LefrancoisGandon@MSW11: ULiS

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Slides of the second paper on the ULiS project, availiable at http://maxime-lefrancois.info/Publications

We are interested in bridging the world of natural language and the world of the semantic web in particular to support multilingual access to the web of data. In this paper we introduce the ULiS project, that aims at designing a pivot-based NLP technique called Universal Linguistic System, 100% using the semantic web formalisms, and being compliant with the Meaning-Text theory. Through the ULiS, a user could interact with an interlingual knowledge base (IKB) in controlled natural language. Linguistic resources themselves are part of a specific IKB: The Universal Lexical Knowledge base (ULK), so that actors may enhance their controlled natural language, through requests in controlled natural language. We describe a basic interaction scenario at the system level, and provide an overview of the architecture of ULiS. We then introduce the core of the ULiS: the interlingual lexical ontology (ILexicOn), in which each interlingual lexical unit class (ILUc) supports the projection of its semantic decomposition on itself. We validate our model with a standalone ILexicOn, and introduce and explain a concise human-readable notation for it.

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LefrancoisGandon@MSW11: ULiS

  1. 1. ULiS: An Expert System on Linguistics to Support Multilingual Managementof Interlingual Semantic Web Knowledge bases Maxime Lefrançois & Fabien Gandon Edelweiss – INRIA Sophia-Antipolis – France {Maxime.Lefrancois|Fabien.Gandon}@inria.fr MSW 2011
  2. 2. 3000 < natural languages < 7000 >31 billion RDF triples 295 data sets Interlinked by >503 million RDF links ? multilingual access to the web of data The ULiS project Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 2
  3. 3. OUTLINEThe Meaning-Text TheoryThe ULiS project: multilingual access to web of data Proposal 1: An architecture that unlocks motivating scenariosThe ILexicOn : defining interlingual lexical units Proposal 2: A formal way to represent lexicographic definitions Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 3
  4. 4. 1. The Meaning-Text TheoryLefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011
  5. 5. The Meaning-Text Theory A theoretical linguistic framework to construct models of natural language Mel’čuk et. al., late 70’s > today Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 5
  6. 6. The Meaning-Text Theory Systems of explicit rules that express correspondences between meaning and text SemRs7 levels of linguistic representationFor a set of synonymous utterances DSynRs SSynRs DMorphRs SMorphRs DPhonRs SPhonRs Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 6
  7. 7. The Meaning-Text Theory The masterpiece: The Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary Meta- Ontology Data SemRs Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary DSynRsDescription of the SSynRs Explanatory Combinatorial Explantory: DMorphRs Dictionary Formal semantic explanations SMorphRs Combinatorial: DPhonRs Lexical combinations SPhonRs Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 7
  8. 8. Structure of the ECD entrySemantic zone: (formal?) (text or SemR?) lexical definition of lexical units Semantic actants: arguments of the semantic predicate denotational vs. connotational semantic elements (ex: EN hot air, FR wind, RU water).Phonological/Graphematic zone: orthograph + prosodyThe cooccurrence zone Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 8
  9. 9. Structure of the ECD entry - The cooccurrence zoneMorphological sub-zone: inflections, derivations.Syntactic sub-zone: Government pattern Correspondance semantic – syntax (based on Dependency grammars) ways to express a semantic predicate in the language How the lexical unit participates in specific constructions as a dependentLexical sub-zone semantic derivations and collocationsStylistic sub-zone Usage labelsPragmatic sub-zone real-life situations where expressions are appropriate. Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 9
  10. 10. Structure of the ECD entry - Examples of lexical functionslexical functions : paradigmatic Syn(telephoneV) = phoneV Anti Conv21(preced) = follow Gener(republic) = state Figur(rain) = curtain (a curtain of rain) S0 (analyse) = analysis A0(city) = urban V0(analysis) = analyse Adv0(slow) = slowly S1(teach) = teacher ; S2(teach) = subject ; S3(teach) = pupil; … 19 in total Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 10
  11. 11. Structure of the ECD entry - Examples of lexical functionslexical functions : syntagmatic Magn(laughV) = one’s head off Bon(service) = first-class Locin(height) = at [a height of…] Oper1(supportN) = [to] lend [~ to N] Oper2(supportN) = [to] receive [~ to N] Func1(blownN) = comes [from ~] … 34 in total + non-standard lexical functions WithNoSugar(coffee) = black Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 11
  12. 12. 2. The ULiS project:Multilingual access to the web of data ?Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011
  13. 13. +RDF?A pivot-based NLP technique +MTT?Universal Networking Language Interlanguage Convert Deconvert Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 13
  14. 14. The ULiS project a Universal Linguistic System Interlanguage Convert Deconvert Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 14
  15. 15. The ULiS project a Universal Linguistic System to redesign Pivot-based NLP technique 100% using ULiS Semantic Web formalisms Meaning-Text Theory compliant with Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 15
  16. 16. 2.The ULiS projectScenarioLefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011
  17. 17. The ULiS project - scenario - Machine Translation - - The RDF-World RDF interlingual representations IR RDF RDF situational John01 kill@past Mary01. John01 tuer@past Mary01. representations SR RDF John01 kill@past Mary01. SR RDF John01 tuer@past Mary01 John EN Mary killed John FR Mary a tué InputTEXT John killed Mary. John a tué TEXT Output1 Mary. Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 17
  18. 18. The ULiS project - scenario - Machine Translation - - The RDF-World RDF interlingual representations RDF situational John01 kill@past Mary01. John01 tuer@past Mary01. representations John01 kill@past Mary01. John01 tuer@past Mary01 John killed Mary John a tué Mary John killed Mary. John a tué Mary. Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 18
  19. 19. The ULiS project - scenario - Machine Translation - Management of Interlingual Knowledge Bases - The RDF-World SELECT ?person SPARQLRDF + X RDF SPARQL WHERE { Request ?person ikb:kill ikb:Mary01. IKB IDBpedia RDF X RDF ikb:John01 RDF Output } RDF interlingual representations IR RDF IR RDF RDF situational Who kill@past@? Mary01 John01 kill@past Mary01. representations SR RDF Who kill@past@? Mary01 SR RDF John01 kill@past Mary01. EN Who killed Mary ? John EN Mary killed InputTEXT Who killed Mary? John killed TEXT Output2 Mary. Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 19
  20. 20. The ULiS project - scenario - Machine Translation - Management of Interlingual Knowledge Bases - The RDF-World SELECT ?person SPARQL WHERE { ikb:John01 RDF Request ?person ikb:kill ikb:Mary01. } IDBpedia Output RDF interlingual representations RDF situational Who kill@past@? Mary01 John01 kill@past Mary01. representations Who kill@past@? Mary01 John01 kill@past Mary01. Who killed Mary ? John killed Mary Who killed Mary? John killed Mary. Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 20
  21. 21. The ULiS project - scenario - Machine Translation - Management of Interlingual Knowledge Bases - Management of the Universal Linguistic Knowledge base The RDF-World SPARQLRDF + X RDF X RDF SPARQL RDF Request ULKRDF IKB RDF Output RDF interlingual representations IR RDF IR RDF RDF situational representations SRFR RDF SRFR RDF SRFR RDF InputTEXT Output1TEXT Output2TEXT Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 21
  22. 22. 2.The ULiS projectArchitectureLefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011
  23. 23. The ULiS project - architecture Meta- Ontology Data SemRs DSynRsDescription of the SSynRs Explanatory Explanatory Combinatorial Combinatorial DMorphRs Dictionary Dictionary SMorphRs DPhonRs SPhonRs Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 23
  24. 24. The ULiS project - architecture InterlingualKnowledgeBase X RDF Meta- Ontology Data SemRs DSynRsDescription of the SSynRs Explanatory Explanatory Combinatorial Combinatorial DMorphRs Dictionary Dictionary SMorphRs DPhonRs SPhonRs Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 24
  25. 25. The ULiS project - architecture InterlingualKnowledgeBase X RDF INTERLINGUAL NOT INTERLINGUAL = SITUATIONAL +RDF! Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 25
  26. 26. The ULiS project - architecture InterlingualKnowledgeBase X RDF ILexiMOn ILexicOn « Interlingual Lexical pure interlingual features of the ECD IRs RDF Meta-Ontology » DSynRs SSynRs DMorphRs SLexiMOn SLexicOn SMorphRs « Situational Lexical Other features of the ECD Meta-Ontology » DPhonRs SPhonRs SRs RDF Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 26
  27. 27. The ULiS project - architecture InterlingualKnowledgeBase (ikb:isFrom,rdfs:range,ikb:Country) X RDF (ikb:isFrom,rdfs:domain,ikb:Person) (ex:Maxime,ikb:isFrom,geo:France) ILexiMOn ILexicOn IRs RDFileximon:ILexicalUnit ilexicon:Person ex:John01 DSynRs SSynRs DMorphRs SLexicOn SLexiMOn enlexicon:Person SMorphRssleximon:SLexicalUnit eslexicon:Persona frlexicon:Personne DPhonRs SPhonRs SRs RDF Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 27
  28. 28. The ULiS project - architecture InterlingualKnowledgeBase X RDF IKB = KB + anchors + transformation rules ILexiMOn ILexicOn « Interlingual Lexical pure interlingual features of the ECD IRs RDF Meta-Ontology » DSynRs SSynRs DMorphRs SLexiMOn SLexicOn SMorphRs « Situational Lexical Other features of the ECD Meta-Ontology » DPhonRs + Links + Transformation rules SPhonRs SRs RDF Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 28
  29. 29. The ULiS project – Done / To do ? InterlingualKnowledgeBase X RDF IKB = KB + anchors + transformation rules ILexiMOn ILexicOn « Interlingual Lexical pure interlingual features of the ECD IRs RDF Meta-Ontology » Formal lexicographic definitions of DSynRs interlingual lexical units… in RDF! SSynRs DMorphRs SLexiMOn SLexicOn SMorphRs « Situational Lexical Other features of the ECD Meta-Ontology » DPhonRs + Links + Transformation rules SPhonRs SRs RDF Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 29
  30. 30. The ULiS project – Bricks (I)SLexicOn (I)SLexiMOn (I)ISlexicOn (I)ILexiMOn (I)SKOS, (I)FOAF, … (I)SPIN (I)OWL (I)RDF-S (I)RDF Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 30
  31. 31. 3. The ILexicOn:defining interlingual lexical unitsLefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011
  32. 32. With the Semantic Web formalisms, We designed a simple ILexiMOn…Interlingual Lexical Units Classes may be formally defined in the ILexicOn… …by supporting the projection of their semantic decomposition on themselves Lefrançois & Gandon, ILexicOn.
  33. 33. The three layers owl:Class owl:ObjectProperty xsd:boolean OWL owl:intersectionOf is-a is-a owl:propertyChainAxiom owl:unionOf owl:hasSelf subClassOf is-a subClassOf core-ILexiMOn layer :ILexicalUnit :ISemanticRelation is-a :onISemanticRelation subClassOf :allValuesFrom :ILexicalPrimitive is-a :isObligatory range :Entity :hasEntity ILexicOn layer :State true :Person class/instance A B A is an instance of B intersectionOf property A B :Alive A is a subClass of B Data-layer B A p hasEntity C A B :Mary01 :Alive01 A is the intersection A is linked to B of B and C through property p Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 33
  34. 34. ILUc ILUi ILexicOn IRs RDF Die Die:Die011.Person Person:Mary01 Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 35
  35. 35. Conceptual participantsLefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 36
  36. 36. Die< End< EventLefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 37
  37. 37. ConP inheritance 1.Time 1.Time Die< End< Event Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 38
  38. 38. ConP inheritance 1.Time 1.Time Die< End< Eventilexicon:Event a ileximon:ILexicalUnit, owl:intersectionOf ([ a ileximon:ILexicalPrimitive, ileximon:onISemanticRelation ilexicon:hasTime, ileximon:allValuesFrom ilexicon:Time, ileximon:isObligatory "true"^^xsd:boolean. ] ... ).ilexicon:End a ileximon:ILexicalUnit, owl:intersectionOf ( ilexicon:Event ... ).ilexicon:Die a ileximon:ILexicalUnit, owl:intersectionOf ( ilexicon:End ... ). Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 39
  39. 39. ConP partial inheritance 1.Time Die< End 1.Alive< 1. Stateilexicon:Die a ileximon:ILexicalUnit, owl:intersectionOf ( ilexicon:End [ a ileximon:ILexicalPrimitive, ileximon:onISemanticRelation ilexicon:hasState, ileximon:allValuesFrom ilexicon:Alive, ileximon:isObligatory "true"^^xsd:boolean.1.Person 1.Person< 1.Entity ] ... ). Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 40
  40. 40. ? ConP composition 1.Time hasTime Die< End Named ConP slots hasState (an infinite number of) lexicalized conceptual relationshasDead 1.Alive hasEntity ?1.Person = 1.Person Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 41
  41. 41. ConP composition 1.Time hasTime hasState / hasEntity Die hasState hasDeadhasDead 1.Alive is equivalent to: hasEntity (hasState/hasEntity)<hasDead ?1.Person = 1.PersonIlexicon:hasDead owl:propertyChainAxiom ( ilexicon:hasState, ilexicon:hasEntity), rdfs:domain ilexicon:Die, rdfs:range ilexicon:Person. Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 42
  42. 42. Kill<Cause<EventLefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 43
  43. 43. 1.Time hasTime Kill<Cause<Event hasEvent hasAgent 1.Person 1.Die<EventLefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 44
  44. 44. 1.Time hasTime1.Time Kill hasTime hasEvent hasAgent 1.Person 1.Die<Event hasDead 1.Person Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 45
  45. 45. ConP composition ( hasEvent / hasDead ) < hasKilled 1.Time hasTime1.Time Kill hasTime hasEvent hasAgent 1.Person 1.Die hasDead hasKilled 1.Person Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 46
  46. 46. ? ConP merging 1.Time hasTime1.Time Kill hasTime hasEvent hasAgent 1.Person 1.Die hasDead hasKilled 1.Person Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 47
  47. 47. ConP merging ( hasEvent / hasTime ) < hasKillTime 1.Time hasTime1.Time hasKillTime Kill hasTime hasEvent hasAgent 1.Person 1.Die hasDead hasKilled 1.Person Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 48
  48. 48. ConP merging ( hasEvent / hasTime ) < hasKillTime < hasTime hasTime1.Time hasKillTime Kill hasTime hasEvent hasAgent 1.Person 1.Die hasDead hasKilled 1.Person Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 49
  49. 49. Optional / obligatory ConP hasTime1.Time ?.Person hasBeneficiary hasKillTime Kill hasTime hasEvent hasAgent 1.Person 1.Die hasDead hasKilled 1.Person Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 50
  50. 50. Infanticide<KillLefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 51
  51. 51. Relation between two ConPs (hasRelation/hasEntity) < hasKilledChild < hasKilled (hasRelation/hasObject) < hasKillerParent < hasAgent hasKillerParent Infanticide<Kill hasAgent hasKilled 1.Person hasRelation hasKilledChild hasObject 1.Parent<Relation<State1.Person hasEntity Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 52
  52. 52. Inference in the data : (IRs RDF) hasTimeTime:t01 hasKillTime hasKillerParenthasTime Infanticide:i01 hasEvent hasAgent hasKilled Person:John01Die:d01 hasRelation hasKilledChild hasObject hasDead Parent:p01 Person:Mary01 hasEntity Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 53
  53. 53. Conceptual participantsNamed ConP slots (an infinite number of) lexicalized conceptual relations ConP inheritance ConP partial inheritance ConP composition ConP merging Optional / obligatory ConP Relation between two ConPs Formal definitions of ILUCs Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011
  54. 54. Three layers owl:Class owl:ObjectProperty xsd:boolean OWL owl:intersectionOf is-a is-a owl:propertyChainAxiom owl:unionOf owl:hasSelf subClassOf is-a subClassOf core-ILexiMOn layer :ILexicalUnit :ISemanticRelation is-a :onISemanticRelation subClassOf :allValuesFrom :ILexicalPrimitive is-a :isObligatory range :Entity :hasEntity ILexicOn layer :State true :Person class/instance A B A is an instance of B intersectionOf property A B :Alive A is a subClass of B Data-layer B A p hasEntity C A B :Mary01 :Alive01 A is the intersection A is linked to B of B and C through property p Lefrançois & Gandon, ULiS. MSW 2011 - 55
  55. 55. ULiS: A Universal Linguistic System- to redesign Pivot-based NLP techniques- 100% using the Semantic Web Formalisms- compliant with the Meaning-Text TheoryILexicOn: The Interlingual Lexical Ontology- formal lexicographic definitions- Lexical functions- Populate: SUMO, FrameNet…- SLexicOn- Rules, SPIN & VISL-CG3 Thank You Maxime Lefrançois & Fabien Gandon Edelweiss – INRIA Sophia-Antipolis – France {Maxime.Lefrancois|Fabien.Gandon}@inria.fr This presentation on http://maxime-lefrancois.info

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