  equivalence disjoint properties complement enumeration chained prop. [>18] value restrict. ! qualified cardinality   1..1  disjoint union keys individual prop. neg … Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 21
  • 22. 2. The ULiS project:Multilingual access to the web of data Web of data ?Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 22
  • 23. ITEM1>ITEM2> +RDF?A pivot-based NLP technique +MTT?Universal Networking Language Web of data Interlanguage Convert Deconvert Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 23
  • 24. ITEM1>ITEM2>The ULiS project a Universal Linguistic System Web of data Interlanguage Convert Deconvert Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 24
  • 25. ITEM1>ITEM2>The ULiS project a Universal Linguistic System to redesign Pivot-based NLP technique 100% using ULiS Semantic Web formalisms Meaning-Text Theory compliant with Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 25
  • 26. 2.The ULiS projectScenario MTT 2011Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. - 26
  • 27. ITEM1>ITEM2>The ULiS project - scenario - Machine Translation - - The RDF-World RDF interlingual representations IR RDF RDF situational John01 kill@past Mary01. John01 tuer@past Mary01. representations SR RDF John01 kill@past Mary01. SR RDF John01 tuer@past Mary01 John EN Mary killed John FR Mary a tué InputTEXT John killed Mary. John a tué TEXT Output1 Mary. Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 27
  • 28. ITEM1>ITEM2>The ULiS project - scenario - Machine Translation - - The RDF-World RDF interlingual representations RDF situational John01 kill@past Mary01. John01 tuer@past Mary01. representations John01 kill@past Mary01. John01 tuer@past Mary01 John killed Mary John a tué Mary John killed Mary. John a tué Mary. Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 28
  • 29. ITEM1>ITEM2>The ULiS project - scenario - Machine Translation - Management of Interlingual Knowledge Bases - The RDF-World SELECT ?person SPARQLRDF + X RDF SPARQL WHERE { Request ?person ikb:kill ikb:Mary01. IKB IDBpedia RDF X RDF ikb:John01 RDF Output } RDF interlingual representations IR RDF IR RDF RDF situational Who kill@past@? Mary01 John01 kill@past Mary01. representations SR RDF Who kill@past@? Mary01 SR RDF John01 kill@past Mary01. EN Who killed Mary ? John EN Mary killed InputTEXT Who killed Mary? John killed TEXT Output2 Mary. Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 29
  • 30. ITEM1>ITEM2>The ULiS project - scenario - Machine Translation - Management of Interlingual Knowledge Bases - The RDF-World SELECT ?person SPARQL WHERE { ikb:John01 RDF Request ?person ikb:kill ikb:Mary01. } IDBpedia Output RDF interlingual representations RDF situational Who kill@past@? Mary01 John01 kill@past Mary01. representations Who kill@past@? Mary01 John01 kill@past Mary01. Who killed Mary ? John killed Mary Who killed Mary? John killed Mary. Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 30
  • 31. ITEM1>ITEM2>The ULiS project - scenario - Machine Translation - Management of Interlingual Knowledge Bases - Management of the Universal Linguistic Knowledge base The RDF-World SPARQLRDF + X RDF X RDF SPARQL RDF Request ULKRDF IKB RDF Output RDF interlingual representations IR RDF IR RDF RDF situational representations SRFR RDF SRFR RDF SRFR RDF InputTEXT Output1TEXT Output2TEXT Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 31
  • 32. 2.The ULiS projectArchitecture MTT 2011Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. - 32
  • 33. ITEM1>ITEM2>The ULiS project - architecture Meta- Ontology Data SemRs DSynRsDescription of the SSynRs Explanatory Explanatory Combinatorial Combinatorial DMorphRs Dictionary Dictionary SMorphRs DPhonRs SPhonRs Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 33
  • 34. ITEM1>ITEM2>The ULiS project - architecture InterlingualKnowledgeBase X RDF Meta- Ontology Data SemRs DSynRsDescription of the SSynRs Explanatory Explanatory Combinatorial Combinatorial DMorphRs Dictionary Dictionary SMorphRs DPhonRs SPhonRs Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 34
  • 35. ITEM1>ITEM2>The ULiS project - architecture InterlingualKnowledgeBase X RDF INTERLINGUAL NOT INTERLINGUAL = SITUATIONAL +RDF! Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 35
  • 36. ITEM1>ITEM2>The ULiS project - architecture InterlingualKnowledgeBase X RDF ILexiMOn ILexicOn « Interlingual Lexical pure interlingual features of the ECD IRs RDF Meta-Ontology » DSynRs SSynRs DMorphRs SLexiMOn SLexicOn SMorphRs « Situational Lexical Other features of the ECD Meta-Ontology » DPhonRs SPhonRs SRs RDF Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 36
  • 37. ITEM1>ITEM2>The ULiS project - architecture InterlingualKnowledgeBase (ikb:isFrom,rdfs:range,ikb:Country) X RDF (ikb:isFrom,rdfs:domain,ikb:Person) (ex:Maxime,ikb:isFrom,geo:France) ILexiMOn ILexicOn IRs RDFileximon:ILexicalUnit ilexicon:Person ex:John01 DSynRs SSynRs DMorphRs SLexicOn SLexiMOn enlexicon:Person SMorphRssleximon:SLexicalUnit eslexicon:Persona frlexicon:Personne DPhonRs SPhonRs SRs RDF Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 37
  • 38. ITEM1>ITEM2>The ULiS project - architecture InterlingualKnowledgeBase X RDF IKB = KB + anchors + transformation rules ILexiMOn ILexicOn « Interlingual Lexical pure interlingual features of the ECD IRs RDF Meta-Ontology » DSynRs SSynRs DMorphRs SLexiMOn SLexicOn SMorphRs « Situational Lexical Other features of the ECD Meta-Ontology » DPhonRs + Links + Transformation rules SPhonRs SRs RDF Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 38
  • 39. ITEM1>ITEM2>The ULiS project – Done / To do ? InterlingualKnowledgeBase X RDF IKB = KB + anchors + transformation rules ILexiMOn ILexicOn « Interlingual Lexical pure interlingual features of the ECD IRs RDF Meta-Ontology » Formal lexicographic definitions of DSynRs interlingual lexical units… in RDF! SSynRs DMorphRs SLexiMOn SLexicOn SMorphRs « Situational Lexical Other features of the ECD Meta-Ontology » DPhonRs + Links + Transformation rules SPhonRs SRs RDF Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 39
  • 40. 3. The ILexicOn:defining interlingual lexical unitsLefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 40
  • 41. With the Semantic Web formalisms, We designed a simple ILexiMOn…Interlingual Lexical Units Classes may be formally defined in the ILexicOn… …by supporting the projection of their semantic decomposition on themselves Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 41
  • 42. ITEM1>ITEM2>Three layers owl:Class owl:ObjectProperty xsd:boolean OWL owl:intersectionOf is-a is-a owl:propertyChainAxiom owl:unionOf owl:hasSelf subClassOf is-a subClassOf core-ILexiMOn layer :ILexicalUnit :ISemanticRelation is-a :onISemanticRelation subClassOf :allValuesFrom :ILexicalPrimitive is-a :isObligatory range :Entity :hasEntity ILexicOn layer :State true :Person class/instance A B A is an instance of B intersectionOf property A B :Alive A is a subClass of B Data-layer B A p hasEntity C A B :Mary01 :Alive01 A is the intersection A is linked to B of B and C through property p Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 42
  • 43. ITEM1>ITEM2> ILUc  ILUi ILexicOn IRs RDF Die Die:Die01 1.Person Person:Mary01 Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 44
  • 44. ITEM1>ITEM2> Conceptual participants Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 45
  • 45. ITEM1>ITEM2> Die< End< Event Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 46
  • 46. ITEM1>ITEM2> ConP inheritance 1.Time 1.Time Die< End< Event Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 47
  • 47. ITEM1>ITEM2> ConP partial inheritance 1.Time Die< End 1.Alive< 1. State1.Person 1.Person< 1.Entity Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 48
  • 48. ITEM1>ITEM2> ? ConP composition 1.Time hasTime Die< End Named ConP slots hasState (an infinite number of) specialized semantic relationshasDead 1.Alive hasEntity ?1.Person = 1.Person Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 49
  • 49. ITEM1>ITEM2> ConP composition 1.Time hasTime hasState / hasEntity Die hasState hasDead is equivalent to:hasDead 1.Alive hasEntity (hasState/hasEntity)<hasDead ?1.Person = 1.Person Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 50
  • 50. ITEM1>ITEM2> Kill<Cause<Event Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 51
  • 51. ITEM1>ITEM2> 1.Time hasTime Kill<Cause<Event hasEvent hasAgent 1.Person 1.Die<Event Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 52
  • 52. ITEM1>ITEM2> 1.Time hasTime1.Time Kill hasTime hasEvent hasAgent 1.Person 1.Die<Event hasDead 1.Person Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 53
  • 53. ITEM1>ITEM2> ConP composition ( hasEvent / hasDead ) < hasKilled 1.Time hasTime1.Time Kill hasTime hasEvent hasAgent 1.Person 1.Die hasDead hasKilled 1.Person Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 54
  • 54. ITEM1>ITEM2> ? ConP merging 1.Time hasTime1.Time Kill hasTime hasEvent hasAgent 1.Person 1.Die hasDead hasKilled 1.Person Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 55
  • 55. ITEM1>ITEM2> ConP merging ( hasEvent / hasTime ) < hasKillTime 1.Time hasTime1.Time hasKillTime Kill hasTime hasEvent hasAgent 1.Person 1.Die hasDead hasKilled 1.Person Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 56
  • 56. ITEM1>ITEM2> ConP merging ( hasEvent / hasTime ) < hasKillTime < hasTime hasTime 1.Time hasKillTime Kill hasTime hasEvent hasAgent 1.Person 1.Die hasDead hasKilled 1.Person Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 57
  • 57. ITEM1>ITEM2> Optional / obligatory ConP hasTime 1.Time ?.Person hasBeneficiary hasKillTime Kill hasTime hasEvent hasAgent 1.Person 1.Die hasDead hasKilled 1.Person Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 58
  • 58. ITEM1>ITEM2> Infanticide<Kill Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 59
  • 59. ITEM1>ITEM2> Relation between two ConPs (hasRelation/hasEntity) < hasKilledChild < hasKilled (hasRelation/hasObject) < hasKillerParent < hasAgent hasKillerParent Infanticide<Kill hasAgent hasKilled 1.Person hasRelation hasKilledChild hasObject 1.Parent<Relation<State 1.Person hasEntity Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 60
  • 60. ITEM1>ITEM2> Inference in the data : (IRs RDF) hasTimeTime:t01 hasKillTime hasKillerParenthasTime Infanticide:i01 hasEvent hasAgent hasKilled Person:John01Die:d01 hasRelation hasKilledChild hasObject hasDead Parent:p01 Person:Mary01 hasEntity Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 61
  • 61. Conceptual participantsNamed ConP slots (an infinite number of) specialized semantic relations ConP inheritance ConP partial inheritance ConP composition ConP merging Optional / obligatory ConP Relation between two ConPs Formal definitions of ILUCs Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 62
  • 62. ITEM1>ITEM2>The three layers owl:Class owl:ObjectProperty xsd:boolean OWL owl:intersectionOf is-a is-a owl:propertyChainAxiom owl:unionOf owl:hasSelf subClassOf is-a subClassOf core-ILexiMOn layer :ILexicalUnit :ISemanticRelation is-a :onISemanticRelation subClassOf :allValuesFrom :ILexicalPrimitive is-a :isObligatory range :Entity :hasEntity ILexicOn layer :State true :Person class/instance A B A is an instance of B intersectionOf property A B :Alive A is a subClass of B Data-layer B A p hasEntity C A B :Mary01 :Alive01 A is the intersection A is linked to B of B and C through property p Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn. MTT 2011 - 63
  • 63. ULiS: A Universal Linguistic System- to redesign Pivot-based NLP techniques- 100% using the Semantic Web Formalisms- compliant with the Meaning-Text TheoryILexicOn: The Interlingual Lexical Ontology- formal lexicographic definitions- Lexical functions (Fin + named ConP slots => interesting)- Populate- SLexicOn+ Perspectives… Thank You Maxime Lefrançois & Fabien Gandon Edelweiss – INRIA Sophia-Antipolis – France {Maxime.Lefrancois|Fabien.Gandon}@inria.fr This presentation on http://maxime-lefrancois.info

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